Zermatt is a municipality in the district of Visp in the German-speaking section of the canton of Valais in Switzerland. It has a population of about 5,800 inhabitants, the town lies at the upper end of Mattertal at an elevation of 1,620 m, at the foot of Switzerlands highest peaks. It lies about 10 km from the over 10,800 ft high Theodul Pass bordering Italy, Zermatt is famed as a mountaineering and ski resort of the Swiss Alps. The year round population is 5,759, though there may be several times as many tourists in Zermatt at any one time. Much of the economy is based on tourism, with about half of the jobs in town in hotels or restaurants. Just over one-third of the permanent population was born in the town, the name of Zermatt, as well as that of the Matterhorn itself, derives from the alpine meadows, or matten, in the valley. The name appeared first as Zur Matte and became Zermatt and it does not appear until 1495 on a map or 1546 in a text, but may have been employed long before. Praborno or Prato Borno are the names of Zermatt, they appear in the ancient maps as early as the thirteenth century.
The Romand-speaking people from the Aosta Valley and from the Romand-speaking part of canton Wallis used this name until about 1860 in the form of Praborne, the reason of this change from Praborno to Zermatt is attributed to the gradual replacement of the Romance-speaking people by German-speaking colony. The town of Zermatt lies at the end of the Matter Valley. Zermatt is almost completely surrounded by the mountains of the Pennine Alps among which Monte Rosa. It is followed by the Dom, Lyskamm and the Matterhorn, most of the Alpine four-thousanders are located around Zermatt or in the neighbouring valleys. The town of Zermatt, while dense, is geographically small, there are three main streets which run along the banks of the river Matter Vispa, and numerous cross-streets, especially around the station and the church which forms the centre of Zermatt. In general anything is at most a thirty-minute walk away, there are several suburbs within Zermatt. Winkelmatten, which was once a hamlet, lies on a hill on the southern side.
Steinmatten is located on the bank of the main river. Many hamlets are located in the valleys above Zermatt, however they are not usually inhabited all year round, zum See lies south of Zermatt on the west bank of the Gorner gorge, near Furi where a cable car station is located. On the side of Zmutt valley lies the hamlet of Zmutt, findeln is located in the eastern valley above the Findelbach river
First ascent of the Matterhorn
Douglas, Hudson and Croz were killed on the descent when Hadow slipped and pulled the other three with him down the north face. The ascent followed a series of usually separate attempts by Edward Whymper. Carrels group had been 200 m below the summit on the Italian site when Croz, the climbers from Valtournenche withdrew deflated, but three days Carrel and Jean-Baptiste Bich reached the summit without incident. The Matterhorn was the last great Alpine peak to be climbed, in the summer of 1860, Edward Whymper, an athletic, twenty-year-old English artist, visited the Alps for the first time. He had been hired by a London publisher to make sketches and engravings of the mountains along the border of Switzerland. He was soon interested in mountaineering and decided to attempt the yet unconquered Matterhorn, Whymper soon found that Jean-Antoine Carrel, an Italian guide from the Valtournanche, had attempted to be the first to reach the summit of the Matterhorn since 1857. In 1865, weary of the defeats he had sustained on the south-west ridge, the stratification of the rocks on the east face seemed to him favourable, and the slope not excessive.
However, when route was attempted, the mountain discharged an avalanche of stone upon the climbers. His guides refused to make any attempts by this route. In the meantime Carrel had spoken with Whymper and had engaged himself for an attempt on the Swiss side, Carrel was engaged to the Englishman until Tuesday, the 11th, inclusive, if the weather were fine, but the weather turned bad and he was thus free. On the morning of the 9th, Whymper, as he was descending to Valtournanche, was surprised to meet Carrel with a traveler, who was coming up with a great deal of baggage. Whymper was unable to make his attempt, and Carrel left him and came with me. We immediately sent off our advance guard, with Carrel at its head, in order not to excite remark we took the rope and other materials to Avouil, a hamlet which is very remote and close to the Matterhorn, and this is to be our lower base. Out of six men, four are to work -up above, I have taken up my quarters at Breuil for the time being. The weather, the god whom we fear and on whom all will depend, has been hitherto very changeable, weather permitting, I hope in three or four days to know how I stand.
Carrel told me not to come up yet, until he should send me word, naturally he wishes to personally make sure of the last bits. As soon as I have any good news I will send a message to St. Vincent, the nearest telegraph office, with a telegram containing a few words, and do you come at once. Meanwhile, on receipt of the present, please me a few lines in reply, with some advice, because I am head over ears in difficulty here, what with the weather, the expense
Second ascent of the Matterhorn
The second ascent of the Matterhorn was accomplished in July 1865, only three days after the successful expedition led by Edward Whymper on the Zermatt side. The second was effected on the Italian side by Jean-Antoine Carrel and Jean-Baptiste Bich with the abbé Amé Gorret, the party started from Breuil on 16 July and reached the top the following day. The successful ascent followed a series of attempts that took place on the southwest ridge of the Matterhorn. The Italian side was considered easier than the Swiss side but despite appearances, the routes were harder. On the first fine day they began their work, and about midday on the 14th got on to the Shoulder, the counsels of the party were divided. Two —Jean-Antoine Carrel and Joseph Maquignaz wished to go on, the others were not eager about it, a discussion took place, and the result was they all commenced to descend, and whilst upon the cravate they heard Whymper and others crying from the summit. Upon the 15th they went down to Breuil and reported their ill-success to Giordano, wrote the latter in his diary, dating the entry the 15th.
Early in the morning Carrel, more dead than alive, came to me he had been forestalled. He had reckoned on climbing to the top today, and expected to be able to force a passage not by the highest tower, which he considers impossible, but on the Zmutt side, where the snow is. I have decided that he and others shall at least try and ascend, so Giordano attempted to recruit men from Breuil to make another attempt. He was in a most unfavourable position, he was at any rate uncertain whether the last bit was passable, the men who had been with Carrel steadily refused to try again, as if they were overcome with terror of the mountain. The guides replies were most discouraging but the abbé Amé Gorret came forward, the latter accepted the volunteer, and thus two of those who, eight years before, had taken the first steps towards climbing the Matterhorn, were together in the last attempt. Carrel and Gorret would have set out by themselves had not Jean-Baptiste Bich, for his own credit, desired Carrel to state as much in writing.
At the end of the day he makes the note in his pocket-book, Walked a mile. A very bad night with fever, on Sunday, the 16th, after hearing mass at the chapel of Breuil, the party started. Giordano was left sad and lonely at Breuil, I have once more made the great sacrifice of waiting at the foot of the peak instead of climbing it, he wrote in another letter to Sella, and I assure you that this has been most painful to me. The four men, having left Breuil at 6.30 a. m. arrived at the third tent platform at 1 a. m. and there passed the night. The passage of the cleft that separates the Pic Tyndall from the peak, named the enjambée
Timeline of climbing the Matterhorn
July, First attempt by Jean-Antoine Carrel, Jean-Jacques Carrel, and Amé Gorret. August, Attempt by J. A. and J. J. Carrel, the Shoulder is reached August 10–11, Attempt by E. Whymper, J. A. Carrel, C. Carrel, L. Meynet and two porters June 21, Attempt from the south east face by E. Whymper, Michel Croz, Christian Almer, Franz Biner, L. Meynet July, Attempt by J. A. Carrel, C. Pic Tyndall,4258 m July 14, First ascent by E. Whymper, Francis Douglas, Charles Hudson, Douglas Hadow, M. Croz, death of Douglas, Hudson and Croz on the descent. July 17, 2nd ascent, First ascent from the Italian side by J. -A, a. Gorret, of the 1857 attempt, and Jean-Augustin Meynet stop just short of the summit. Second ascent from Breuil by J. A. Carrel, J. B, and Salomon Meynet guiding Florence Crauford Grove. September 13, 4th ascent, First direct ascent of the Lion ridge as it is climbed today by Jean-Joseph, october 1–3, 5th ascent, From Breuil. J. J. and J. P. Maquignaz, C, Carrel and François Ansermin guiding William Leighton Jordan.
July 25, 6th ascent, Second ascent via the Hörnli ridge by Josef Marie Lochmatter and Peter Knubel guiding Julius Elliot, July 28, 7th ascent, First traverse of the summit by J. Tyndall, J. J. and J. P. Maquignaz. August 4, 8th ascent Second traverse of the summit by J. J. Maquignaz, Victor Maquignaz and Elie Pession guiding François Thioly, August 3–4, 9th ascent, P. Knubel, Hans Baumann, Peter Bernett guiding George Edward Foster. August 8, 10th ascent, J. M. Lochmatter, P. Knubel, July 20, 15th ascent, J. A. Carrel, J. B. Bich, Alphonse Payot and Michel Payot guiding James Eccles, August 26, 16th ascent, Ascent of the Lion ridge by Joseph and Emmanuel Maquignaz and B. Bich guiding Robert Boothby Heathcote, it was on occasion that the guides fixed at the last bit the rope ladder which was called the Echelle Jordan. July 22, First ascent by a woman, Lucy Walker reached the summit with her father Frank Walker and Frederick Gardiner, guided by Heinrich and Melchior Anderegg, N. Knubel, P. Knubel and P.
Perren. September 5, First traverse by a woman, Meta Brevoort with W. A. B, Ulrich Almer and N. Knubel. July 26, Traverse Breuil-summit-Zermatt in 18 hours by J. J. Maquignaz, July 23, First ascent without mountain guides by John Brise Colgrove, Albert Harold Cawood and Arthur Cust. July 16, A. Burgener, Benedikt Venetz and A. F. Mummery attempted the first ascent of the Furggen ridge. At the level of the Swiss Shoulder they were forced to traverse along the east face to the Swiss ridge, August 4, Ascent by future US President Theodore Roosevelt, guided by Taugwalder
The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
The Solvay Hut is a mountain hut located on the north-eastern ridge of the Matterhorn, near Zermatt in the canton of Valais. At 4,003 metres it is the highest mountain hut owned by the Swiss Alpine Club, the Hörnli Hut lying on the same ridge is the starting point of the normal route to the summit. The Solvay Hut was built in 1915,50 years after the first ascent of the Matterhorn which took place on the same ridge and it offers 10 beds and is equipped with a radiotelephone. The hut was named after its founder Ernest Solvay, a Belgian chemist and industrialist, list of buildings and structures above 3000 m in Switzerland Website
The Matterhorn Bobsleds are a pair of intertwined steel roller coasters at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. It is modelled after the Matterhorn, a mountain in the Alps on the border with Switzerland and it is the first tubular steel continuous track roller coaster known. Located on the border between Tomorrowland and Fantasyland, it employs forced perspective to seem more impressively large, during the construction of the park, dirt from the excavation of Sleeping Beauty Castles moat was piled in an area between Fantasyland and Tomorrowland. When the park opened, the area, dubbed Holiday Hill, was improved with benches, in this period, the hill began to be known as Snow Hill. By now, instead of picnicking, the hill had come to be used primarily as a lovers lane. The structure was intended to act as a decorative overlay to camouflage the central pylon of the Skyway. Use of the Matterhorn, both in style and name, grew from Disneys extended vacation in Switzerland while filming Third Man on the Mountain.
This resulted in the merger of the toboggan ride concept with the thoughts of a coaster ride that would run around. The peak was first shown in a drawing that was once on display at The Disney Gallery. The view to the northwest shows a corner of the now-defunct Junior Autopia, one of three major new Tomorrowland attractions to open that year, the Matterhorn debuted on June 14,1959. Built by coaster builder Arrow Development and WED Imagineering, it was the first tubular steel coaster in the world. It consisted of a wood and steel infrastructure surrounded by man-made rock, trees could be seen on its sides, by making the trees at higher altitudes smaller, the Imagineers used forced perspective to augment the mountains height. Waterfalls cascaded down its sides and frequently sprayed riders, inside was a large, open space through which the bobsleds traveled. The Skyway passed through the center of the mountain via a pair of holes on the Fantasyland and Tomorrowland sides, Skyway riders could see down into the Matterhorns interior as they glided through.
In the early 1970s, the ride was made a part of Fantasyland. In 1978, the Matterhorn received a major refurbishment, most notably, the hollow interior space was broken up into a number of small, icy caves and tunnels with far more convincing theming. Some holes in the skin were filled in as well. Another major addition was a snowman, who had taken up residence in the mountain and was affectionately named Harold by the Imagineers