click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Bonnie Blue Flag

The Bonnie Blue Flag was an unofficial banner of the Confederate States of America at the start of the American Civil War in 1861. It now serves as a representative banner of the Southeastern United States in general, it consists of a five-pointed white star on a blue field. It resembles the flags of the short-lived Republic of West Florida of 1810, the Belgian Congo, Somalia; the first recorded use of this flag was in 1810 when it was used to represent the Republic of West Florida, a republic of English speaking inhabitants in parts of Louisiana east of the Mississippi River who rebelled against the reign of Spanish government and overthrew Spain's provincial Governor de Lassus at Baton Rouge. The republic's independence lasted three months, dissolved after the annexation of Louisiana's portion of the disputed land to the United States territory, acquired in the Louisiana Purchase. Referred to as the Burnet Flag, it was adopted by the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 10, 1836, it consisted of an azure background with a large golden star, inspired by the 1810 flag of the Republic of West Florida.

Variants of the Burnet Flag with a white star identical to the Bonnie Blue Flag, were common. Other variants featured the star, of either color, upside down, and/or ringed with the word Texas, with each letter filling one of the gaps of the star; when the state of Mississippi seceded from the Union in January 1861, a flag bearing a single white star on a blue field was flown from the capitol dome. Harry Macarthy helped popularize this flag as a symbol of independence, writing the popular song "The Bonnie Blue Flag" early in 1861; some seceding Southern states incorporated the motif of a white star on a blue field into new state flags. Although the name "Bonnie Blue" dates only from 1861, there is no doubt that the flag is identical with the banner of the Republic of West Florida, which broke away from Spanish West Florida in September 1810 and was annexed by the United States 90 days later. In 2006 the state of Louisiana formally linked the name "Bonnie Blue" to the West Florida banner by passing a law designating the Bonnie Blue Flag as "the official flag of the Republic of West Florida Historic Region".

The "Bonnie Blue Flag" was used as an unofficial flag during the early months of 1861. It was flying above the Confederate batteries that first opened fire on Fort Sumter, beginning the Civil War. In addition, many military units had their own regimental flags. For all of these reasons the flag has come to symbolize secession, self-governance and state sovereignty. In 2007, one of six known Bonnie Blue flags from the Civil War era was sold at auction for $47,800; the flag had been carried by the Confederate 3rd Texas Cavalry and exhibited as part of the 1936 Texas Centennial Exposition. In the 1936 novel by Margaret Mitchell and the film Gone with the Wind, Rhett Butler nicknames his newborn daughter "Bonnie Blue Butler" after Melanie Wilkes remarks that her eyes will be "as blue as the bonnie blue flag." Flags of the Confederate States of America "The Bonnie Blue Flag" – 1861 song by Ulster-Scots entertainer Harry McCarthy. Flag of Somalia – A similar national flag in current use Flag of the Belgian Congo – A flag with an analogous star against a blue background motif.

Used by the Congo while it was still a Belgian colony

Never Say Die (novel)

Never Say Die is the 11th novel in the Alex Rider series, written by British author Anthony Horowitz. It was published on 1 June 2017 in The UK, it was released in the US on 10 October 2017. This is after a four-year break since Russian Roulette. Alex Rider - A young spy, the main protagonist Jack Starbright - Alex's housekeeper and previous guardian, until she was killed in Scorpia Rising Giovanni and Eduardo Grimaldi - A Pair of Identical twins who worked for Scorpia, the main antagonists of this novel Mrs Jones - The Head of MI6 Special Operations after Alan Blunt, the previous head, was forced into retirement Ben Daniels - An MI6 Agent and former SAS trooper, introduced in Stormbreaker Dragana Novak, a Serbian mercenary pilot, infiltrates an air show in Suffolk, where she steals a Sikorsky CH-53E Super Stallion on loan from the United States Air Force. Despite MI6's best efforts, they are unable to locate the stolen helicopter. Over a month since the fall of Scorpia, Alex Rider is living in San Francisco as the ward of Edward and Liz Pleasure, but has been unable to acclimatize to life in America after the death of his guardian Jack Starbright in Cairo, experiencing PTSD-induced flashbacks and drifting away from his friend Sabina Pleasure, who he is no longer in a relationship with.

One afternoon, while checking his email, Alex discovers a message with a private joke between him and Jack, that reads ALEXX IM AL-, realises that she may still be alive. While the Pleasures are away one day, Alex travels to Cairo to retrace his steps from where he last saw Jack: at the now-ruined fortress in Siwa. Discovering Jack's cell, Alex finds the name "Grimaldi" scraped into the wall, but is ambushed by a group of six bandits in Scorpia's pay who want revenge on him for killing their employer, Razim: he fights them off and is unexpectedly rescued by Colonel Ali Manzour of the Egyptian Secret Service, who he had encountered in Scorpia Rising. Manzour, displeased by Alex's presence, is ready to repatriate him until they review the footage of Jack's death, discover that part of the footage from just before her car exploded had been edited out. Convinced, Manzour has his hacker daughter Shadia retrace the original message to Saint-Tropez, where he reveals that two suspected Scorpia members, the ex-Mafiosi identical twin Grimaldi brothers, have been sighted.

Alex decides to continue his search, the colonel reluctantly exfiltrates him with an Alpha Jet. Arriving in Saint-Tropez, Alex is confronted by Mrs. Jones, who reveals her reluctance to have used him in the first place and tries to send him back to San Francisco, fearing he might develop what she perceives as an addiction to danger. Instead, Alex presses on discovering the Grimaldi brothers' private yacht where he believes Jack might have been hidden. Using a self-destruct added to his laptop by Shadia, Alex distracts the Grimaldi guards long enough to sneak aboard the yacht, but finds only a map of Oxford and Novak, who attacks him in a rage. Alex manages to escape, Novak is inadvertently wounded in the chaos, leaving her unable to pilot the Super Stallion: she is subsequently murdered by the Grimaldis, who hire her cousin Slavko as a replacement pilot. Alex tails the brothers to their villa and observes them discussing an "Operation Steel Claw" with a man named Vosper, before he is captured.

Wanting to execute Alex with a quick version of cement shoes, the brothers have him chained to a block of concrete and thrown off a cliff into the ocean. MI6 overhear their plans to do so by hacking into Alex's mobile phone, he is rescued by Ben "Fox" Daniels, his former SAS training squadmate, taken back to MI6 to debrief, but not before Alex announces that his home in Chelsea is not for sale, after it was put on the market at the end of Scorpia Rising. From Alex's information, Mrs. Jones deduces that "Operation Steel Claw" involves the theft of an exhibit of Mesoamerican gold artefacts from the Ashmolean Museum where Vosper is a curator, with the stolen Super Stallion meant to haul the gold away. Ben and Alex wait in an MI6 patrol car near the museum, until Alex deduces that Vosper's wife is the real target – she is a coach driver for Linton Hall Preparatory School, which hosts children of wealthy families, they realise. Ben manages to catch up with the school coach, containing fifty-two children from the school, but the stolen Super Stallion appears and snatches it off the road with a magnet, forcing Ben to eject Alex in pursuit as the coach is flown away: Alex manages to wedge himself under the coach's chassis as the helicopter drops it onto a moving steam train – the Midnight Flier – and flies away.

It is blown up by a bomb planted on board by the Grimaldis, killing Slavko. Vosper's wife is posioned and killed by the brothers on, having outlived her usefulness; the Grimaldis email the school with a threat, demanding several hundred million pounds in return for the children. The train with the captured coach drives off into a disused coal refinery plant hidden in Wales, adapted into a fortress by the Grimaldis for the duration of "Operation Steel Claw". Sneaking around to check on the abducted children, Alex runs into Jack, who reveals that the Grimaldis had taken her from Razim so that she could act as a caretaker for the children that they planned to abduct. Alex and Jack lead a break-out attempt and manage to sneak the children back to the coach, but as their escape is about to get underway, the alarm is raised and the Grimaldi guards attack, killing the school's guard and damagin

Apostolic History Network

The Apostolic History Network is an interdenominational and independent organization researching Apostolic church history. Apostolic History Network is a registered charity under the name of Netzwerk Apostolische Geschichte e. V. at the court of Bielefeld, Germany. The Network provides all those who are interested in the history of the apostolic communities, like the Catholic Apostolic Church, the New Apostolic Church, Old Apostolic Church or the United Apostolic Church, a platform for exchanging information and materials. Annual meetings and seminars are held in other parts of Europe; the Network operates on an interdenominational basis, with participants in the Network belonging to different denominations. Meetings and participation in the network are open to everyone; the Archive Brockhagen has been available since July, 2012. In 2008, twelve researchers and interested persons met for the first time in Coswig, discussing various topics covering apostolic church history; the aim of the meeting was to present talks and exchange materials, as well as get to know each other.

The group created a closed mailing list. On Sunday, 5 September 2010, in a three-hour meeting in Bielefeld, 14 founding members of the club established the association, the name of the network should carry Apostolic history eV; as a board of this association Mathias Eberle, were elected Sebastian Müller-Bahr and Volker Wissen. In January 2011, creation and recognition of charitable status had been completed. In the fall of 2012, the above-mentioned Board was re-elected unanimously; the nonprofit organization operates since December 2011, the first research archive on the history of the Apostolic faith communities, the so-called Archiv Brockhagen. The available and independent archive is located in the former New Apostolic Church Brockhagen in Steinhagen in Bielefeld/Germany. Furthermore, regular public lectures and meetings are held at this location. Large collaborative projects like the idea of a shared archive were created. After calling for archival donations in the apostolic communities over 5,200 materials were gathered in the Archives Brockhagen.

The organization maintains the APWiki containing a history of apostolic communities. Since mid-2012, the initiative operates the Online Archive of Apostolische-Dokumente.de available online, with more than 2,200 journals. Die apostolischen Gemeinden im Umbruch - 1863 bis 1900. Nürtingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-939291-03-9 Aufbau, Trennungen. Die Entwicklung der apostolischen Gemeinschaften im ersten Drittel des 20. Jahrhunderts. Nürtingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-939291-04-6 Kirche auf dem Weg - die apostolischen Gemeinschaften im Verlauf des 20. Jahrhunderts. Bielefeld 2010, ISBN 978-3-939291-06-0 Frankfurt im Spiegel der Geschichte der Apostolischen Gemeinschaften. Steinhagen 2013, ISBN 978-3-939291-07-7 Wissen, Volker: Zur Freiheit berufen - Ein Porträt der Vereinigung Apostolischer Gemeinden und ihrer Gliedkirchen, Remscheid 2008, ISBN 978-3-86870-030-5 Diersmann, Edwin: An ihren Früchten sollt ihr sie erkennen - Das Erbe von F. W. Schwarz, ReDi-Roma Verlag, 10.2007, ISBN 978-3-940450-20-3 Eberle, Mathias: Die Liturgie.

- Andachtsbuch zum Gebrauch bei allen Gottesdiensten der christlichen Kirche. Hamburg, 1864. Kommentierte Neuausgabe mit den Änderungen der zweiten Auflage von 1894. Nürtingen 2008, Edition Punctum Saliens Verlag Wissen, Volker: Theologische Entwicklungen der Vereinigung Apostolischer Gemeinden von 1956 bis heute. Remscheid 2009, ISBN 978-3-940450-19-7 Diersmann, Edwin: Die Kirchenspaltung in der HAZEA Edition Punctum Saliens Verlag, Bielefeld 2011, ISBN 978-3-939291-05-3 Fadire, Peter: Das Werk des Herrn ReDi-Roma Verlag, 2011, ISBN 978-3-86870-308-5 apostolische-geschichte.de - Official site of Netzwerk Apostolische Geschichte APWiki.de - Encyclopedia of the apostolic faith communities under the leadership of the Apostolic History Network archiv-brockhagen.de - Official Site of the archive Brockhagen apostolische-dokumente.de - online archive of downloadable books

1374 Isora

1374 Isora, provisional designation 1935 UA, is a stony asteroid and eccentric Mars-crosser from the innermost regions of the asteroid belt 5 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 21 October 1935, by Belgian astronomer Eugène Delporte at Uccle Observatory in Belgium. In the SMASS taxonomy, Isora is classified as a Sq-type, an intermediary between the abundant S and rather rare Q-type asteroids, it orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.6 -- 2.9 AU once 5 months. Its orbit has an inclination of 5 ° with respect to the ecliptic. Isora's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Uccle, as no precoveries were taken and no prior identifications were made. In January 2014, a rotational light-curve of Isora was obtained by American astronomer Robert D. Stephens at the Center for Solar System Studies in California. Light-curve analysis gave a longer than average rotation period of 36.699 hours with a brightness variation of 0.12 magnitude. However, a second period solution of 18.35 hours is possible.

The result supersedes photometric observations taken by Wiesław Z. Wiśniewski in 1989, which rendered a fragmentary light-curve with a period of 8 hours; the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for stony asteroids of 0.20 and derives a diameter of 5.48 kilometers using an absolute magnitude of 13.67. Isora is the backwards spelled feminine name "Rosi" with an appended "a". Naming was proposed by Gustav Stracke – astronomer at the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, after whom the minor planet 1019 Strackea is named – and first cited by Paul Herget in his The Names of the Minor Planets in 1955. Asteroid Lightcurve Database, query form Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Observatoire de Genève, Raoul Behrend Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets - – Minor Planet Center 1374 Isora at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 1374 Isora at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

Al-Kabri incident

The al-Kabri incident, or Al-Kabri massacre, refers to a military operation carried out by the Israeli army during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War in retaliation for the ambush of the Yehiam convoy. On May 20, 1948, the Israeli Carmeli Brigade captured al-Kabri, a Palestinian Arab village in the northwest corner of the region of the British Mandate of Palestine, incorporated into the State of Israel. On March 27, 1948, hundreds of armed villagers and units of the Arab Liberation Army attacked a Jewish convoy near the village, killing forty-nine Jews. Six Arabs were killed in the battle. Two months the commander of Operation Ben-Ami gave operational orders given that day were to "attack with the aim of capturing, the villages of Kabri, Umm al Faraj and Al-Nahr, to kill the men to destroy and set fire to the villages." Benvenisti states that "the orders were carried out to the letter", while Morris writes that a number of villagers were executed. Al-Kabri was captured without any resistance and it was immediately depopulated.

It was treated harshly due to the villagers involvement with the destruction of the Jewish convoy. According to Walid Khalidi, an'undisclosed number of villagers were taken prisoner and some were killed' and others were killed during their dispersal in Galilee when it was discovered that they had come from al-Kabri. According to a Palestinian publication, Dov Yirmiya, company commander in the 21st battalion, reported: Kabri was conquered without a fight. All inhabitants fled. One of the soldiers, Yehuda Reshef, together with his brother among the few rescapees from the Yehi'am convoy, got hold of a few youngsters who did not escape seven, ordered them to fill up some ditches dug as an obstacle and lined them up and fired at them with a machine gun. A few died but some of the wounded succeeded to escape; the battalion commander did not react. Reshef was a brave fighter and as a rescapee from the Yehi'am convoy, enjoyed special status in the battalion, he advanced to the grade of Brigadier General.

He justified his action as an act of revenge. Aminah Muhammad Musa, a female refugee from al-Kabri, reported: My husband and I left Kabri the day before it fell... At dawn, while my husband was preparing for his morning prayer, our friend Raja passed us and urged us to proceed, saying that we should run... It was not too long before we were met by the Jews... They took a few other villagers... in an armoured car back to the village. There a Jewish officer interrogated us and, putting a gun to my husband's neck, he said "You are from Kabri?"... The Jews took away my husband, Ibrahim Dabajah, Hussain Hassan al-Khubaizah, Khalil al-Tamlawi, Uthman Iban As'ad Mahmud, Raja, they left the rest of us... An officer asked me not to cry. We slept in the village orchards that night; the next morning, Umm Hussain and I went to the village... I saw Umm Taha on the way to the village courtyard, she cried and said "You had better go see your dead husband." I found him. He was shot in the back of the head

Auki (crater)

Auki is an impact crater in the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle of Mars, at 15.76 °S latitude and 263.13 °W longitude. It is 40.0 km in diameter and was named after Auki, a town in the Solomon Islands, in 2015 by the International Astronomical Union Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature. Auki Crater has a central peak. Impact craters have a rim with ejecta around them, in contrast volcanic craters do not have a rim or ejecta deposits; as craters get larger they have a central peak. The peak is caused by a rebound of the crater floor following the impact. Strong evidence for hydrothermalism was reported by a team of researchers studying Auki; this crater contains ridges. Using instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter they found the minerals smectite, zeolite, serpentine and chlorite that are common in impact-induced hydrothermal systems on Earth. Other evidence of post-impact hydrothermal systems on Mars from other scientists who studied other Martian craters. Impacts fracture rocks and create a great deal of heat that may last for many thousands of years.

This heat can result in new minerals from hydrothermal circulation. On Earth impact craters have resulted in useful minerals; some of the ores produced from impact related effects on Earth include ores of iron, gold and nickel. It is estimated that the value of materials mined from impact structures is 5 billion dollars/year just for North America. While nothing may be found on Mars that would justify the high cost of transport to Earth, the more necessary ores future colonists can obtain from Mars, the easier it would be to build colonies on the Red Planet. List of craters on Mars Lorenz, R. 2014. The Dune Whisperers; the Planetary Report: 34, 1, 8-14