1.
Orders of magnitude (mass)
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To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg. The table below is based on the kilogram, the unit of mass in the International System of Units. The kilogram is the standard unit to include an SI prefix as part of its name. The gram is an SI derived unit of mass, however, the names of all SI mass units are based on gram, rather than on kilogram, thus 103 kg is a megagram, not a kilokilogram. The tonne is a SI-compatible unit of equal to a megagram. The unit is in use for masses above about 103 kg and is often used with SI prefixes. Other units of mass are also in use, historical units include the stone, the pound, the carat, and the grain. For subatomic particles, physicists use the equivalent to the energy represented by an electronvolt. At the atomic level, chemists use the mass of one-twelfth of a carbon-12 atom, astronomers use the mass of the sun. Unlike other physical quantities, mass-energy does not have an a priori expected minimal quantity, as is the case with time or length, plancks law allows for the existence of photons with arbitrarily low energies. This series on orders of magnitude does not have a range of larger masses Mass units conversion calculator Mass units conversion calculator JavaScript

2.
Orders of magnitude (numbers)
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This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities. Mathematics – Writing, Approximately 10−183,800 is a rough first estimate of the probability that a monkey, however, taking punctuation, capitalization, and spacing into account, the actual probability is far lower, around 10−360,783. Computing, The number 1×10−6176 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 6. 5×10−4966 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 3. 6×10−4951 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a 80-bit x86 double-extended IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−398 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 4. 9×10−324 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−101 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Mathematics, The probability in a game of bridge of all four players getting a complete suit is approximately 4. 47×10−28. ISO, yocto- ISO, zepto- Mathematics, The probability of matching 20 numbers for 20 in a game of keno is approximately 2.83 × 10−19. ISO, atto- Mathematics, The probability of rolling snake eyes 10 times in a row on a pair of dice is about 2. 74×10−16. ISO, micro- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 649,739 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 72,192 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a four of a kind in poker are 4,164 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.4 × 10−4. ISO, milli- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a full house in poker are 693 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10−3. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 507.8 to 1 against, Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a straight in poker are 253.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 4 × 10−3. Physics, α =0.007297352570, the fine-structure constant, ISO, deci- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt only one pair in poker are about 5 to 2 against, for a probability of 0.42. Demography, The population of Monowi, a village in Nebraska. Mathematics, √2 ≈1.414213562373095489, the ratio of the diagonal of a square to its side length. Mathematics, φ ≈1.618033988749895848, the golden ratio Mathematics, the number system understood by most computers, human scale, There are 10 digits on a pair of human hands, and 10 toes on a pair of human feet. Mathematics, The number system used in life, the decimal system, has 10 digits,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

3.
Orders of magnitude (power)
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This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various sources of energy. They are grouped by orders of magnitude, and each section covers three orders of magnitude, or a factor of one thousand,1.64 × 10−27 watt – phys, approximate power of gravitational radiation emitted by a 1000 kg satellite in geosynchronous orbit around the Earth. ~10 zW – tech, approximate power of Galileo space probes radio signal as received on earth by a 70-meter DSN antenna,1 aW – phys, approximate power scale at which operation of nanoelectromechanical systems are overwhelmed by thermal fluctuations. 100 aW – tech, the GPS signal strength measured at the surface of the Earth, for reference, about 10,000 100-watt lightbulbs or 5,000 computer systems would be needed to draw 1 MW. Also,1 MW is approximately 1360 horsepower, modern high-power diesel-electric locomotives typically have a peak power of 3–5 MW, while a typical modern nuclear power plant produces on the order of 500–2000 MW peak output. 8.21 GW – tech, capacity of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant,73.1 GW - tech, total installed power capacity of Turkey on December 31,2015. 101.6 GW – tech, peak power consumption of France 166 GW – tech. 433 GW – tech, total installed wind turbine capacity at end of 2015,700 GW – biomed, humankind basal metabolic rate as of 2013. 2 TW – astro, approximate power generated between the surfaces of Jupiter and its moon Io due to Jupiters tremendous magnetic field,3.34 TW – geo, average total power consumption of the US in 200518. 1.1 PW – tech, worlds most powerful laser pulses by laser still in operation, ~2 X1.00 PW – tech, Omega EP laser power at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. There are two beams that are combined. 1.25 PW – tech, worlds most powerful laser pulses,1.4 PW – geo, estimated heat flux transported by the Gulf Stream. 4 PW – geo, estimated heat flux transported by Earths atmosphere. 5.13 PW – tech, worlds most powerful laser pulses, 10–100 PW geo, estimated total power output of a Type-I civilization on the Kardashev scale. Barty also gave a talk on Laser-Based Nuclear Photonics at the SPIE meeting. 135 ZW – astro, approximate luminosity of Wolf 359 10-100 YW – geo, estimated total power output of a Type-II civilization on the Kardashev scale

4.
Orders of magnitude (radiation)
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Recognized effects of higher acute radiation doses are described in more detail in the article on radiation poisoning.01 mSv. Light radiation sickness begins at about 50–100 rad, the following table includes some dosages for comparison purposes, using millisieverts. Thus 100 mSv is considered twice in the table below – once as received over a 5-year period, the table describes doses and their official limits, rather than effects. Dose can be decreased down to 3 Gy through the use of a 10 gram/cm² alumunium shield

5.
Powers of Ten (film)
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The Powers of Ten films are two short American documentary films written and directed by Charles and Ray Eames. The Powers of Ten films were adaptations of the book Cosmic View by Dutch educator Kees Boeke. Both films, and a book based on the film, follow the form of the Boeke original, adding color and photography to the black. In 1998, Powers of Ten was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being culturally, historically and this version of the film has two clocks in the corner showing the comparison between the viewers time and that of earth time. As the viewers speed increases, earth time, relative to the viewer and it was installed in the Smithsonian Institutions National Air and Space Museums Life in the Universe gallery at the time of the museums opening in 1976, until the gallerys closure in 1978. There is also a 1968 National Film Board of Canada film entitled Cosmic Zoom which covers the subject using animation. It is wordless, using sped-up music during the trips to normal size. The man then sleeps, while the woman starts to read one of the books, the viewpoint, accompanied by expository voiceover by Philip Morrison, then slowly zooms out to a view ten meters across. Powers of Ten, A Book About the Relative Size of Things in the Universe, Cosmic Zoom, an eight-minute short from Canada. Cosmic Voyage, a remake of Powers of Ten in IMAX format for the National Air. Contact, whose computer-generated opening sequence pulls back from the Earth to the whole of the universe, is inspired by Powers of Ten. Cosmic Eye, complete remake of Powers of Ten based on data, also available as iPhone/iPad/iPod app Video on YouTube Cozmic Zoom. The music video for the Sara Bareilles song Gravity is an homage to Powers of Ten, tributed Powers of Ten in his music video for the Bigger Picture List of American films of 1968 Orders of magnitude Earths location in the universe Official website, Powers of Ten. Archived from the original on June 18,2014, exhibit at the California Academy of Sciences Powers of Ten on YouTube Powers of Ten at the Internet Movie Database The Scale of the Universe 2 - an interactive web site exploring the same concept

6.
SI prefix
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A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit. While all metric prefixes in use today are decadic, historically there have been a number of binary metric prefixes as well. Each prefix has a symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo-, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand, the prefix milli-, likewise, may be added to metre to indicate division by one thousand, one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre. Decimal multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the system with six dating back to the systems introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have even been prepended to non-metric units, the SI prefixes are standardized for use in the International System of Units by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in resolutions dating from 1960 to 1991. Since 2009, they have formed part of the International System of Quantities, the BIPM specifies twenty prefixes for the International System of Units. Each prefix name has a symbol which is used in combination with the symbols for units of measure. For example, the symbol for kilo- is k, and is used to produce km, kg, and kW, which are the SI symbols for kilometre, kilogram, prefixes corresponding to an integer power of one thousand are generally preferred. Hence 100 m is preferred over 1 hm or 10 dam, the prefixes hecto, deca, deci, and centi are commonly used for everyday purposes, and the centimetre is especially common. However, some building codes require that the millimetre be used in preference to the centimetre, because use of centimetres leads to extensive usage of decimal points. Prefixes may not be used in combination and this also applies to mass, for which the SI base unit already contains a prefix. For example, milligram is used instead of microkilogram, in the arithmetic of measurements having units, the units are treated as multiplicative factors to values. If they have prefixes, all but one of the prefixes must be expanded to their numeric multiplier,1 km2 means one square kilometre, or the area of a square of 1000 m by 1000 m and not 1000 square metres. 2 Mm3 means two cubic megametres, or the volume of two cubes of 1000000 m by 1000000 m by 1000000 m or 2×1018 m3, and not 2000000 cubic metres, examples 5 cm = 5×10−2 m =5 ×0.01 m =0. The prefixes, including those introduced after 1960, are used with any metric unit, metric prefixes may also be used with non-metric units. The choice of prefixes with a unit is usually dictated by convenience of use. Unit prefixes for amounts that are larger or smaller than those actually encountered are seldom used