1.
Energy density
–
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume. Colloquially it may also be used for energy per unit mass, often only the useful or extractable energy is measured, which is to say that chemically inaccessible energy such as rest mass energy is ignored. In short, pressure is a measure of the enthalpy per unit volume of a system, a pressure gradient has a potential to perform work on the surroundings by converting enthalpy until equilibrium is reached. There are many different types of stored in materials. In order of the magnitude of the energy released, these types of reactions are, nuclear, chemical, electrochemical. Chemical reactions are used by animals to derive energy from food, electrochemical reactions are used by most mobile devices such as laptop computers and mobile phones to release the energy from batteries. The following is a list of the energy densities of commonly used or well-known energy storage materials. Note that this list does not consider the mass of reactants commonly available such as the oxygen required for combustion or the efficiency in use. The following unit conversions may be helpful when considering the data in the table,1 MJ ≈0.28 kWh ≈0.37 HPh. In energy storage applications the energy density relates the mass of a store to the volume of the storage facility. The higher the density of the fuel, the more energy may be stored or transported for the same amount of volume. The energy density of a fuel per unit mass is called the energy of that fuel. The greatest energy source by far is mass itself and this energy, E = mc2, where m = ρV, ρ is the mass per unit volume, V is the volume of the mass itself and c is the speed of light. This energy, however, can be released only by the processes of nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, nuclear reactions cannot be realized by chemical reactions such as combustion. Although greater matter densities can be achieved, the density of a star would approximate the most dense system capable of matter-antimatter annihilation possible. A black hole, although denser than a star, does not have an equivalent anti-particle form. In the case of small black holes the power output would be tremendous. The highest density sources of energy aside from antimatter are fusion and fission, fusion includes energy from the sun which will be available for billions of years but so far, sustained fusion power production continues to be elusive

2.
Orders of magnitude (length)
–
The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths. To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various lengths between 1. 6×10−35 meters and 101010122 meters,100 pm –1 Ångström 120 pm – radius of a gold atom 150 pm – Length of a typical covalent bond. 280 pm – Average size of the water molecule 298 pm – radius of a caesium atom, light travels 1 metre in 1⁄299,792,458, or 3. 3356409519815E-9 of a second. 25 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 12 MHz 29 metres – height of the lighthouse at Savudrija, Slovenia. 31 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 9.7 MHz 34 metres – height of the Split Point Lighthouse in Aireys Inlet, Victoria, Australia. 1 kilometre is equal to,1,000 metres 0.621371 miles 1,093.61 yards 3,280.84 feet 39,370.1 inches 100,000 centimetres 1,000,000 millimetres Side of a square of area 1 km2. Radius of a circle of area π km2,1.637 km – deepest dive of Lake Baikal in Russia, the worlds largest fresh water lake. 2.228 km – height of Mount Kosciuszko, highest point in Australia Most of Manhattan is from 3 to 4 km wide, farsang, a modern unit of measure commonly used in Iran and Turkey. Usage of farsang before 1926 may be for a precise unit derived from parasang. It is the altitude at which the FAI defines spaceflight to begin, to help compare orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 100 and 1,000 kilometres. 7.9 Gm – Diameter of Gamma Orionis 9, the newly improved measurement was 30% lower than the previous 2007 estimate. The size was revised in 2012 through improved measurement techniques and its faintness gives us an idea how our Sun would appear when viewed from even so close a distance as this. 350 Pm –37 light years – Distance to Arcturus 373.1 Pm –39.44 light years - Distance to TRAPPIST-1, a star recently discovered to have 7 planets around it. 400 Pm –42 light years – Distance to Capella 620 Pm –65 light years – Distance to Aldebaran This list includes distances between 1 and 10 exametres. 13 Em –1,300 light years – Distance to the Orion Nebula 14 Em –1,500 light years – Approximate thickness of the plane of the Milky Way galaxy at the Suns location 30.8568 Em –3,261. At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant, Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used. At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant, Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used. 590 Ym –62 billion light years – Cosmological event horizon, displays orders of magnitude in successively larger rooms Powers of Ten Travel across the Universe

3.
Orders of magnitude (mass)
–
To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg. The table below is based on the kilogram, the unit of mass in the International System of Units. The kilogram is the standard unit to include an SI prefix as part of its name. The gram is an SI derived unit of mass, however, the names of all SI mass units are based on gram, rather than on kilogram, thus 103 kg is a megagram, not a kilokilogram. The tonne is a SI-compatible unit of equal to a megagram. The unit is in use for masses above about 103 kg and is often used with SI prefixes. Other units of mass are also in use, historical units include the stone, the pound, the carat, and the grain. For subatomic particles, physicists use the equivalent to the energy represented by an electronvolt. At the atomic level, chemists use the mass of one-twelfth of a carbon-12 atom, astronomers use the mass of the sun. Unlike other physical quantities, mass-energy does not have an a priori expected minimal quantity, as is the case with time or length, plancks law allows for the existence of photons with arbitrarily low energies. This series on orders of magnitude does not have a range of larger masses Mass units conversion calculator Mass units conversion calculator JavaScript

4.
Orders of magnitude (numbers)
–
This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities. Mathematics – Writing, Approximately 10−183,800 is a rough first estimate of the probability that a monkey, however, taking punctuation, capitalization, and spacing into account, the actual probability is far lower, around 10−360,783. Computing, The number 1×10−6176 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 6. 5×10−4966 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 3. 6×10−4951 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a 80-bit x86 double-extended IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−398 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 4. 9×10−324 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−101 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Mathematics, The probability in a game of bridge of all four players getting a complete suit is approximately 4. 47×10−28. ISO, yocto- ISO, zepto- Mathematics, The probability of matching 20 numbers for 20 in a game of keno is approximately 2.83 × 10−19. ISO, atto- Mathematics, The probability of rolling snake eyes 10 times in a row on a pair of dice is about 2. 74×10−16. ISO, micro- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 649,739 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 72,192 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a four of a kind in poker are 4,164 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.4 × 10−4. ISO, milli- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a full house in poker are 693 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10−3. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 507.8 to 1 against, Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a straight in poker are 253.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 4 × 10−3. Physics, α =0.007297352570, the fine-structure constant, ISO, deci- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt only one pair in poker are about 5 to 2 against, for a probability of 0.42. Demography, The population of Monowi, a village in Nebraska. Mathematics, √2 ≈1.414213562373095489, the ratio of the diagonal of a square to its side length. Mathematics, φ ≈1.618033988749895848, the golden ratio Mathematics, the number system understood by most computers, human scale, There are 10 digits on a pair of human hands, and 10 toes on a pair of human feet. Mathematics, The number system used in life, the decimal system, has 10 digits,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

5.
Orders of magnitude (power)
–
This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various sources of energy. They are grouped by orders of magnitude, and each section covers three orders of magnitude, or a factor of one thousand,1.64 × 10−27 watt – phys, approximate power of gravitational radiation emitted by a 1000 kg satellite in geosynchronous orbit around the Earth. ~10 zW – tech, approximate power of Galileo space probes radio signal as received on earth by a 70-meter DSN antenna,1 aW – phys, approximate power scale at which operation of nanoelectromechanical systems are overwhelmed by thermal fluctuations. 100 aW – tech, the GPS signal strength measured at the surface of the Earth, for reference, about 10,000 100-watt lightbulbs or 5,000 computer systems would be needed to draw 1 MW. Also,1 MW is approximately 1360 horsepower, modern high-power diesel-electric locomotives typically have a peak power of 3–5 MW, while a typical modern nuclear power plant produces on the order of 500–2000 MW peak output. 8.21 GW – tech, capacity of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant,73.1 GW - tech, total installed power capacity of Turkey on December 31,2015. 101.6 GW – tech, peak power consumption of France 166 GW – tech. 433 GW – tech, total installed wind turbine capacity at end of 2015,700 GW – biomed, humankind basal metabolic rate as of 2013. 2 TW – astro, approximate power generated between the surfaces of Jupiter and its moon Io due to Jupiters tremendous magnetic field,3.34 TW – geo, average total power consumption of the US in 200518. 1.1 PW – tech, worlds most powerful laser pulses by laser still in operation, ~2 X1.00 PW – tech, Omega EP laser power at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. There are two beams that are combined. 1.25 PW – tech, worlds most powerful laser pulses,1.4 PW – geo, estimated heat flux transported by the Gulf Stream. 4 PW – geo, estimated heat flux transported by Earths atmosphere. 5.13 PW – tech, worlds most powerful laser pulses, 10–100 PW geo, estimated total power output of a Type-I civilization on the Kardashev scale. Barty also gave a talk on Laser-Based Nuclear Photonics at the SPIE meeting. 135 ZW – astro, approximate luminosity of Wolf 359 10-100 YW – geo, estimated total power output of a Type-II civilization on the Kardashev scale

6.
Orders of magnitude (radiation)
–
Recognized effects of higher acute radiation doses are described in more detail in the article on radiation poisoning.01 mSv. Light radiation sickness begins at about 50–100 rad, the following table includes some dosages for comparison purposes, using millisieverts. Thus 100 mSv is considered twice in the table below – once as received over a 5-year period, the table describes doses and their official limits, rather than effects. Dose can be decreased down to 3 Gy through the use of a 10 gram/cm² alumunium shield

7.
Sound pressure
–
Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave. In air, sound pressure can be measured using a microphone, the SI unit of sound pressure is the pascal. A sound wave in a medium causes a deviation in the local ambient pressure. Sound pressure, denoted p, is defined by p t o t a l = p s t a t + p, in a sound wave, the complementary variable to sound pressure is the particle velocity. Together they determine the intensity of the wave. Sound intensity, denoted I and measured in W·m−2 in SI units, is defined by I = p v. Consequently, the amplitude of the displacement is related to that of the acoustic velocity. This relationship is an inverse-proportional law, if the sound pressure p1 is measured at a distance r1 from the centre of the sphere, the sound pressure p2 at another position r2 can be calculated, p 2 = r 1 r 2 p 1. The inverse-proportional law for sound pressure comes from the law for sound intensity. Indeed, I = p v = p ∝ p 2, the sound pressure may vary in direction from the centre of the sphere as well, so measurements at different angles may be necessary, depending on the situation. An obvious example of a sound source whose spherical sound wave varies in level in different directions is a bullhorn, Sound pressure level or acoustic pressure level is a logarithmic measure of the effective pressure of a sound relative to a reference value. The commonly used reference sound pressure in air is p 0 =20 μ P a, which is often considered as the threshold of human hearing. The proper notations for sound pressure level using this reference are Lp/ or Lp, most sound level measurements will be made relative to this reference, meaning 1 Pa will equal an SPL of 94 dB. In other media, such as underwater, a level of 1 μPa is used. These references are defined in ANSI S1. 1-1994, the lower limit of audibility is defined as SPL of 0 dB, but the upper limit is not as clearly defined. Ears detect changes in sound pressure, human hearing does not have a flat spectral sensitivity relative to frequency versus amplitude. Humans do not perceive low- and high-frequency sounds as well as they perceive sounds between 3,000 and 4,000 Hz, as shown in the equal-loudness contour. Because the frequency response of human hearing changes with amplitude, three weightings have been established for measuring pressure, A, B and C. A-weighting applies to sound pressures levels up to 55 dB, B-weighting applies to sound levels between 55 dB and 85 dB, and C-weighting is for measuring sound pressure levels above 85 dB

8.
Cosmic Voyage
–
Cosmic Voyage is a 1996 short documentary film produced in the IMAX format, directed by Bayley Silleck, produced by Jeffrey Marvin, and narrated by Morgan Freeman. The film was presented by the Smithsonian Institutions National Air and Space Museum, the film is available in the DVD format. Cosmic Voyage takes on a format as the National Film Board of Canadas Cosmic Zoom. All based on the book Cosmic View by Kees Boeke, the film takes viewers on a journey through forty-two orders of magnitude, beginning at a celebration in Italy to zoom to the edge of the observable universe. The view descends back to earth, and later zooms in upon a raindrop on a leaf, in addition, the film offers some brief insight on the Big Bang theory, black holes, and the development of our Solar System. It also simulates a journey through Fermilabs Tevatron particle accelerator in Chicago, Cosmic Voyage was nominated for a 1997 Academy Award under the category of Best Documentary Short Subject. Cosmic Voyage at the Internet Movie Database

9.
Power of 10
–
In mathematics, a power of 10 is any of the integer powers of the number ten, in other words, ten multiplied by itself a certain number of times. By definition, the one is a power of ten. The first few powers of ten are,1,10,100,1000,10000,100000,1000000,10000000. In decimal notation the nth power of ten is written as 1 followed by n zeroes and it can also be written as 10n or as 1En in E notation. See order of magnitude and orders of magnitude for named powers of ten, there are two conventions for naming positive powers of ten, called the long and short scales. Where a power of ten has different names in the two conventions, the long scale namme is shown in brackets, googolplex, a much larger power of ten, was also introduced in that book. Scientific notation is a way of writing numbers of very large, a number written in scientific notation has a significand multiplied by a power of ten. Sometimes written in the form, m × 10n Or more compactly as, where n is positive, this indicates the number zeros after the number, and where the n is negative, this indicates the number of decimal places before the number. As an example,105 =100,000 10−5 =0.00001 The notation of mEn, known as E notation, is used in programming, spreadsheets and databases. Power of two SI prefix Cosmic View, inspiration for the film Powers of Ten Video Powers of Ten, US Public Broadcasting Service, made by Charles and Ray Eames. Starting at a picnic by the lakeside in Chicago, this film transports the viewer to the edges of the universe. Every ten seconds we view the point from ten times farther out until our own galaxy is visible only as a speck of light among many others. Returning to Earth with breathtaking speed, we move inward - into the hand of the sleeping picnicker - with ten times more magnification every ten seconds and our journey ends inside a proton of a carbon atom within a DNA molecule in a white blood cell