Crossroads, Cape Town
Crossroads is a high-density township in Cape Town, South Africa. It is situated near Cape Town International Airport and borders Nyanga, Heideveld and Mitchells Plain. Crossroads is one of Cape Town's largest townships; the establishment of Crossroads as a settlement began in the 1970s when workers from a nearby farm were told to leave and move to'the crossroads'. By the year of1977 a survey indicated. An added motivation for the initial settlers in what was unsettled Cape Flats Dune Strandveld was the opportunity for families to build individual, more respectable homes than the hostels of Gugulethu allowed for. Since the Apartheid authorities considered the settlement temporary, orders to evict and dismantle it were issued in 1975; these orders were not enforced due to the efforts of a Men's Committee and a Women's Committee, formed to oppose the order as well as the Black Sash. The Women's Committee was successful at organising and gaining support from within and from outside of the community.
In 1978 Crossroads was declared an'emergency camp' thereby obliging the City Council to supply basic municipal services. Once Crossroads had been declared a legal settlement by the government they began to focus on dismantling the growing informal settlements in the surrounding area; the government's focus on destroying these settlements was driven by a desire to neutralise the threat the government faced in the wake of 1976 Soweto uprisings. From this group of activists the Development Action Group was established in 1986. A non-governmental organisation that a former mayor of Cape Town, Nomaindia Mfeketo, used to work for prior to becoming mayor. Although the'Save Crossroads' campaign was successful violence broke out within the community due to a feud between supporters of the head of the residents committee Johnson Ngxobongwana, those who accused him of favouritism and rewarding his henchmen. By 1983 the violence in Crossroads began to spread into the neighboring areas of Nyanga. Older Crossroads residents resented the rising influence of the United Democratic Front and in response a group of these residents formed an organisation known as the'witdoeke' and allied with the police to suppress the UDF.
The'witdoeke' attacked neighbouring townships and set fire to all the shanty settlements in old Crossroads thereby leaving 60,000 people homeless. As a result, some residents moved to a tented town near Site C in Khayelitsha to avoid the violence
Athlone, Cape Town
Athlone is a suburb of Cape Town located to the east of the city centre on the Cape Flats, south of the N2 highway. It is named after Alexander Cambridge, 1st Earl of Athlone, Governor-General of the Union of South Africa from 1924 to 1930. Two of the suburb's main landmarks are Athlone Stadium and the decommissioned coal burning Athlone Power Station. Athlone is residential and is served by a railway station of the same name, it however includes commercial zones. There are many "sub-areas" within Athlone, including Manenberg, Rylands, Belgravia Estate and Hazendal. Athlone is the home of the Trojan Horse Memorial, a reminder of the Trojan Horse Incident which took place in 1985, when three anti-apartheid protesters were killed and fifteen others wounded in a police ambush; the incident took place near the Alexander Sinton Secondary School where students had demanded to attend school the month before. Athlone is the home of the Robert Waterwitch / Colleen Williams Memorial, established in memory of two ANC activists who died in the struggle against apartheid.
As of the census of 2001, there were 45,056 people residing in the suburb. The racial makeup of the suburb was 3.21% Black African, 69.66% Coloured, 23.45% Indian/Asian, 3.68% White and 0% from other races. The suburb population age varies with 28.38% under the age of 18, 28.37% from 18 to 34, 26.53% from 35 to 54, 8.04% from 55 to 64, 8.66% who were 65 years of age or older. For every 100 women there were 86.53 males. 82.58% of the population speak English, 15.18% speak Afrikaans, 1.13% speak Xhosa, 0.52% speak another African language and 0.59% some other language as a first language. There are over 100 schools in the greater Athlone area, including Rylands High, Belgravia High, Darul Islam Islamic High School and the Athlone School for the Blind, which has produced several Paralympic medal winning athletes, including Hilton Langenhoven and Jonathan Ntutu; the Anti-Eviction Campaign and the Gatesville Hawkers Association have a strong presence with many members in Athlone. There are many neighbourhood watches in the Athlone area, including Rylands Neighbourhood Watch, Surrey Patrol and Habibia Neighbourhood Watch.
The decommissioned Athlone Power Station is situated alongside the N2. The cooling towers referred to as the "Athlone Towers", were demolished on 22 August 2010. Athlone, Cape Town, South Africa Athlone protest archives
Llandudno, Cape Town
Llandudno is a residential suburb of Cape Town, South Africa, on the Atlantic seaboard of the Cape Peninsula. There are no street lights, shops or commercial activities, the suburb has some of the most expensive residential property in South Africa. Llandudno Beach is one of the Cape's most diverse beaches, surrounded by large granite boulders and overlooked by mountains, it is a popular surfing spot, but the swimming can be treacherous, with rough seas and cold water. Llandudno has lifeguards on duty during the summer season, operated by the Llandudno Surf Lifesaving club, it is the access point for the walk to Sandy Bay, an isolated beach still popular with nudists. On 26 September 1903 the valley was declared a township and named Llandudno after the North Wales seaside resort of Llandudno, which means "Parish of Saint Tudno" in the Welsh language; the striking similarities between Kleinkommetjie Bay in which the valley resides and Llandudno in Wales were noted as reasons for choosing this name.
Media related to Llandudno, Cape Town at Wikimedia Commons Llandudno, South Africa Llandudno Map A street map of Llandudno
Sea Point is one of Cape Town's most affluent and densely populated suburbs, situated between Signal Hill and the Atlantic Ocean, a few kilometres to the west of Cape Town's Central Business District. Moving from Sea Point to the CBD, one passes through first the small suburb of Three Anchor Bay Green Point. Seaward from Green Point is the area known as Mouille Point, where the local lighthouse is situated, it is neighboured to the southwest by the suburb of Bantry Bay. Sea Point is the only sea-side suburb of Cape Town with significant high-rise development and this, along with other factors, has made it a popular residential area, or for investing in first or second homes and apartments; the area was classed as a "whites only" area only during the apartheid era under the terms of the Group Areas Act, a series of South African laws which restricted urban areas according to racial classifications With the collapse of apartheid and from the late 1990s, a diverse mix of residents emerged and changed the demographic mix.
According to the 2011 census, the white population was at 67.7% Sea Point is a suburb of Cape Town and is situated on a narrow stretch of land between Cape Town's well known Lion's Head to the south-east and the Atlantic Ocean to the north-west. It is a high density area where houses are built in close proximity to one another towards the surrounding mountainside. Apartment buildings are more common toward the beach-front. An important communal space is the beach-front promenade, a paved walkway along the beach-front used for walking, jogging or socialising. Along the litoral of the Sea Point promenade, the coastline has varied characteristics; some parts are difficult of access, while other parts have broad beaches. Sea Point beach adjoins an Olympic-sized seawater swimming pool, which had served generations of Capetonians since at least the early fifties. Further towards the city is a beach known as Rocklands. Adjoining Sea Point is Three Anchor Bay; the beaches along this stretch are in the main covered with mussel shells thrown up by the ocean, unlike the beaches of Clifton and Camps Bay, which are sandy.
The rocks off the beaches at Sea Point are in large part basaltic, of late Precambrian age and internationally famous in the history of geology. A plaque on the rocks commemorates Charles Darwin's observation of the rare geological interface, where igneous rock has invaded and replaced metamorphic rock. There are extensive beds of kelp offshore. Compared to the False Bay side of the Cape Peninsula, the water is colder; the community of Sea Point was the subject of a 2008 documentary film directed by François Verster, entitled Sea Point Days. Graaf's Pool, a beachfront tidal pool demolished in 2005, was the subject of a short film entitled "Behind the Wall", which contrasted the pool's origin story of Lady Marais, paralysed from the waist down from childbirth, whose husband built the pool for her as a private bathing area in the thirties, the Sea Point gay scene, which adopted the pool as a cruising ground between the 1960s and the turn of the century. Schools in the area include Sea Point Primary School and Sea Point High School founded in 1884, Herzlia Weizmann Primary.
The French School of Cape Town opened on 14 October 2014 after an R18m upgrade of the old Tafelberg Remedial School. The primary school campus of the French school is in Sea Point; some of the first settlers in the area were the aristocratic, Protestant Le Sueuer family from Bayeux in Normandy. Francois le Seuer arrived in 1739 as spiritual advisor to Cape Governor Hendrik Swellengrebel; the family’s Cape estate, Winterslust covered 200 acres on the slopes of Signal Hill. The estate was named Fresnaye, now forms part of the suburbs of Sea Point and Fresnaye. Sea Point got its name in 1767 when one of the commanders serving under Captain Cook, Sam Wallis, encamped his men in the area to avoid a smallpox epidemic in Cape Town at the time, it grew as a residential suburb in the early 1800s, in 1839 was merged into a single municipality with neighbouring Green Point. The 1875 census indicated that Sea Point and Green Point jointly had a population of 1,425. By 1904 it stood at 8,839. With the 1862 opening of the Sea Point tramline, the area became Cape Town's first "commuter suburb", though the line linked to Camps Bay.
At the turn of the century, the tramline was augmented by the Metropolitan and Suburban Railway Company, which added a line to the City Centre. During the 1800s, Sea Point's development was dominated by the influence of its most famous resident, the liberal parliamentarian and MP for Cape Town, Saul Solomon. Solomon was both the founder of the Cape Argus and the most influential liberal in the country - fighting racial inequality in the Cape, his Round Church of 1878 reflected his syncretic approach to religion - housing 4 different religions in its walls, which were rounded to avoid "denominational corners". "Solomon's Temple", as it was humorously known by residents, stood on its triangular traffic island at the intersection of Main and Kloof roads, a centre of the Sea Point community, until it was destroyed by the city council in the 1930s. The suburb was classed by the Apartheid regime as a whites-only area, but this changed in the late 1990s with a rapid growth of Sea Point's black and coloured communities.
Ships entering the harbour in Table Bay from the east coast of Africa have to round the coast at Sea Point and over the years many of them have been wrecked on the reefs just off-shore. In May 1954, during a great storm, the Basuto Coast ended up on the rocks within a few metres of the concrete wall
White South Africans
White South Africans are South Africans descended from any of the white racial or ethnic groups of Europe. In linguistic and historical terms, they are divided into the Afrikaans-speaking descendants of the Dutch East India Company's original settlers, known as Afrikaners, the Anglophone descendants of predominantly British colonists. In 2016, 57.9% were native Afrikaans speakers, 40.2% were native English speakers, 1.9% spoke another language as their mother tongue, such as Portuguese or German. White South Africans are by far the largest European-descended population group in Africa. White South Africans differ from other White African groups, because they have a sense of separate cultural identity, as in the case of the Afrikaners, who established a distinct language and faith; the history of European settlement in South Africa started in 1652 with the settlement of the Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch East India Company under Jan van Riebeeck. Despite the preponderance of officials and colonists from the Netherlands, there were a number of French Huguenots fleeing religious persecution at home and German soldiers or sailors returning from service in Asia.
The colony remained under Dutch rule for two more centuries, after which it was annexed by Great Britain around 1806. At that time, South Africa was home to about 26,000 people of European descent, a relative majority of whom were still of Dutch origin. However, beginning in 1818 thousands of British immigrants arrived in the growing Cape Colony, looking to join the local workforce or settle directly on the frontier. About a fifth of the Cape's original Dutch-speaking white population migrated eastwards during the Great Trek in the 1830s and established their own autonomous Boer republics further inland; the population of European origin continued increasing in the Cape as a result of immigration, by 1865 had reached 181,592 people. Between 1880 and 1910, there was an influx of Eastern Europeans of various nationalities a large Jewish community from the Baltic region Lithuania; the first nationwide census in South Africa was held in 1911 and indicated a white population of 1,276,242. By 1936, there were an estimated 2,003,857 white South Africans, by 1946 the number had reached 2,372,690.
The country began receiving tens of thousands of European immigrants, namely from Germany, the Netherlands and the territories of the Portuguese Empire during the mid to late twentieth century. South Africa's white population increased to over 3,408,000 by 1965, reached 4,050,000 in 1973, peaked at 5,044,000 in 1990; the number of white South Africans resident in their home country began declining between 1990 and the mid-2000s as a result of increased emigration. Today, white South Africans are considered to be the last major white population group of European ancestry on the African continent, due in part to the mass exodus of colonialists from most other African states during regional decolonisation. Whites continue to play a role across the political spectrum; the current number of white South Africans is not known, as no recent census has been measured, although the overall percentage of up to 9% of the population represents a decline, both numerically and proportionately, since the country's first multiracial elections in 1994.
Just under a million white South Africans are living as expatriate workers abroad, which forms the majority of South Africa's brain drain. Under the Population Registration Act of 1950, each inhabitant of South Africa was classified into one of several different race groups, of which White was one; the Office for Race Classification defined a white person as one who "in appearance is a white person, not accepted as a coloured person. Many criteria, both physical and social were used when the board decided to classify someone as white or coloured; this was extended to all those considered the children of two White persons, regardless of appearance. The Act was repealed on 17 June 1991. In Employment Equity Act of 1994, legislation propagates employment of black South Africans. Black Economic Empowerment legislation further empowerers blacks as the government considers ownership, employment and social responsibility initiatives, which empower black South Africans, as important criteria when awarding tenders.
However, private enterprises adheres to this legislation voluntarily. Some reports indicate a growing number of whites suffering from poverty compared to the pre-apartheid years and attribute this to such laws — over 350,000 Afrikaners may be classified as poor, with some research claiming that up to 150,000 are struggling for survival. This, combined with a wave of violent crime, has led to vast numbers of Afrikaners and English-speaking South Africans leaving the country. Genocide Watch has theorised that farm attacks constitute early warning signs of genocide against White South African and has criticised the South African government for its inaction on the issue, pointing out that the murder rate for "ethno-European farmers," as stated in their report is four times that of the general South African population. There are 40,000 white farmers in South Africa. Since 1994, close to three thousand farmers have been murdered in thousands of farm attacks, with many being brutally tortured and/or rape
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
The Cape Flats is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Cape Town. To many people in Cape Town, the area is known as "The Flats". Described by some as "apartheid's dumping ground", from the 1950s the area became home to people the apartheid government designated as non-White. Race-based legislation such as the Group Areas Act and pass laws either forced non-white people out of more central urban areas designated for white people and into government-built townships in the Flats, or made living in the area illegal, forcing many people designated as Black and Coloured into informal settlements elsewhere in the Flats; the Flats have since been home to much of the population of Greater Cape Town. In geological terms, the area is a vast sheet of aeolian sand of marine origin, which has blown up from the adjacent beaches over a period on the order of a hundred thousand years. Below the sand, the bedrock is in general the Malmesbury Shale, except on part of the western margin between Zeekoevlei to the south and Claremont and Wetton to the north, where an intrusive mass of Cape Granite is to be found.
To the west the expanse of the Cape Flats is limited by rising ground that slopes up to the steep cliffs of the Cape Peninsula mountain chain, while in the east the land rises towards the rugged cliffs of Hottentots Holland mountains and other elevated regions of the interior of the Boland. Most of the sand is unconsolidated; these formations contain important fossils of animals such as the extinct Cape lion and provide evidence that stone-age people hunted here tens of thousands of years ago. The area has a Mediterranean climate, with cool, damp winters, it is exposed to the wind, both from the NW and SE. Flooding can be a problem in July and August. Cold wet spells in August and September, can make life difficult for those living in sub-standard housing; the noted English naturalist, William John Burchell, remarked in 1811 that the deep sand of the Flats made travel by cart or wagon difficult. The situation was aggravated by a widespread shortage of firewood, causing fuel collectors to cut the few indigenous shrubs and trees that stabilised the sand.
During the second half of the 19th century, the area was overrun by alien vegetation of Australian origin. The plants included hakeas and wattles; the principal reason for this infestation lay in decisions made by the colonial authorities. It was an era before the advent of modern technological methods for the construction of permanent roads and in those days the Cape Flats was a massive sea of unstabilised sand dunes that moved at will before the winds; this made travel between Cape Town and the interior difficult for the large ox-drawn wagons of the time. The authorities decided to try to stabilise the sand with plants native to the British colonies of New South Wales and Western Australia; the earliest importation of wattles was in 1827. Massive plantings were established in the 1840s and 1850s and the work continued until well after 1875. At the time, the plan worked well enough: the march of the dunes was arrested; the price paid, in ecological terms, was. Serious efforts have in recent years been made to roll back this alien scourge.
The Cape Flats has undergone revolutionary change in the past half a century. In 1950 the area was uninhabited. There was a single, narrow road across the Flats from Cape Town to The Strand that ran between walls of alien rooikrans bushes and one could travel for miles without seeing any sign of habitation other that a few fences and a handful of farmhouses. Native antelope roamed at will between the dense thickets of wattles; the army used the area for military exercises and the few farmers who inhabited the Flats eked out a living by growing vegetables in pockets of poor soil between the barren dunes. Modern amenities were unknown; the era of sand and antelopes vanished in little more than a generation. Vegetable farming persisted, but to a much lesser extent, because urbanisation enveloped vast tracts of land in short order. During the apartheid era, large housing projects were built here as part of the Nationalist government's larger effort to force the so-called Coloured community out of the central and western areas of Cape Town, which the political theorists of the day had designated as whites-only areas.
This meant. Additionally, other large townships of black people grew up on the flats as a product of both informal settlement and forced government relocations. Since many Xhosa people of the region—including people born and raised in the Cape Town area—were designated under apartheid as residents of Bantustans, many were obliged to live in the area illegally, further contributing to the growth of informal settlements; these consisted in the main of shacks made of cardboard and wood. In 1993, Cape Town had a housing backlog of 40 000 houses and with the numbers of people migrating from the rural areas increasing each year, so the backlog increases. One of the major priorities of the RDP (Reconstructio