Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is
Montreal City Hall
The five-story Montreal City Hall is the seat of local government in Montreal, Canada. It was designed by architects Henri-Maurice Perrault and Alexander Cowper Hutchison, built between 1872 and 1878 in the Second Empire style, it is located in Old Montreal, between Place Jacques-Cartier and the Champ de Mars, at 275 Notre-Dame Street East. The closest Metro station is Champ-de-Mars, on the Orange Line; as one of the best examples of the Second Empire style in Canada, the first city hall to have been constructed in the country for municipal administration, it was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1984. Construction on the building began in 1872 and was completed in 1878; the original building was gutted by fire in March 1922, leaving only the outer wall and destroying many of the city's historic records. The architect Louis Parant was commissioned for the reconstruction, who decided to build an new building with a self-supporting steel structure built inside the shell of the ruins.
This new building was modelled after the city hall of the French city of Tours. Other changes included a remodelling of the Mansard roof into a new Beaux-Arts inspired model, with a copper roof instead of the original slate tiles. In 1967 Charles de Gaulle, the president of France, gave his Vive le Québec libre speech from the building's balcony. Bonsecours Market - home to Montreal City Hall and Montreal City Council from 1852-1878 Rémillard, Francois. Montreal architecture: A Guide to Styles and Buildings. Montreal: Meridian Press, 1990. Montreal City Hall—Hôtel de ville de Montréal Photograph:Montreal City Hall, 1875 - McCord Museum Photograph:Montreal City Hall, about 1878 - McCord Museum Photograph:Montreal City Hall, 1896 - McCord Museum Photograph:Montreal City Hall, 1913 - McCord Museum
1000 de La Gauchetière
1000 de la Gauchetière is a skyscraper in Montreal, Canada. It is named for its address at 1000 De la Gauchetière Street West in the city's downtown core, it is Montreal's tallest building. It rises to the maximum height approved by the city at 51 floors. A popular feature of this building is its atrium; the building was designed by Lemay & Associates and Dimakopoulos & Associates architects, built in 1992 at the same time as the nearby 1250 René-Lévesque which rises at 47 floors. It is an example of postmodern architecture, with a distinctive triangular copper roof as well as four copper-capped rotunda entrances at the tower base corners; those were inspired from the Mary, Queen of the World, Cathedral on the north side of the building, following the trend set by Place de la Cathédrale of Montreal skyscrapers borrowing some of their design from that of the nearest church. The semi-spherical corner caps mirror the shape of the half-circular windows of neighbouring Marriott Château Champlain hotel, which were themselves inspired by the arches of the adjoining Windsor Station.
The 1000 de la Gauchetière was built by Pomerleau Inc. the largest construction company in Quebec and one of the top General Contractors in Canada. When it was built, 1000 de la Gauchetière was owned jointly by Bell Teleglobe. In 2002, SITQ, a division of the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec, bought the building for $184 million CAD. With the merger of all CDPQ real estate assets in 2011, the ownership has been transferred to Ivanhoé Cambridge. To be precise, the tower is Montreal's tallest; when viewed as part of the skyline, 1000 de la Gauchetière appears from certain angles to be shorter. The building's structural core is with steel making up the rest of the floorplates, it is serviced by 22 elevators, its recessed corners allow up to twelve corner offices per floor. The building's architecture is similar to that of the Chase Tower in Dallas, United States, but with the street-level architecture projecting out in a distinct style, reducing the visual and psychological impact of the entire building from this viewpoint.
Such details are features of postmodern architecture. In addition to its office space and shopping areas, it includes a full-size indoor ice skating rink, a physical fitness centre, a major bus terminal serving RTL city and commuter buses to Longueuil and other South Shore communities, links to other underground city buildings, Central Station, Lucien L'Allier Station and the Bonaventure Metro station. Analysis Group, Inc. Borden Ladner Gervais LLP BDO De Grandpré Chait LLP Fidelity Investments Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP McCarthy Tétrault LLP RBC Dominion Securities Raymond James Regus Rogers Communications Boston Consulting Group Miller Thomson LLP List of tallest buildings in Montreal List of skyscrapers Official website 1000 de La Gauchetière at Emporis "1000 de La Gauchetière". SkyscraperPage. 1000 de La Gauchetière at IMTL.org
Centre d'histoire de Montréal
The Centre d'histoire de Montréal is a museum in Montreal, Canada. It is located at 335 Place d'Youville in the borough of Ville-Marie; the museum is dedicated to the history of Montreal. The centre is housed in a former central fire station, built on Place d'Youville from 1903 to 1904, its architects, Joseph Perrault and Simon Lesage, were inspired by several architectural styles to give it a Flemish character, unique in Montreal at the time. Its facade consists of buff sandstone, red brick, a mansard roof with skylight, a square tower crowned with a hip roof, it opened in 1904 as Montreal's Central Fire Station, had both horses and steam pumps. In 1908, the station became a mere neighborhood station and the horses were replaced by motor vehicles 1931; the fire station closed in 1972. In the 1970s, the City of Montreal and the Quebec Ministry of Cultural Affairs signed an agreement on cultural development for the rehabilitation of the historic district, it had several components: archaeological excavations, revitalizing the western district after the abandonment of nearby industrial areas.
In order to ensure a museum function in the building, the agreement resulted in the establishment of the Centre d'histoire de Montréal in 1983. Administered by the Archaeological and Numismatic Society of Montreal, the museum became part of the City of Montreal's network of cultural centers in 1987. On the ground floor, the permanent exhibition, "Montreal en cinq temps" promotes the events and residents that have made history, it includes reproductions of old maps, many photographs, a varied collection of unique objects. In addition, visitors have the opportunity to hear songs and stories; the top two floors are devoted to temporary exhibitions with changing content. The collection of the Centre d'histoire de Montreal is composed of more than 4,000 artifacts, dating from the twentieth century. Objects from Expo 67 and from the 350th anniversary of Montreal; these collections are available on Artefacts Canada website. Centre d'histoire de Montréal
The Château Ramezay is a museum and historic building on Notre-Dame Street in Old Montreal, opposite Montreal City Hall in Montreal, Canada. Built in 1705 as the residence of then-governor of Montreal, Claude de Ramezay, the Château was the first building proclaimed as a historical monument in Quebec and is the province's oldest private history museum, it was designated a National Historic Sites of Canada in 1949. Over the years, the Château changed owners and functions several times, with Ramezay's descendants selling the manor to the fur-trading Compagnie des Indes. From 1775, it became the Canadian headquarters for the Continental Army. Benjamin Franklin stayed there overnight in 1776, while trying to raise troops to fight for the Americans in the American Revolutionary War. After the conquest until 1849 the house was again used as a governor's residence, this time by the British governors. For official purposes it was known as Government House and was the governor's official Montreal residence which complemented his other residence in Quebec City, a country retreat in Sorel.
In 1878, the building opened its doors to host Université de Montréal's first Faculty of Medicine. The building was bought by the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Montreal and converted into an historical museum and portrait gallery in 1894. Sir Andrew Taylor designed alterations to the Chateau in 1895. Today, the museum's collection is composed of gifts from private Montrealers and is estimated at 30,000 objects, including manuscripts, printed works, numismatic items, ethnological items, works of art, paintings and furniture. From 1997 to 2002, the Château Ramezay underwent indoor and outdoor restorations, including the creation of the Governor's Garden, inaugurated in 2000. In 2003, the Château Ramezay Museum earned the National Award of Excellence from the Landscape Architects of Canada, it has greeted more than a million visitors. Château Ramezay, Official Web site Château Ramezay, Vieux Montreal
Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal
The Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal is a contemporary art museum in Montreal, Canada. It is located on the Place des festivals in the Quartier des spectacles and is part of the Place des Arts complex. Founded in 1964, it is Canada's first museum devoted to contemporary art. Housed in the Place Ville-Marie, the museum moved into the premises of the Château Dufresne in 1965, followed by an exhibition gallery from Expo 67 in 1968. In 1992, the museum moved to its current premises at Place des Arts in Montreal; the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal was founded in 1964 by the Quebec government. The MACM was the first institution in Canada devoted to contemporary art. Before moving to its current location, the Museum was housed in three different locations: at Place Ville-Marie from 1964 to 1965, the Château Dufresne from 1965 to 1968, at Expo 67's International Fine Arts Exhibition at the Cité du Havre Art Gallery, from 1968 to 1992. In 1983, the museum changed its status: it became an independent corporation managed by a board of directors.
In 1983, an international architectural competition was held to choose the design of the new building to house the Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal. Over one hundred firms entered the competition. Jodoin Lamarre Pratte & Associés was selected as the winning architectural firm in 1984. On May 28, 1992, the museum opened in its new 15,100 m2 location at Place des Arts in Downtown Montreal; the museum is now part of the largest cultural complex in Canada, which combines the performing arts and visual arts. At the inauguration of its new building, close to 20,000 people visited the museum on May 29 and 30, 1992. Following the move to downtown Montreal, Quebec artist Geneviève Cadieux designed a photographic work, "La Voie lactée"; the work is a closeup photograph of a pair of lips, installed on the roof of the building. In June 2017, in response to criticism that the museum was closed on itself and did not fit well in the newly established Quartier des spectacles the MACM announced a contest to redesign and extend the Place des Arts venue.
In April 2018, the Saucier+Perrotte Architectes / GLCRM & Associés Architectes proposal was selected Four rooms are reserved for exhibitions of the collection, featuring works reflecting the significant trends of contemporary art. It includes works by Quebec and international artists. Four other rooms are dedicated to temporary exhibitions; the collection includes over 7,000 works of art by more than 1,500 artists, focusing on contemporary art from Quebec in particular and Canada in general, as well as important international artists. Its collections include contemporary paintings, photographs, installation and works on paper; the museum is Canada's only cultural complex devoted to both contemporary performing and visual arts. The museum was a member of the AMICO consortium. Musée d'art contemporain de Montréal http://abstraction.macm.org/ On April 24, 2009, Les Printemps du MAC, a committee of young professionals, organized Abstraction.
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor