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Boogie-woogie is a music genre that became popular during the late 1920s, developed in African-American communities in the 1870s. It was extended from piano, to piano duo and trio, big band and western music, gospel. While the blues traditionally expresses a variety of emotions, boogie-woogie is associated with dancing; the lyrics of one of the earliest hits, "Pinetop's Boogie Woogie", consist of instructions to dancers: Boogie-woogie is characterized by a regular left-hand bass figure, transposed following the chord changes. Play Boogie-woogie is not a solo piano style, it is sometimes called "eight to the bar", as much of it is written in common time time using eighth notes. The chord progressions are based on I – IV – V – I. For the most part, boogie-woogie tunes are twelve-bar blues, although the style has been applied to popular songs such as "Swanee River" and hymns such as "Just a Closer Walk with Thee". Typical boogie-woogie bassline: Play Several African terms have been suggested as having some interesting linguistic precursors to "boogie": Among them are the: Hausa word "Boog", Mandingo word "Booga" West African word "Bogi" Bantu term "Mbuki Mvuki".

The African origin of these terms is consistent with the African-American origin of the music. In sheet music literature prior to 1900, there are at least three examples of the word "boogie" in music titles in the archives of the Library of Congress. In 1901, "Hoogie Boogie" appeared in the title of published sheet music, the first known instance where a redoubling of the word "Boogie" occurs in the title of published music; the first use of "Boogie" in a recording title appears to be a "blue cylinder" recording made by Edison of the "American Quartet" performing "That Syncopated Boogie Boo" in 1913. The Oxford English Dictionary states that the word is a reduplication of boogie, used for "rent parties" as early as 1913. "Boogie" next occurs in the title of Wilbur Sweatman's April 1917 recording of "Boogie Rag". None of these sheet music or audio recording examples contain the musical elements that would identify them as boogie-woogie; the 1919 recordings of "Weary Blues" by the Louisiana Five contained the same boogie-woogie bass figure as appears in the 1915 "Weary Blues" sheet music by Artie Matthews.

Tennison has recognized these 1919 recordings as the earliest sound recordings which contain a boogie-woogie bass figure. Blind Lemon Jefferson used the term "Booga Rooga" to refer to a guitar bass figure that he used in "Match Box Blues". Jefferson may have heard the term from Huddie "Lead Belly" Ledbetter, who played with Jefferson. Lead Belly, born in Mooringsport, La. and grew up in Harrison County, Texas, in the community of Leigh, said he first heard boogie-woogie piano in the Caddo Lake area of northeast Texas in 1899. He said. Lead Belly said he heard boogie-woogie piano in the Fannin Street district of Shreveport, Louisiana; some of the players he heard were Dave "Black Ivory King" Alexander, or another Dave Alexander known as "Little Dave Alexander" and a piano player called Pine Top Lead Belly was among the first guitar-players to adapt the rolling bass of boogie-woogie piano. Texas, as the state of origin, became reinforced by Jelly Roll Morton, who said he heard the boogie piano style there early in the 20th century, as did Leadbelly and Bunk Johnson, according to Rosetta Reitz.

The first time the modern-day spelling of "boogie-woogie" was used in a title of a published audio recording of music appears to be Pine Top Smith's December 1928 recording titled "Pine Top's Boogie Woogie", a song whose lyrics contain dance instructions to "boogie-woogie". The earliest documented inquiries into the geographical origin of boogie-woogie occurred in the late 1930s when oral histories from the oldest living Americans of both African and European descent revealed a broad consensus that boogie-woogie piano was first played in Texas in the early 1870s. Additional citations place the origins of boogie-woogie in the Piney Woods of northeast Texas; the first Negroes who played what is called boogie-woogie, or house-rent music, attracted attention in city slums where other Negroes held jam sessions, were from Texas. And all the Old-time Texans, black or white, are agreed that boogie piano players were first heard in the lumber and turpentine camps, where nobody was at home at all; the style dates from the early 1870s.

Max Harrison and Mack McCormick concluded that "Fast Western" was the first term by which boogie-woogie was known. "In Houston and Galveston — all Negro piano players played that way. This style was referred to as a'fast western' or'fast blues' as differentiated from the'slow blues' of New Orleans and St. Louis. At these gatherings the ragtime and blues boys could tell from what section of the country a man came going so far as to name the town, by his interpretation of a piece."According to Tennison, when he interviewed Lee Ree Sullivan in Texarkana in 1986, Sullivan told him that he was familiar with "Fast Western" and "Fast Texas" as terms to r

James H. Sutherland

James H. "Jim" Sutherland was a Scottish born soldier and professional hunter, who shot between 1,300 and 1,600 elephants in his life. Sutherland arrived in Cape Town in 1896 with no fixed ideas of a career, he engaged in various occupations in Johannesburg, Matabeleland, Lake Tanganyika and the Congo, including professional boxing, running African trading stores, working as a labour overseer on the construction of the Beira-Mashonaland railway. On the outbreak of the Anglo Boer War in 1899, he moved into the African hinterland to hunt elephant professionally. In 1904 Sutherland moved into German East Africa. From 1905 to 1906 he became involved in the Maji Maji Rebellion, fought with German colonial forces, was awarded the Iron Cross for his conduct. In 1912, Sutherland met his lifelong friend Major G. H. "Andy" Anderson, who Sutherland introduced to elephant hunting. The same year, Sutherland published an account of his exploits to that date, The Adventures Of An Elephant Hunter. Upon his arrival in London in 1913, he was feted as the "World's Greatest Elephant Hunter".

In 1914, at the outbreak of World War I, Sutherland was hunting in German East Africa. The German authorities attempted to detain him but, by making a detour of 500 miles, Sutherland made his way through Portuguese East Africa to Nyasaland, where upon arrival he was engaged by the Governor as an intelligence officer. In June 1915, Sutherland was wounded by a German sniper who shot him in the abdomen with an explosive bullet. After the conquest of German East Africa, Sutherland was made Chief Intelligence Officer and Provost Marshall on Brigadier-General Norley's staff with the rank of Lieutenant, in 1916 he was promoted to Captain. Sutherland was mentioned in dispatches on several occasions and was awarded the Légion d'Honneur for his services as a special guide to the Nyasaland Field Force. After the war, Sutherland hunted in Uganda, the Belgian Congo, the French Congo. In 1929, Sutherland fell victim to a conspiracy by the Azande tribe against white people, was poisoned, he recovered and continued to hunt, despite being paralyzed.

Sutherland died from the poison's effects in the Yubo Sleeping Sickness Camp on 26 June 1932, in his will he bequeathed all of his property to Major Anderson. Sutherland was buried near Yubo, his friends erected a bronze tablet on the spot, engraved with two elephants standing beneath a palm tree, which reads in part: To the Memory of that great elephant Hunter – JIM SUTHERLAND. Over the course of his life, Sutherland shot between 1,600 elephants. In The Adventures Of An Elephant Hunter, Sutherland describes two close encounters with elephants and one with a buffalo. On one occasion an elephant hurled him into the air and he landed on its back, holding on for dear life he managed to grab an overhanging branch, drop to the ground once he had recovered his rifle, follow up and kill the elephant. In The Adventures Of An Elephant Hunter, the largest pair of tusks Sutherland describes from the one elephant he shot weighed 152 pounds and 137 pounds, whilst the second largest pair weighed 145 pounds and 140 pounds.

In 1929, Sutherland shot an enormous tusker in the French Congo whose tusks weighed 207 pounds and 205 pounds. Sutherland hunted with rifles in various calibres including.303 British, 10.75 x 68mm Mauser.450 Nitro Express and.500 Nitro Express. Unlike "Karamojo" Bell, Sutherland preferred a heavy calibre rifle for elephant and rhinoceros hunting, stating "I find the most effective to be the double.577 with a 750 grain bullet and a charge of axite powder equivalent to a hundred grains of cordite." Sutherland's eventual battery was a Westley Richards single-trigger Droplock.577 Nitro Express double rifle, along with a bolt action.318 Westley Richards, which he used in open country where the quarry was difficult to approach and long shots were required. The Adventures Of An Elephant Hunter, London, 1912. List of famous big game hunters W. D. M. "Karamojo" Bell P. C. "Pete" Pearson R. J. D. "Samaki" Salmon

Victory Bateman

Victory Bateman was an American silent film actor. Her father, Thomas Creese, her mother, Elizabeth "Lizzie" Creese, were both actors. On stage, Ms. Bateman appeared in the 1900 tour of "The Man From Mexico" and in the 1919 tour of "Seven Days' Leave", she was born nine days before Abraham Lincoln was assassinated but was named Victory because of the North's eventual win over the Confederate South finishing the Civil War. In the early 1890s she became embroiled in the divorce proceedings of actors Aubrey Boucicault and Amy Busby. Though exonerated from all involvement in the case Bateman was forced to resign from an all-woman's group called The Professional Woman's League. At one time she was married to a son of John Sleeper Clarke and Asia Booth, they were separated for many years at the time of the Boucicault trial. She was married, in years, to Harry Mestayer and to George Cleveland, she and her last two husbands were involved in the silent film industry. Nicholas Nickleby as Miss La Creevy Her Cousin Fred as Victory, Fred's Sister Tangled Relations as The Widow, Florence's Mother Her Nephews from Labrador as The Aunt The Dove in the Eagle's Nest For Her Boy's Sake The Lady Killer Article 47, L' The House in the Tree The Hendrick's Divorce The Ten of Spades The Ring The Thief and the Book The Stronger Hand Freckles The Power of Evil Romeo and Juliet as Lady Montague The Passing of the Third Floor Back as Miss De Hooley The Service Star as Aunt Judith Cinderella's Twin as Ma Du Geen Beautifully Trimmed as Mrs. Calkins Keeping Up with Lizzie as Mrs. Henshaw A Trip to Paradise as Mrs. Smiley The Idle Rich as Mrs. O'Reilly A Girl's Desire as Mrs. Browne If I Were Queen as Aunt Ollie Captain Fly-by-Night as Señora Can a Woman Love Twice? as Mary's Landlady Human Wreckage as Mother Finnegan The Eternal Three as Mrs. Tucker Tess of the D'Urbervilles as Joan Durbeyfield The Turmoil as Mrs. James Sheridan Victory Bateman on IMDb Victory Bateman at the Internet Broadway Database Victory Bateman at AllMovie Portrait of Bateman Victory Bateman, picture gallery 1910, 1922 University of Washington, Sayre Collection

French knickers

French knickers are a type of women's underwear or lingerie. The term is predominantly used in the United Kingdom and Australia to describe a style of underpant, similar in look to a pair of shorts. French knickers are worn from the hip, concealing all of the buttocks; the garment features an "open leg" style that allows for a more comfortable fit and the straight-cut leg cuffs can be designed with or without trimming. The fabric is bias cut. French knickers are not to be confused with other underpant styles such as hipsters, bikini bottoms and boyshorts, all of which feature elasticated leg openings and fit snug to the body. French knickers are ideally accompanied by full, flared and A-Line skirts and dresses, as they can add bulk and produce a visible panty line; the item is an elegant and healthier alternative to more fitted forms of underwear and luxury fabrics like silk are used in their production. The French knicker style evolved from drawers, the baggy long-legged underwear of the Victorian era, may have derived its name from the frilly underwear worn by Parisienne Can-Can dancers, existent from the late-1800s to the early-1900s.

During the 1920s and 1930s, French knickers were popular, but by the 1940s and 1950s, briefs were worn by most women. By the 1950s, the fitted underpant was universally worn. During the nostalgia revival of the 1970s, French knickers returned to fashion through the designs of Janet Reger and others, were popular in the 1980s for a speciality market; the popularity of French knickers declined again during the 1990s as younger consumers displayed a greater interest in other underwear styles, such as briefs and thongs. They are still available today, most found in vintage reproduction and speciality retailers

William Evans (cricketer, born 1883)

William Henry Brereton Evans was a South African-born English first-class cricketer who played 66 times in the early 20th century. An all-rounder, he played county cricket for Worcestershire and Hampshire, as well as representing the Gentlemen against the Players, but he appeared most for Oxford University, whom he represented on 31 occasions, it was said in Wisden in 1914 that he was "one of the best all-round amateurs of his day," and that if he had played more it was "quite likely" he would have played for England. Born in South Africa, the oldest of five children born into a family with a long history in the colonial service in India and South Africa, his grandfather William Evans was Deputy Surgeon General and Inspector General of hospitals in India in the mid-1800s. W H B Evans attended Malvern College where he joined the cricket team in 1896, he was in the Malvern College First Eleven from 1898 to 1901, being captain in his last year, Wisden states that "he must have been about the best public school cricketer in 1901, as he headed the Malvern batting with an average of 51, took 53 wickets."He was at Oriel College, from 1901 to 1905 during which time he won his blue for cricket while still a freshman.

A fine all-round sportsman, Evans distinguished himself at football, playing for Malvern's First Eleven and Association Football, representing Oxford First Eleven for three seasons from 1902 where he played with another Old Malvernian, James Balfour-Melville. In company with B. S. Foster, he won the Public School Racquets Championship in 1900, he made his first-class debut for Worcestershire against Sussex in 1901 and took two wickets, his first victim being C. B. Fry. Evans' second-innings 53 proved important, as the game ended in a draw with Worcestershire nine wickets down. In five further matches for the county he took only one more wicket, but he scored 107 against Gloucestershire at the end of August. Worcestershire's 342-run victory in that game remains their largest in terms of runs. In 1902 Evans played for Oxford, hitting his career best of 142 against Sussex in June, but he appeared several times for his new county of Hampshire. In all he made 609 first-class runs at 29.00 and took 18 wickets at 28.44.

The following season his batting was less productive but he took 50 wickets, his highest season's aggregate, at 18.08, including hauls for Oxford of 7–41 against Somerset and 7–43 against Marylebone Cricket Club. He made the first of his five appearances in Gentlemen v Players matches. 1904, when he captained Oxford, was Evans' best season with the bat, as in 19 innings he hit 861 runs at 47.83 including two hundreds and seven fifties. He took 34 wickets at a shade under 32 runs apiece, returned nearly identical figures the following season, although this time his batting was less productive. On leaving Oxford in 1905 Evans joined the Egyptian Civil Service which resulted in fewer opportunities to play first-class cricket, causing him to miss the next three seasons. Had he continued, Wisden considered it "quite that he would have had the distinction of playing for England." He made something of a return to the game in 1909, still with Hampshire, claimed 32 first-class wickets at 18.59, including figures of 7–59 for his county against Gloucestershire.

He played twice for the Gentlemen in July, but was absent for more than a year, returning only at the end of the 1910 season for two final County Championship matches, in which he could manage only 55 runs and four wickets in total. This marked the end of Evans' first-class career, he died on Laffans Plain near Aldershot in Hampshire in a flying accident, aged only 30. On 7 August 1913 he was a passenger of Samuel Franklin Cody when he was test flying his latest design, the Cody Floatplane, when it broke up at 200 ft and he and Cody were both killed as they were thrown from the wreckage. Cody's stepson Leon King had given up his place on the flight to Evans, his funeral was held on 13 August 1913 at St Peter's Church in Tadley in Hampshire. Large crowds attended, his body had been cremated, an unusual choice at that time, but due to the horrific injuries his body had received during the flying accident. The casket containing his ashes was buried in a grave beside that of his grandmother, Emma Evans, who had died in 1911.

Leon King, Cody's stepson, was among the mourners. The prayers of committal were read by the Rev L. P. Phelps, from Oriel College, which Evans had left only eight years before. A number of his relatives played cricket to a high standard, his cousin John Evans played one Test for England. William Evans at ESPNcricinfo

Greystoke Castle

Greystoke Castle is in the village of Greystoke 8 kilometres west of Penrith in the county of Cumbria in northern England.. In 1069, after the Norman conquest the English landlord Ligulf de Greystoke was re-granted his land and he built a wooden tower surrounded by a pale; the first stone structure on the site was built in 1129 by his grandson. The building grew to become a large pele tower and in the 14th century after William de Greystoke obtained a royal licence to castellate it, the castle was further enlarged. In 1571 the castle was in the ownership of Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk and Earl Marshal of England through his marriage into the Dacre family, the previous owners; the Howards were Catholics and Royalists and as a consequence during the Civil War the castle was laid waste by Parliamentarians under General Lambert in 1648. The castle was enlarged and altered in 1789. Between 1838 and 1848 the castle was re-built to a design by Anthony Salvin, incorporating the older structures including the pele tower, the estates were developed by Charles Howard into a modern farm.

In 1868 the house caught many treasures and works of art were lost. However, the castle was rebuilt under Henry Howard, again by Salvin. During the Second World War the castle and estate were requisitioned by the army as a tank drivers' training area; the castle itself became a prisoner of war camp. Much damage was done to both the building and the estate during this period. In 1950 Stafford Howard began a further period of restoration, it is now managed by Neville. The castle is not open to the public, but is used as a B&B, venue for corporate hospitality, outdoor management training, is licensed for civil weddings. Grade II* listed buildings in Eden District Listed buildings in Greystoke, Cumbria Castles in Great Britain and Ireland List of castles in England Greystoke Castle. Visit Cumbria. History and Heritage. Greystoke Castle official website. Fry, Plantagenet Somerset, The David & Charles Book of Castles, David & Charles, 1980. ISBN 0-7153-7976-3