Rhyl is a seaside resort town and community in the historic county of Denbighshire. It lies on the north-east coast of Wales at the mouth of the River Clwyd, to the west is the suburb of Kinmel Bay, with the resort of Towyn beyond. Prestatyn is to the east and Rhuddlan to the south, at the 2011 Census, Rhyl had a population of 25,149. The conurbation of Abergele-Rhyl-Prestatyn has a population of over 60,000, Rhyl has long been a popular tourist destination. Once an elegant Victorian resort, there was an influx from Liverpool, the area had declined dramatically by 1990, but has since been improved by a series of regeneration projects that have brought in major investment. Several millions of European funding, secured by the Welsh Government, has spent on developing Rhyls seafront. The origin of the name Rhyl is not fully known, the name appears in old documents variously as Hulle, Ryhull, Hull, yr Hyll, Rhil, Rhûl, Rhul Rhyll, and Rhyl. The name seems to be a hybrid between the English word hill and the Welsh definite article y, the exact significance of the name is unclear as there are no hills in the vicinity.
It is possibly a reference to a mound or slightly raised place in a marshy region. Some documents refer to a house, Tŷn yr haul. A previous Rhyl landmark was the Pavilion Theatre, a building with five domes. Beside it stood the pier which was built in 1872 for the pleasure of the visitors who flocked to the North Wales coast. It was 2,355 ft long and once included a pier railway, the structure was damaged by ships in 1883 and again in 1891. It was damaged in 1901 when there was a fire at the Pavilion Theatre, storms were responsible for further damage in 1909 and the pier was closed in 1913 as unsafe. It was reopened with a length in 1930 but closed again in 1966. Rhyls top attractions on the West Parade are now Rhyl Childrens Village theme park, the skytower opened in 1989 and a few years later, the Childrens Village theme park was built, but the tower closed to the public in 2010. On the East Parade is the SeaQuarium and the Rhyl Suncentre, the Suncentre was an indoor leisure centre which opened in 1980 at a cost of £4.
25m and featured a heated swimming pool and Europes first indoor surfing pool. The local council closed the centre in early 2014, the Pavilion Theatre is on the East Parade, has over 1000 seats and is managed by Denbighshire County Council
St Asaph is a city and community on the River Elwy in Denbighshire, Wales. In the 2011 Census it had a population of 3,355 making it the second-smallest city in Britain, the city of St Asaph is surrounded by countryside and views of the Vale of Clwyd. It is situated close to a number of coastal towns such as Rhyl, Abergele, Colwyn Bay. The historic castles of Denbigh and Rhuddlan are nearby and part of a jawbone excavated in 1981 were dated to 225,000 years ago. This site is the most north-western site in Eurasia for remains of hominids and is considered of international importance. Later some historians postulate that the Roman fort of Varae sat on the site of the Cathedral, the city is believed to have developed around a 6th-century Celtic monastery founded by Saint Kentigern, and is now home to the small 14th century St Asaph Cathedral. This is dedicated to Saint Asaph, its second bishop, the Cathedral has had a chequered history. Two hundred and fifty years later, during the Commonwealth, the building was used to farm animals, cattle.
The Laws in Wales Act 1535 placed St Asaph in Denbighshire, however, in 1542 St Asaph was placed in Flintshire for voting purposes. Between 1 April 1974 and 1 April 1996 it was part of non-metropolitan Clwyd, the town applied for restoration of city status in competitions held by the British government in 2000 and 2002 but was unsuccessful. In 2012 it again competed for city status during the Queens Diamond Jubilee celebrations and it was announced on 14 March 2012 that the application was successful, and city status was to be bestowed upon St Asaph alongside Chelmsford and Perth. The status was granted by letters patent dated 1 June 2012. Despite the previous lack of city status, the community council had referred to itself as the City of St Asaph Town Council. The city is promoted locally as the City of Music, the crowded roads in St Asaph have been a hot political issue for many years. In recent years, increasing volumes of traffic on the A525, St Asaph High Street, St Asaph is now home to Ysgol Glan Clwyd, a Welsh medium secondary school that opened in Rhyl in 1956 and moved to St Asaph in 1969.
It was the first Welsh medium secondary school in Wales, St Asaph is twinned with the town of Bégard in Brittany, France. Both organise annual trips to the other for their residents, every year the city hosts the North Wales International Music Festival, which takes place at several venues in the city and attracts musicians and music lovers from all over Wales and beyond. In past years, the event in September at the cathedral has been covered on television by the BBC
This includes both sedentary and migratory populations. While overall widespread and numerous, some of its subspecies are rare, for this reason, it is considered to be vulnerable by the IUCN. Reindeer vary considerably in colour and size, both sexes can grow antlers annually, although the proportion of females that grow antlers varies greatly between population and season. Antlers are typically larger on males, hunting of wild reindeer and herding of semi-domesticated reindeer are important to several Arctic and Subarctic peoples. In traditional festive legend, Santa Clauss reindeer pull a sleigh through the sky to help Santa Claus deliver gifts to children on Christmas Eve. The name Rangifer, which Carl Linnaeus chose for the genus, was used by Albertus Magnus in his De animalibus. This word may go back to a Saami word raingo, for the origin of the word tarandus, which Linnaeus chose as the specific epithet, he made reference to Ulisse Aldrovandis Quadrupedum omnium bisulcorum historia fol.
However, Aldrovandi – and before him Konrad Gesner – thought that rangifer, in any case, the tarandos name goes back to Aristotle and Theophrastus – see In history below. Because of its importance to many cultures, Rangifer tarandus and some of its subspecies have names in many languages, the name rein is of Norse origin. The Finnish name poro may stem from the same, the word deer was originally broader in meaning, but became more specific over time. In Middle English, der meant a wild animal of any kind. Cognates of Old English dēor in other dead Germanic languages have the sense of animal, such as Old High German tior, Old Norse djúr or dýr, Gothic dius, Old Saxon dier. The name caribou comes, through French, from Mikmaq qalipu, meaning snow shoveler, in Inuktitut, spoken in eastern Arctic North America, the caribou is known by the name tuktu. In the western North American Arctic, the used by the Iñupiat is tuttu. Across the range of a species, individuals may display considerable morphological, genetic, COSEWIC developed Designated Unit attribution to add to classifications already in use.
The species taxonomic name Rangifer tarandus was defined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, the subspecies taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus caribou was defined by Gmelin in 1788. Based on Banfields often-cited A Revision of the Reindeer and Caribou, Genus Rangifer, R. t. caboti, R. t. osborni and R. t. terraenovae were considered invalid and included in R. t. caribou. Some recent authorities have considered them all valid, even suggesting that they are quite distinct and he affirms that true woodland caribou is very rare, in very great difficulties and requires the most urgent of attention
Ruthin is the county town of Denbighshire in north Wales. Ruthin has villages on the outskirts of the such as Pwllglas. The original name of Ruthin was Castell Coch yng Ngwern-fôr, the town developed around the castle and the nearby mill. Maen Huail is an ancient monument attributed to the brother of Gildas and King Arthur and is located outside Barclays Bank. The population at the 2001 Census was 5,218 of whom 47% were male, the average age of the population was 43.0 years and the population is 98. 2% white. According to the 2011 census 68% were born in Wales, with 25% being born across the border in England, Welsh language speakers account for 42% of the towns population. There is evidence of Celtic and Roman settlements in the area, the Marcher Lord, Reginald de Grey, Justiciar of Chester, was given the Cantref of Deffrencloyt, and his family ran the area for the next 226 years. The Lord de Grey established a Collegiate Church in 1310, the Collegiate and Parish Church of St Peter, it dominates the Ruthin skyline.
The double naved church boasts two medieval carved roofs, the church is known for its musical tradition, it has a large choir of children and adults and a four manual Wadsworth-Willis Organ. Behind the church can be seen the old buildings, school. A Ruthin native, Sir Thomas Exmewe was Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1517-18. The half-timbered Old Court House, now a branch of the NatWest Bank, features the remains of a gibbet last used to execute a Franciscan priest, Charles Meehan, known as Mahoney. He was shipwrecked on the Welsh coast when Catholicism was equated with treason — Meehan was hanged, drawn and he was beatified by Pope John Paul II in 1987 as one of the Eighty-five martyrs of England and Wales. During the English Civil War the castle survived an eleven-week siege, the castle was rebuilt in the 19th century as a country house, and is now a luxury hotel, the Ruthin Castle Hotel. From 1826 until 1921 the castle was the home of the Cornwallis-West family, in its 18th-century heyday as a town on drovers routes from Wales into England, Ruthin was reputed to have a pub for every week of the year.
By 2007, there are only eleven pubs in the town, the Public and Beer Houses records of 23 October 1891 show 31 such establishments serving a population of 3186, most of the establishments have been converted into either residences or shops. The Ruthin Union Workhouse was built in 1834 to house the poor folk of Ruthin, the first copies of the Welsh national anthem, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau, were printed in what is now the Siop Nain tea and gift shop on Well Street. In 1863 the Denbigh and Corwen Railway, which linked in Denbigh with the Vale of Clwyd Railway reached the town, the route ran from Rhyl on the north coast, through Denbigh and Ruthin to Corwen
However, studies of population genetics now suggest that this may not be true, and that immigration was on a smaller scale. The earliest known human remains discovered in modern-day Wales date from 230,000 years ago. Excavations of the site in between 1978 and 1995 revealed a further 17 teeth belonging to five individuals, a total of seven hand axes and some animal bones, some of which show signs of butchery. This site is the most north-westerly in Eurasia at which the remains of hominids have been found. Late Neanderthal hand axes were found at Coygan Cave and have been dated to between 60,000 and 35,000 years old. The Paviland limestone caves of the Gower Peninsula in south Wales are by far the richest source of Aurignacian material in Britain, including burins, the first remains of modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens to be found in Wales was the famous Red Lady of Paviland. This was a human skeleton dyed in red ochre discovered in 1823 in one of the Paviland caves, despite the name, the skeleton is actually that of a young man who lived about 33,000 years ago at the end of the Upper Paleolithic Period.
He is considered to be the oldest known burial in Western Europe. The skeleton was found along with fragments of small cylindrical ivory rods, fragments of ivory bracelets, settlement in Wales was apparently intermittent as periods of cooling and warming led to the ice sheets advancing and retreating. Wales appears to have been abandoned from about 21,000 years ago until after 13,000 years ago, following the last Ice age, Wales became roughly the shape it is today by about 7000 BC and was inhabited by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Wales has many sites where Mesolithic material has found. The earliest dated Mesolithic site in Wales is Nab Head, many of the sites from this period are coastal, although 9,000 years ago they would have been some distance inland from the sea. There is a concentration in Pembrokeshire, but there are a good number of upland sites, most apparently seasonal hunting locations. Some decorated pebbles found at Rhuddlan represent the earliest art found in Wales, the earliest farming communities are now believed to date from about 4000 BC, marking the beginning of the Neolithic period.
Pollen evidence indicates the clearing of forests on an increasing scale during this period, the Neolithic saw the construction of many chambered tombs, the most notable including Bryn Celli Ddu and Barclodiad y Gawres on Anglesey. Megalithic tombs are most common in the western lowlands, there is evidence of close cultural links with Ireland, particularly in the Early Neolithic period. A number of houses from the Neolithic period have found in Wales. Many artefacts have found, particularly polished stone axeheads
At the 2001 census the community had a population of 327, reducing to 298 at the 2011 census. Historically, Aberwheeler formed a township of the ancient parish of Bodfari, at one point the manor was owned by Gwenllian. A mill was situated in Aberwheeler from medieval times, Aberwheeler mill was burnt in 1403, though it was leased to Thomas Londisdale and Henry Billiger in November 1408 on the grounds that they rebuild it. Today, further north, on the banks of the river, stands Candy Mill, the mill is Grade II* listed, while Aberwheeler House and Castell Bach are Grade II listed. In the east of the community, the land climbs steeply to the 1,306 feet high summit of Moel y Parc on the boundary with Flintshire, reverend Edward Williams, known as the divine, born in Glan Clwyd, Aberwheeler in 1750. A Vision of Britain Through Time British Listed Buildings
Neanderthals, or more rarely Neandertals, were a species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans share 99. 7% of their DNA and are closely related. Neanderthals left bones and stone tools in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central, from the 1950s to the early 1980s, Neanderthals were widely considered a subspecies of Homo sapiens and a minority of scholars still hold this view. Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe, the earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 160,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorhams Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar, male Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1600 cm3, females 1300 cm3, extending to 1736 cm3 in Amud 1. This is notably larger than the 1250–1400 cm3 typical of modern humans, males stood 164–168 cm and females 152–156 cm tall. Recent studies show that a few Neanderthals began mating with ancestors of modern humans long before the out of Africa migration of present day non-Africans.
Claims that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead, and if they did, the debate on deliberate Neanderthal burials has been active since the 1908 discovery of the well-preserved Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton in a small hole in a cave in southwestern France. In 2013, scientists sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the bone of a 50. In 2016, elaborate constructions of rings of broken stalagmites made by early Neanderthals around 176,000 years ago were discovered 336 m inside Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France and this would have required a more advanced social structure than previously known for Neanderthals. Thal is a spelling of the German word Tal, which means valley. Nevertheless, Kings name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, the practice of referring to the Neanderthals and a Neanderthal emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. The German pronunciation of Neanderthaler or Neandertaler is in the International Phonetic Alphabet, in British English, Neanderthal is pronounced with the /t/ as in German, but different vowels.
In laymans American English, Neanderthal is pronounced with a /θ/ and /ɔ/ instead of the longer British /aː/, during the early 20th century the prevailing view was heavily influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, who wrote the first scientific description of a nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton. During the 1930s scholars Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky reinterpreted the existing fossil record, Neanderthal man was classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - an early subspecies contrasted with what was now called Homo sapiens sapiens. The obviously unbroken succession of fossil sites of both subspecies in Europe was considered evidence that there was a slow and gradual evolutionary transition from Neanderthals to modern humans, contextual interpretations of similar excavation sites in Asia lead to the hypothesis of multiregional origin of modern man in the 1980s. Current scientific ideas hold that both evolved from a common African ancestor, Homo erectus
Cyffylliog is a village and community in Denbighshire, Wales. It is situated to the west of Ruthin on the banks of the River Clywedog, the community covers an area of 31.59 km2 and includes the hamlet of Bontuchel and a section of Clocaenog Forest. It had a population of 495 at the time of the 2011 census, the name of the village means place of pollard trees/stumps and comes from the Welsh word cyffyll meaning stumps. The village has a small, bilingual school, Ysgol Cyffylliog. The village church, St. Marys, dates from the late 12th century but has been renewed since that time including an almost complete rebuilding in 1876. Although the church has been restored, it retains its late medieval ceiling. The church is open by arrangement, the village has a Presbyterian chapel, Salem Chapel
Bryneglwys is a village and community in Denbighshire, Wales. The village lies to the northeast of Corwen on a hill above a small river, the community covers an area of 24.48 km2 and extends to the top of Llantysilio Mountain. It had a population of 369 at the time of the 2011 census, the 2011 census showed 36. 0% of the population could speak Welsh, a fall from 50. 3% in 2001. The name of the village means church hill in English and was first recorded in 1284 with the spelling Breneglus, the village church is dedicated to Saint Tysilio. There has been a church on the site since the 7th century but the current building dates from the 15th century and was restored around 1570, Yale Chapel was added to the church around 1575. The local primary school is Ysgol Dyffryn Iâl which has two sites, one in Bryneglwys and one in the village of Llandegla. It is a school under the control of the Church in Wales. The 16th-century historian David Powel came from the village, to the northeast of the village stands Plas yn Iâl, the ancestral home of the Yale family who included Elihu Yale, a benefactor of Yale University in the USA.
Bryneglwys, A Vision of Britain through time
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An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication. The ISSN is especially helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title, ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, and other practices in connection with serial literature. The ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971, ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC9 is responsible for maintaining the standard. When a serial with the content is published in more than one media type. For example, many serials are published both in print and electronic media, the ISSN system refers to these types as print ISSN and electronic ISSN, respectively. The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers, as an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits. The last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows, NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character.
The ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, for calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, the modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker that can validate an ISSN, ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres, usually located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris. The International Centre is an organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, at the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept, where ISBNs are assigned to individual books, an ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole.
An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an identifier associated with a serial title. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change, separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. Also, a CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial