Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser. Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine, which displays the same product's availability and pricing at different e-retailers; as of 2016, customers can shop online using a range of different computers and devices, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones. An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a regular "bricks-and-mortar" retailer or shopping center; when an online store is set up to enable businesses to buy from another businesses, the process is called business-to-business online shopping. A typical online store enables the customer to browse the firm's range of products and services, view photos or images of the products, along with information about the product specifications and prices.
Online stores enable shoppers to use "search" features to find specific models, brands or items. Online customers must have access to the Internet and a valid method of payment in order to complete a transaction, such as a credit card, an Interac-enabled debit card, or a service such as PayPal. For physical products, the e-tailer ships the products to the customer; the largest of these online retailing corporations are Alibaba, Amazon.com, eBay. Alternative names for the activity are "e-tailing", a shortened form of "electronic retail" or "e-shopping", a shortened form of "electronic shopping". An online store may be called an e-web-store, e-shop, e-store, Internet shop, web-shop, web-store, online store, online storefront and virtual store. Mobile commerce describes purchasing from an online retailer's mobile device-optimized website or software application; these websites or apps are designed to enable customers to browse through a companies' products and services on tablet computers and smartphones.
One of the earliest forms of trade conducted online was IBM's online transaction processing developed in the 1960s and it allowed the processing of financial transactions in real-time. The computerized ticket reservation system developed for American Airlines called Semi-Automatic Business Research Environment was one of its applications. Here, computer terminals located in different travel agencies were linked to a large IBM mainframe computer, which processed transactions and coordinated them so that all travel agents had access to the same information at the same time; the emergence of online shopping as we know today developed with the emergence of the Internet. This platform only functioned as an advertising tool for companies, providing information about its products, it moved on from this simple utility to actual online shopping transaction due to the development of interactive Web pages and secure transmissions. The growth of the internet as a secure shopping channel has developed since 1994, with the first sales of Sting album'Ten Summoner's Tales'.
Wine and flowers soon followed and were among the pioneering retail categories which fueled the growth of online shopping. Researchers found that having products that are appropriate for e-commerce was a key indicator of Internet success. Many of these products did well as they are generic products which shoppers did not need to touch and feel in order to buy, but importantly, in the early days, there were few shoppers online and they were from a narrow segment: affluent, male, 30+. Online shopping has come along way since these early days and -in the UK- accounts for significant percents; as the revenues from online sales continued to grow researchers identified different types of online shoppers, Rohm & Swaninathan identified four categories and named them "convenience shoppers, variety seekers, balanced buyers, store-oriented shoppers". They focused on shopping motivations and found that the variety of products available and the perceived convenience of the buying online experience were significant motivating factors.
This was different for offline shoppers, who were more motivated by time saving and recreational motives. Digital High Street 2020 English entrepreneur Michael Aldrich was a pioneer of online shopping in 1979, his system connected a modified domestic TV to a real-time transaction processing computer via a domestic telephone line. He believed that videotex, the modified domestic TV technology with a simple menu-driven human–computer interface, was a'new, universally applicable, participative communication medium — the first since the invention of the telephone.' This enabled'closed' corporate information systems to be opened to'outside' correspondents not just for transaction processing but for e-messaging and information retrieval and dissemination known as e-business. His definition of the new mass communications medium as'participative' was fundamentally different from the traditional definitions of mass communication and mass media and a precursor to the social networking on the Internet 25 years later.
In March 1980 he launched Redifon's Office Revolution, which allowed consumers, agents, distributors and service companies to be connected on-line to the corporate systems and allow business transactions to be completed electronically in real-time. During the 1980s he
Jeffrey Preston Bezos is an American technology entrepreneur and philanthropist. He is the founder, chairman, CEO, president of Amazon. Bezos was born in Albuquerque, New Mexico, raised in Houston, Texas, he graduated from Princeton University in 1986 with degrees in electrical engineering and computer science. He worked on Wall Street in a variety of related fields from 1986 to early 1994, he founded Amazon in late 1994 on a cross-country road trip from New York City to Seattle. The company began as an online bookstore and has expanded to a variety of products and services, including video and audio streaming, it is the world's largest online sales company, as well as the world's largest provider of cloud infrastructure services via its Amazon Web Services arm. Bezos added to his business interests when he founded aerospace company Blue Origin in 2000. A Blue Origin test flight first reached space in 2015, Blue has plans to begin commercial suborbital human spaceflight in 2019, he purchased The Washington Post in 2013 for US$250 million in cash.
Bezos manages other business investments through Bezos Expeditions. On July 27, 2017, he became the world's wealthiest person when his estimated net worth increased to just over $90 billion. Bezos's wealth surpassed $100 billion for the first time on November 24, 2017, he was formally designated the wealthiest person in the world by Forbes on March 6, 2018, with a net worth of $112 billion; the first centi-billionaire on the Forbes wealth index, he was named the "richest man in modern history" after his net worth increased to $150 billion in July 2018. Bezos was born Jeffrey Preston Jorgensen on January 12, 1964, in Albuquerque, New Mexico, the son of Jacklyn Gise Jorgensen and Chicago, native Ted Jorgensen. At the time of his birth, his mother was a 17-year-old high school student, his father was a bike shop owner. After Jacklyn divorced Ted, she married Cuban immigrant Miguel "Mike" Bezos in April 1968. Shortly after the wedding, Mike adopted four-year-old Jorgensen, whose surname was changed to Bezos.
The family moved to Houston, where Mike worked as an engineer for Exxon after he received a degree from the University of New Mexico. Bezos attended River Oaks Elementary School in Houston from fourth to sixth grade. Bezos is the maternal grandson of Lawrence Preston Gise, a regional director of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission in Albuquerque. Gise retired early to his family's ranch near Cotulla, where Bezos would spend many summers in his youth. Bezos would purchase this ranch and grow it from 25,000 acres to 300,000 acres, his maternal grandmother was Mattie Louise Gise, through whom he is a cousin of country singer George Strait. Bezos displayed scientific interests and technological proficiency; the family moved to Miami, where Bezos attended Miami Palmetto High School. While Bezos was in high school, he worked at McDonald's as a short-order line cook during the breakfast shift, he attended the Student Science Training Program at the University of Florida. He was high school valedictorian, a National Merit Scholar, a Silver Knight Award winner in 1982.
In 1986, he graduated from Princeton University with a 4.2 grade point average and Bachelor of Science degrees in electrical engineering and computer science and was a member of Phi Beta Kappa. While at Princeton, he was elected to Tau Beta Pi and was the president of the Princeton chapter of the Students for the Exploration and Development of Space. After Bezos graduated from Princeton in 1986, he was offered jobs at Intel, Bell Labs, Andersen Consulting, among others, he first worked at Fitel, a fintech telecommunications start-up, where he was tasked with building a network for international trade. Bezos was promoted to head of director of customer service thereafter, he transitioned into the banking industry. He joined D. E. Shaw & Co, a newly founded hedge fund, in 1990 and worked there until 1994. Bezos became D. E. Shaw's fourth senior vice-president at the age of 30. In late 1993, Bezos decided to start an online bookstore, he left his job at D. E. Shaw and founded Amazon in his garage on July 5, 1994, after writing its business plan on a trip from New York to Seattle.
Bezos named his new company Amazon after the Amazon River in South America, in part because the name begins with the letter A, at the beginning of the alphabet. He invested in Amazon, he warned many early investors that there was a 70 % chance that Amazon would go bankrupt. Although Amazon was an online bookstore, Bezos had always planned to expand to other products. Three years after Bezos founded Amazon, he took it public with an initial public offering. In response to critical reports from Fortune and Barron's, Bezos maintained that the growth of the internet would overtake competition from larger book retailers such as Borders and Barnes & Noble. In 1998, Bezos diversified into the online sale of video. Bezos used the $54 million raised during the company's 1997 equity offering to finance aggressive acquisition of smaller competitors. In 2002, Bezos led Amazon to launch Amazon Web Services, which compiled data from weather channels and website traffic. In late 2002, rapid spending from Amazon caused it financial distress.
In 2000, Bezos borrowed $2 billion from banks, as its ca
Bookselling is the commercial trading of books, the retail and distribution end of the publishing process. People who engage in bookselling are called bookwomen, or bookmen; the founding of libraries in 300 BC stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers. In Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library, Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade; the spread of Christianity created a great demand for copies of the Gospels, other sacred books, on for missals and other devotional volumes for both church and private use. The modern system of bookselling dates from soon after the introduction of printing. In the course of the 16th and 17th centuries the Low Countries for a time became the chief centre of the bookselling world. Modern book selling has changed with the advent of the Internet. With major websites such as Amazon, eBay, other big book distributors offering affiliate programs, book sales have now, more than been put in the hands of the small business owner.
Bookstores may be either part of local independent bookstores. Stores can range in size offering from several hundred to several hundred thousand titles, they may be a combination of both. Sizes for the larger bookstores exceed half a million titles. Bookstores sell other printed matter besides books, such as newspapers and maps. Colleges and universities have their own student bookstore on campus that focuses on providing course textbooks and scholarly books, although some on-campus bookstores are owned by large chains such as WHSmith or Waterstone's in the United Kingdom, or Barnes & Noble College Booksellers in the United States, a private firm controlled by the chair of Barnes & Noble. Another common type of bookstore is the used bookstore or second-hand bookshop which buys and sells used and out-of-print books in a variety of conditions. A range of titles are available including in print and out of print books. Book collectors tend to frequent used book stores. Large online bookstores offer used books for sale, too.
Individuals wishing to sell their used books using online bookstores agree to terms outlined by the bookstore: for example, paying the online bookstore a predetermined commission once the books have sold. In Paris, the Bouquinistes are antiquarian and used booksellers who have had outdoor stalls and boxes along both sides of the Seine for hundreds of years, regulated by law since the 1850s and contributing to the scenic ambience of the city. In the book of Jeremiah the prophet is represented as dictating to Baruch the scribe, who described the mode in which his book was written; these scribes were the earliest booksellers, supplied copies as they were demanded. Aristotle possessed a somewhat extensive library, Plato is recorded to have paid the large sum of one hundred minae for three small treatises of Philolaus the Pythagorean; when the Alexandrian library was founded about 300 BC, various expedients were used for the purpose of procuring books, this appears to have stimulated the energies of the Athenian booksellers.
In Rome, toward the end of the republic, it became the fashion to have a library as part of the household furniture. Roman booksellers carried on a flourishing trade, their shops were chiefly in the Argiletum, in the Vicus Sandalarius. On the door, or on the side posts, was a list of the books on sale. In the time of Augustus the great booksellers were the Sosii. According to Justinian, a law was passed granting to the scribes the ownership of the material written. Abbasid Caliphate in the east and Caliphate of Córdoba in the west, encouraged the development of bookshops and book dealers across the entire Muslim world, in Islāmic cities such as Damascus, Córdoba. According to Encyclopædia Britannica: There is a popular turn of phrase from the 1960s, "Books are written in Cairo, published in Beirut, read in Baghdad". One of the most famous and prestigious Arab publishers is Dar al-Asab; the first wave of French booksellers came soon after Johannes Gutenberg introduced his new printing technologies in Europe.
The oldest known bookstore still opened. Its owner in 1545 was Étienne Rouzeau, it now belongs to publisher Albin Michel. In 1810 Napoleon created a system by which, a would-be bookseller had to apply for a license, supply four references testifying to his morality, four confirmations of his professional ability to perform the job. All references had to be certified by the local mayor. If the application was accepted, the bookseller would have to swear an oath of loyalty to the régime; the application process was conducted to ensure that the new bookstore was not a place that distributed rebellious publications. The brevet process continued until 1870; the spread of Christianity created a great demand for copies of the Gospels, other sacred books, on for missals and other devotional volumes for both church and private use. Before the Reformation and the introduction of printing and stationers who sold books formed guilds; some of these stationers had stations built against the walls of cathedrals.
Besides the sworn stationers there were many booksellers in Oxford.
Twitch is a live streaming video platform owned by Twitch Interactive, a subsidiary of Amazon. Introduced in June 2011 as a spin-off of the general-interest streaming platform, Justin.tv, the site focuses on video game live streaming, including broadcasts of eSports competitions, in addition to music broadcasts, creative content, more "in real life" streams. Content on the site can be viewed either live or via video on demand; the popularity of Twitch eclipsed that of its general-interest counterpart. In October 2013, the website had 45 million unique viewers, by February 2014, it was considered the fourth largest source of peak Internet traffic in the United States. At the same time, Justin.tv's parent company was re-branded as Twitch Interactive to represent the shift in focus – Justin.tv was shut down in August 2014. That month, the service was acquired by Amazon for US$970 million, which led to the introduction of synergies with the company's subscription service Amazon Prime. Twitch acquired Curse, an operator of online video gaming communities and introduced means to purchase games through links on streams along with a program allowing streamers to receive commissions on the sales of games that they play.
By 2015, Twitch had 100 million viewers per month. As of Q3 2017, Twitch remained the leading live streaming video service for video games in the US, had an advantage over YouTube Gaming; as of May 2018, it had 2.2 million broadcasters monthly and 15 million daily active users, with around a million average concurrent users. Furthermore, it had over 27,000 Twitch partner channels; when Justin.tv was launched in 2007 by Justin Kan and Emmett Shear, the site was divided into several content categories. The gaming category grew fast, became the most popular content on the site. In June 2011, the company decided to spin off the gaming content as Twitch.tv, inspired by the term twitch gameplay. It launched in public beta on June 6, 2011. Since Twitch has attracted more than 35 million unique visitors a month. Twitch had about 80 employees in June 2013, which increased to 100 by December 2013; the company was headquartered in San Francisco's Financial District. Twitch has been supported by significant investments of venture capital, with US$15 million in 2012, US$20 million in 2013.
Investors during three rounds of fund raising leading up to the end of 2013 included Draper Associates, Bessemer Venture Partners and Thrive Capital. In addition to the influx of venture funding, it was believed in 2013 that the company had become profitable. Since the shutdown of its direct competitor Own3d.tv in early 2013, Twitch has become the most popular e-sports streaming service by a large margin, leading some to conclude that the website has a "near monopoly on the market". Competing video services, such as YouTube and Dailymotion, began to increase the prominence of their gaming content to compete, but have had a much smaller impact so far; as of mid-2013, there were over 43 million viewers on Twitch monthly, with the average viewer watching an hour and a half a day. As of February 2014, Twitch is the fourth largest source of Internet traffic during peak times in the United States, behind Netflix and Apple. Twitch makes up 1.8% of total US Internet traffic during peak periods. In late 2013 due to increasing viewership, Twitch had issues with lag and low frame rates in Europe.
Twitch has subsequently added new servers in the region. In order to address these problems, Twitch implemented a new video system shown to be more efficient than the previous system; the new video system was criticised by users because it caused a significant stream delay, interfering with broadcaster-viewer interaction. Twitch staff said that the increased delay was temporary and at the time, was an acceptable tradeoff for the decrease in buffering. On February 10, 2014, Twitch's parent company Justin.tv, Inc. was renamed Twitch Interactive, reflecting the increased prominence of the service over Justin.tv as the company's main business. That same month, a stream known as Twitch Plays Pokémon, a crowdsourced attempt to play Pokémon Red using a system translating chat commands into game controls, went viral. By February 17, the channel reached over 6.5 million total views and averaged concurrent viewership between 60 and 70 thousand viewers with at least 10% participating. Vice President of Marketing Matthew DiPietro praised the stream as "one more example of how video games have become a platform for entertainment and creativity that extends WAY beyond the original intent of the game creator.
By merging a video game, live video and a participatory experience, the broadcaster has created an entertainment hybrid custom made for the Twitch community. This is a wonderful proof of concept that we hope to see more of in the future." Beginning with its 2014 edition, Twitch was made the official live streaming platform of the Electronic Entertainment Expo. On May 18, 2014, Variety first reported that Google had reached a preliminary deal to acquire Twitch through its YouTube subsidiary for US$1 billion. On August 5, 2014, the original Justin.tv site ceased operations, citing a need to focus resources on Twitch. On August 6, 2014, Twitch introduced an updated archive system, with multi-platform access to highlights from past broadcasts by a channel, higher quality video, increased server backups, a new Video Manager interface for managing past broadcasts and compiling "highlights" from broadcasts that can be exported to YouTube. Due to technological limitations and resource requirements, the new system contained several regressions.
Ring Inc. is a home security company owned by Amazon. Ring's head office is in California with a secondary office in Kyiv, Ukraine. Ring was founded in 2013 as Doorbot by Jamie Siminoff. Doorbot was crowdfunded via Christie Street, raised US$364K, more than the $250k requested. In 2013, Siminoff appeared on Shark Tank, asking for $700,000 for his company, at the time called DoorBot, which he estimated was worth $7 million. Kevin O'Leary made an offer as a potential investor. After being on Shark Tank, Siminoff rebranded the company and it received $5 million in additional sales. In 2016, Ring inked a deal with Shaquille O'Neal, trading an equity stake in the company in exchange of TV and online commercials by the basketball celebrity. Since the company raised more than $200 million in investments and counts Kleiner Perkins Caufield Byers, Qualcomm Ventures, Goldman Sachs, DFJ Growth and Sir Richard Branson—founder of Virgin Group—as prominent investors. Ring was invested in by Amazon in February 2018 for an estimated value of between $1.2 billion and $1.8 billion.
The company's first product, released in 2013, was a doorbell with Internet connectivity, a high-definition camera, a motion detector. The Ring Video Doorbell is a smart doorbell device that allows users to monitor and operate their front and garage doors remotely; when the doorbell is pressed, the Ring application begins a VOIP video call to a connected device, so that the owner can see and speak to visitors. The product was developed by the software company Blue Trail Software. In 2017, Ring released its second version of the device, Ring Doorbell 2, with a rechargeable battery pack, night vision, a motion detector and microphone. Ring Neighborhoods is an additional security feature that helps non-video doorbell users monitor suspicious activity on their app. In 2015, Ring released the Stick-Up Cam which incorporated the same features as the doorbell but without the actual doorbell button. In 2016, the Ring Floodlight Cam was introduced with two 1100 lumen LED floodlights. In 2016, Ring partnered with Los Angeles Police Department and installed Ring Video Doorbells on 10 percent of homes in Wilshire Park, California.
The LAPD’s data showed that there was a 55 percent decrease in break-ins within the first six months of the doorbells being installed. In addition to break-in prevention, Ring products have been cited as aiding the police in identifying perpetrators. In July 2018, Ring launched an alarm security kit, which includes a keypad and motion sensors. At CES 2019, Ring announced a peephole camera
The Amazon Spheres are three spherical conservatories on the headquarters campus of Amazon in Seattle, United States. Designed by NBBJ and Landscape Architect Site Workshop, the three glass domes are covered in pentagonal hexecontahedron panels and serve as an employee lounge and workspace; the domes, which range from three to four stories tall, house 40,000 plants as well as meeting space and retail stores. They are located under the Day 1 building on Lenora Street; the complex opened to Amazon employees and limited public access on January 30, 2018. The spheres are reserved for Amazon employees, but are open to the public through weekly headquarters tours and an exhibit on the ground floor; the spheres are located along Lenora Street between 6th and 7th Avenues, under Day 1 in Amazon's Seattle headquarters campus. The three intersecting spherical domes range from 80 to 95 feet in height and take up half of a city block, they use over 2,600 panes of glass and 620 short tons of steel, arranged with five-sided panels of a pentagonal hexecontahedron.
The largest sphere, in the center, has 3,225 square feet of space. The stairwell shaft is covered by a four-story "living wall" with 25,000 plants, including carnivorous species from Asia; the spheres have meeting spaces and benches that can seat a total of 800 people. The complex, nicknamed "Bezos' balls", has become a recognizable landmark and tourist attraction for the Denny Triangle area since the beginning of its construction; the structure has been compared to the city's iconic Space Needle, built as a futuristic landmark for the Century 21 Exposition in 1962. It takes cues from biophilic design; the spheres have 40,000 plants from 50 countries and are divided into three areas, with the western and eastern domes segregated into the Old World and New World. The domes are kept at a temperature of 60 percent humidity during the daytime. Amazon employed a full-time horticulturalist to grow the building's 40,000 plants over a three-year period at a greenhouse in Redmond. Amazon donated space in the greenhouse to the University of Washington's botany program during renovation of their Life Sciences Building in 2016.
Among the 40 to 50 trees in the spheres, the largest is a 55-foot Ficus rubiginosa tree, nicknamed "Rubi", lifted into the spheres by a crane in June 2017. An Amorphophallus titanum corpse flower named "Morticia" bloomed for 48 hours in October 2018, attracting 5,000 visitors to the Spheres as Amazon opened the facility to public viewing for a limited time. Amazon began planning a large Seattle headquarters campus in the early 2010s, acquiring three blocks in the Denny Triangle area in 2012; the original design for the second tower included a six-story building with flexible workspaces and a meeting center, but was changed to a spherical conservatory. The revised design by NBBJ, in development since 2012, was unveiled in May 2013 to a mixed reaction from the city's project design review board. While hailed as a bold design, it was criticized for the lack of rain protection, public access, the amount of energy needed to climatize the facility. In August, NBBJ released an updated design that replaced the supporting steel structures under the glass with organic forms called "Catalan spheres".
The city's design review board approved the design in October 2013, after slight changes to the understructure were made. Construction on the spheres began in 2015, the first pieces of the steel structure were erected in February 2016; the steel was covered with glass panels that were installed beginning in April. The first plant, an Australian tree fern, was moved from the Redmond greenhouse and planted in May 2017; the spheres were dedicated on January 29, 2018, by Jeff Bezos, Mayor Jenny Durkan, County Executive Dow Constantine, Governor Jay Inslee. Bezos ceremonially opened the complex using an Alexa voice command, it opened to Amazon employees the following day, along with a public exhibit named the "Understory" below the spheres. Public access to the spheres is provided as part of weekly guided tours of the Amazon headquarters campus and a twice-monthly weekend reservation program. Official website
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma