Kit (association football)
In association football, kit is the standard equipment and attire worn by players. The sport's Laws of the Game specify the minimum kit which a player must use, prohibit the use of anything, dangerous to either the player or another participant. Individual competitions may stipulate further restrictions, such as regulating the size of logos displayed on shirts and stating that, in the event of a match between teams with identical or similar colours, the away team must change to different coloured attire. Footballers wear identifying numbers on the backs of their shirts. A team of players wore numbers from 1 to 11, corresponding to their playing positions, but at the professional level this has been superseded by squad numbering, whereby each player in a squad is allocated a fixed number for the duration of a season. Professional clubs usually display players' surnames or nicknames on their shirts, above their squad numbers. Football kit has evolved since the early days of the sport when players wore thick cotton shirts and heavy rigid leather boots.
In the twentieth century, boots became lighter and softer, shorts were worn at a shorter length, advances in clothing manufacture and printing allowed shirts to be made in lighter synthetic fibres with colourful and complex designs. With the rise of advertising in the 20th century, sponsors' logos began to appear on shirts, replica strips were made available for fans to purchase, generating significant amounts of revenue for clubs; the Laws of the Game set out the basic equipment which must be worn by all players in Law 4: The Players' Equipment. Five separate items are specified: shirt, socks and shin pads. Goalkeepers are allowed to wear tracksuit bottoms instead of shorts. While most players wear studded football boots, the Laws do not specify. Shirts must have sleeves, goalkeepers must wear shirts which are distinguishable from all other players and the match officials. Thermal undershorts must be the same colour as the shorts themselves. Shin pads must be covered by the stockings, be made of rubber, plastic or a similar material, "provide a reasonable degree of protection".
The only other restriction on equipment defined in the Laws of the Game is the requirement that a player "must not use equipment or wear anything, dangerous to himself or another player". It is normal for individual competitions to specify that all outfield players on a team must wear the same colours, though the Law states only "The two teams must wear colours that distinguish them from each other and the referee and the assistant referees". In the event of a match between teams who would wear identical or similar colours the away team must change to a different colour; because of this requirement a team's second-choice is referred to as its "away kit" or "away colours", although it is not unknown at international level, for teams to opt to wear their away colours when not required to by a clash of colours, or to wear them at home. The England national team sometimes plays in red shirts when it is not required, as this was the strip worn when the team won the 1966 FIFA World Cup. In some cases both teams have been forced to wear their second choice away kits.
Many professional clubs have a "third kit", ostensibly to be used if both their first-choice and away colours are deemed too similar to those of an opponent. Most professional clubs have retained the same basic colour scheme for several decades, the colours themselves form an integral part of a club's culture. Teams representing countries in international competition wear national colours in common with other sporting teams of the same nation; these are based on the colours of the country's national flag, although there are exceptions—the Italian national team, for example, wear blue as it was the colour of the House of Savoy, the Australian team like most Australian sporting teams wear the Australian National Colours of green and gold, neither of which appear on the flag, the Dutch national team wear orange, the colour of the Dutch Royal House. Shirts are made of a polyester mesh, which does not trap the sweat and body heat in the same way as a shirt made of a natural fibre. Most professional clubs have sponsors' logos on the front of their shirts, which can generate significant levels of income, some offer sponsors the chance to place their logos on the back of their shirts.
Depending on local rules, there may be restrictions on how large these logos may be or on what logos may be displayed. Competitions such as the Premier League may require players to wear patches on their sleeves depicting the logo of the competition. A player's number is printed on the back of the shirt, although international teams also place numbers on the front, professional teams print a player's surname above their number; the captain of each team is required to wear an elasticated armband around the left sleeve to identify them as the captain to the referee and supporters. Most current players wear specialist football boots, which can be made either of
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Miloš Degenek is an Australian professional footballer who plays as a defender for Al-Hilal FC and the Australia national team. Degenek represented both Serbia and Australia at youth levels before making his senior international debut for Australia against England in 2016. Degenek was born in 1994 in Knin, which at that time was the capital of the Republic of Serbian Krajina, his family was part of the Serb population of Croatia and fled the Croatian War of Independence to Yugoslav and Serbian capital Belgrade in 1995 during Operation Storm, where they lived as refugees in poverty and were subject to NATO airstrikes during the Kosovo War in 1999. A year he and his parents migrated to Sydney, Australia. Degenek played for the Australian Institute of Sport. In the summer of 2012, he joined the under-19 team of VfB Stuttgart. Upon joining the club, Degenek admitted that he "had no communication from anyone from the Young Socceroos or under 20s."In November 2012, Degenek was called up to the first team for the first time by manager Bruno Labbadia.
Although he was never called up again to the senior team, Degenek spent the rest of the 2012–13 season, playing for the U19 side. Miloš Degenek made his first appearance for VfB Stuttgart II on 26 July 2013 in the 3. Liga against SV Darmstadt 98. However, Degenek made only 9 appearances in the 2013–14 season, due to being sidelined with injuries, he continued to be sidelined for most of the 2014–15 season, as a result would not make a single appearance that season. At the end of the 2014–15 season, Degenek was among expected to leave the side. At the start of the 2015–16 season, Degenek signed a two-year contract with 2. Bundesliga club 1860 Munich. Degenek made his TSV 1860 Munich debut in the opening game of the season, where he started the whole game, in a 1–0 loss against 1. FC Heidenheim. Since making his TSV 1860 Munich debut, Degenek established himself in the starting eleven, playing in the defensive midfield, it wasn’t until on 19 September 2015 when he scored his first goal for the club, in a 1–1 draw against 1.
FC Kaiserslautern. He started in every match since the start of the season until he was suspended for one game over picking five yellow cards in mid–October. After that, he regained his first team place in the season despite facing competitions that saw him placed on the substitute bench. Despite being suspended on two occasions, including a second bookable offence, in a 2–1 loss against MSV Duisburg on 15 April 2016, Degenek went on to make 28 appearances and scoring once in all competitions at his first season at TSV 1860 Munich. In the 2016–17 season, Degenek changed position when he moved into the central–defence at the start of the season, he started in every matches since the start of the season until he ruptured intraarticular ligament initiation in knee and had to be substituted in a 2–2 draw against FC St. Pauli on 22 September 2016. After returning to the side that saw TSV 1860 Munich win 6–2 against Erzgebirge Aue, however, struggled to regain his first team place for the rest of the year.
On 26 January 2017, Degenek left 1860 Munich four months before the end of his contract and joined Japanese club Yokohama F. Marinos, it was reported. Degenek reflected on his departure, saying that he needed to leave in order to keep his international status alive. Degenek made his Yokohama F. Marinos debut in the opening game of the season, against Urawa Red Diamonds on 25 February 2017. Since making his Yokohama F. Marinos debut, Degenek established himself in the starting eleven for the side and started every matches until he left to join the squad for the FIFA Confederations Cup, he helped the side goes a 14 matches unbeaten. He set up a goal for Takashi Kanai to help the side score the only goal in the game, in a 1–0 win over Ventforet Kofu. Despite being demoted to the substitute bench at the end of the 2017 season, Degenek finished his first season at the club, making 28 appearances in all competitions. For his performance, he was named in the J. League Young Players' Best XI. Ahead of the 2018 season, the club saw a change of new management, as Ange Postecoglou was appointed as new manager, who first called him up for the senior team.
Degenek signed a new contract with the club as well. At the start of the 2018 season, Degenek continued to establish himself in the starting eleven, playing in the centre-back position, he scored his first goal for the club, in a 4-4 draw against Shonan Bellmare on 21 April 2018. A month on 16 May 2018, he scored again in the J. League Cup Group Stage, in a 2-1 win over Albirex Niigata. Three days on 19 May 2018, Degenek scored his third goal of the season, in a 5-2 win over V-Varen Nagasaki, in what turns out to be his last appearance for Yokohama F. Marinos, he scoring 3 times for the side in all competitions. On 5 July 2018, Degenek joined Red Star Belgrade; the transfer fee was unofficially reported as €200k. Degenek promoted in new club next day, choosing to wear number 5 jersey. Degenek made his debut for new club in the first second match of the First qualifying round for 2018–19 UEFA Champions League campaign, against Spartaks Jūrmala, playing as a centre-back in tandem with Vujadin Savić.
Several days on 20 July 2018, Degenek made his Serbian SuperLiga debut in 3–0 victory over Dinamo Vranje, pairing with Srđan Babić. On 29 August 2018, Degenek made two assists to El Fardou Ben Nabouhane in 2–2 draw to Red Bull Salzburg, after which Red Star Belgrade qualified to the group stage of the 2018–19 UEFA Champions League. Fo
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Bonnyrigg, New South Wales
Bonnyrigg is a suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia 36 kilometres west of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Fairfield. It is part of the Greater Western Sydney region. Bonnyrigg takes its name from Bonnyrigg, Scotland. In 1803, Governor King Arthur Philip granted land for the building of an orphanage. A two-storey Georgian house was erected in Brown Road and became the Male Orphan Schoolchildren's Residence, it is now listed on the Register of the National Estate. Bonnyrigg has a number of heritage-listed sites, including The local shops: Cartwright Street: Bonnyrigg House Lot 1 Cartwright Street: Male Orphan School land Bonnyrigg lies 30 kilometres west of Sydney's central business district as the crow flies and about 36 kilometres by road, its closest major regional centre is Liverpool. The suburb is shaped like a diamond; the suburbs of Mount Pritchard and Cabramatta West lie to the east on the other side of Green Valley Creek.
St Johns Park, Greenfield Park and Edensor Park lie to the north. Bonnyrigg Heights and Green Valley are to the west. Busby and Heckenberg lie to the south; the town centre is undergoing a major regeneration through a new housing scheme - Newleaf Bonnyrigg. This will replace over 800 dwellings with 2,330 new homes that will see the town's population increase by over 3,000 people over 12 years to 2022; the project is being delivered through a Public Private Partnership with Housing New South Wales called Newleaf. Bonnyrigg's commercial area consists of a main hub around Bonnyrigg Plaza, a shopping centre located on Bonnyrigg Avenue. Bonnyrigg Plaza has undergone major renovation allowing new stores and a fresh new food court to come in; this commercial area has several community facilities such as a PCYC, an office of the Housing NSW department and a public library. A Bunnings hardware store is located opposite to the plaza and the local primary school is adjacent to Bonnyrigg Plaza. Brown Road in Bonnyrigg is a commercial area, albeit smaller.
It contains several mixed business Asian stores, a Vietnamese and Chinese restaurant and take away and Liberty petrol station. The closest train station is Cabramatta, on Inner West & South Line and Bankstown Line. There are bus links to other nearby stations. Bonnyrigg is served by several bus routes operated by Transit Systems Sydney; the Liverpool to Parramatta T-way transitway service, the T80, operates via Bonnyrigg, stopping near Bonnyrigg Plaza. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 8,670 residents in Bonnyrigg. 21.9% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Vietnamese 29.4%, Khmer 6.2%, Arabic 5.1%, Cantonese 4.7% and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic 4.3%. The most common ancestries in Bonnyrigg were Vietnamese 25.0%, Chinese 13.1%, Australian 7.1%, Khmer 6.3% and English 6.0%. 41.1% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were Vietnam 19.9%, Cambodia 5.4%, Iraq 5.2%, Laos 2.6% and China 1.8%. The most common responses for religion were Buddhism 30.6%, Catholic 24.2%, No Religion 13.5%, Not stated 8.1% and Eastern Orthodox 4.3%.
Bonnyrigg High School Bonnyrigg Public School Our Lady of Mt Carmel Parish School Bonnyrigg Heights Primary School Bonnyrigg is home to the New South Wales Premier League soccer club Bonnyrigg White Eagles Football Club. Bonnyrigg is home to the Nineveh Soccer Stadium, home of the Fairfield Bulls football club. Fairfield City Council - The local council website profile for Bonnyrigg
Sydney Soccer Club Yugal is a defunct soccer club from Sydney, Australia. The club, formed by Yugoslav immigrants in the mid-1950s, was known as Dalmatinac due to the Dalmatian origins of most of its founders, it competed in the Granville District competition before joining the New South Wales Federation of Soccer Club's Second Division Competition in 1958, the same year as other former giants of soccer in New South Wales, Pan-Hellenic known as Sydney Olympic FC and Polonia. The Club experienced fierce rivalries with Sydney Croatia and White Eagles, due to these clubs' large Croatian and Serbian supporter bases and Yugal's Yugoslav supporter base. Fierce rivalries of an underlying political nature were experienced with the soccer clubs of Venezia-Giulia with its Italo-Istrian supporter base and Blacktown City with its Bosnian German supporter base. Yugal merged with former Champion Club Prague to be known as Yugal-Prague from the 1973 season until late in the 1970s when they became known as Sydney Soccer Club Yugal.
The Yugal-Prague licensed club was located in Pagewood, as S. S. C. Yugal, the licensed club moved to Haymarket; the club struggled to survive once the Former Yugoslav States began to gain independence in the late 1980s and early 1990s, unsuccessful mergers were attempted with Auburn and Liverpool before disbanding in 1992. Yugal called Dalmatinac, came into being in 1956 when several young Yugoslav immigrants coming from Dalmatia, got together to kick a ball around a park in Liverpool. Martin Batistic first thought of forming a club and as a player and an organiser he did much to help put the club on its feet. Martin did not live to see the fulfillment of his ambitions for the club. Another tireless worker for the club was Ivan Pudarich, first a player became President in 1958; the Club soon attracted the interest of some local compatriots. Anton Curac and Maurice Posa, Peter Pecotich, Frank Stanich and Morrie Kastelan were active committee members in the early days. Dalmatinac won the Robinson Cup.
The following year they were granted admission to the NSW Federation of Soccer Clubs and won their way to Second Division where they met with moderate success. During 1960, the club strengthened its committee, Mick Alagich was elected Secretary and Dr. Lintner was elected President and the club was successful in securing the use of Concord Oval, it was decided to change the name of the club to Yugal, the aim to become representative of the whole Yugoslav community in Sydney. In 1960 Yugal added three top class players imports from Yugoslavia – Boris Krstulovich, captain-coach and centre-half, Sam Ivanisevich, a clever inside forward, Tony Nincevich, a prolific goal-scoring centre-forward. Other additions to the side in 1960 were Kurt Spiegel and Frank Aranyi, wing-half, both from Hakoah, Johnny Mucillo, winger from Auburn, Brian Robinson, winger from Manly; these seven players together with Jakov Fiajmenco, Luci Bogdanovich, Steve Lorik, Peter Grbavac, Mike Petkovich and Andy Novak, formed the squad that for most of the season kept Yugal on top of the second division competition.
A notable addition to this squad was Tihomir "Tiko" Jelisavcich, a brilliant inside-forward who played and toured the world with top Yugoslav club Partizan and, flown to Sydney just in time to help Yugal win the all-important game against Balgownie and win promotion to the First Division. Yugal's first match in the top flight took place at Lambert Park against APIA Leichhardt on Saturday April 7, 1962, recorded a 1–5 loss before a crowd of 2,400; the Club's first success in the First Division came at the expense of future long-time rivals St. George Budapest, at Macarthur Park, 4–3 before a crowd of 2,676. Yugal's goal scorers that day were M. Stojanovich. Yugal's crowning success was winning the Australian Soccer Federation's Australia Cup in its inaugural year by defeating St. George Budapest by 8-1 at Wentworth Park before a crowd of 11,014 on 9 December 1962. NSW State League First Division Grand Final Winners: 1970 NSW State League First Division Semi-Finalists: 1962, 1965, 1971 NSW State League Second Division Champions: 1961, 1981 NSW State League Third Division: Champions: 1986 NSW Ampol Cup Winners: 1963 NSW Ampol Cup Runners-Up: 1965 NSW Ampol Cup Semi-Finalists: 1962, 1966, 1971, 1973 NSW Federation Cup Semi-Finalists: 1965, 1966, 1967, 1971, 1972 Australia Cup Winners: 1962