Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features and phenomena of the Earth and planets. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes. Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of Earth and its human and natural complexities—not where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography is defined in terms of two branches: human geography and physical geography. Human geography deals with the study of people and their communities, cultures and interactions with the environment by studying their relations with and across space and place. Physical geography deals with the study of processes and patterns in the natural environment like the atmosphere, hydrosphere and geosphere; the four historical traditions in geographical research are: spatial analyses of natural and the human phenomena, area studies of places and regions, studies of human-land relationships, the Earth sciences. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical sciences".
Geography is a systematic study of its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with place names. Although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena and features as well as the interaction of humans and their environment; because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is interdisciplinary. The interdisciplinary nature of the geographical approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places...are not geography...know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself, constitute anyone a geographer. Geography has higher aims than this: it seeks to classify phenomena, to compare, to generalize, to ascend from effects to causes, and, in doing so, to trace out the laws of nature and to mark their influences upon man.
This is ` a description of the world' --. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause and effect. Just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography; the former focuses on the built environment and how humans create, view and influence space. The latter examines the natural environment, how organisms, soil and landforms produce and interact; the difference between these approaches led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography and concerns the interactions between the environment and humans. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science, it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns. Physical geography can be divided into many broad categories, including: Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape the human society.
It encompasses the human, cultural and economic aspects. Human geography can be divided into many broad categories, such as: Various approaches to the study of human geography have arisen through time and include: Behavioral geography Feminist geography Culture theory Geosophy Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world, it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological change, a new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: emergency management, environmental management and political ecology.
Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography. Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mid-1950s. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysis, geographic information systems, remote sensing, global positioning systems. Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the 1950s. Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements; the main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements. Attention is paid to regionalization, which covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Urban planning, regional planning, spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, so on.
The planning of towns, c
Arabic is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term used to describe peoples living in the area bounded by Mesopotamia in the east and the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, in the Sinai Peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, derived from Classical Arabic; as the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is taught in schools and universities, is used to varying degrees in workplaces and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic, the official language of 26 states, the liturgical language of the religion of Islam, since the Quran and Hadith were written in Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic, uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties.
Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era in modern times. Due to its grounding in Classical Arabic, Modern Standard Arabic is removed over a millennium from everyday speech, construed as a multitude of dialects of this language; these dialects and Modern Standard Arabic are described by some scholars as not mutually comprehensible. The former are acquired in families, while the latter is taught in formal education settings. However, there have been studies reporting some degree of comprehension of stories told in the standard variety among preschool-aged children; the relation between Modern Standard Arabic and these dialects is sometimes compared to that of Latin and vernaculars in medieval and early modern Europe. This view though does not take into account the widespread use of Modern Standard Arabic as a medium of audiovisual communication in today's mass media—a function Latin has never performed. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe in science and philosophy.
As a result, many European languages have borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence in vocabulary, is seen in European languages Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid-9th to mid-10th centuries. Many of these words relate to related activities; the Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history; some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Spanish, Kashmiri, Bosnian, Bengali, Malay, Indonesian, Punjabi, Assamese, Sindhi and Hausa, some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times.
Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims, Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by as many as 422 million speakers in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography. Arabic is a Central Semitic language related to the Northwest Semitic languages, the Ancient South Arabian languages, various other Semitic languages of Arabia such as Dadanitic; the Semitic languages changed a great deal between Proto-Semitic and the establishment of the Central Semitic languages in grammar. Innovations of the Central Semitic languages—all maintained in Arabic—include: The conversion of the suffix-conjugated stative formation into a past tense; the conversion of the prefix-conjugated preterite-tense formation into a present tense.
The elimination of other prefix-conjugated mood/aspect forms in favor of new moods formed by endings attached to the prefix-conjugation forms. The development of an internal passive. There are several features which Classical Arabic, the modern Arabic varieties, as well as the Safaitic and Hismaic inscriptions share which are unattested in any other Central Semitic language variety, including the Dadanitic and Taymanitic languages of the northern Hejaz; these features are evidence of common descent from Proto-Arabic. The following features can be reconstructed with confidence for Proto-Arabic: negative particles m *mā.
Ma Huan, courtesy name Zongdao, pen name Mountain-woodcutter, was a Chinese voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans. Ma was a Muslim and was born in Zhejiang's Kuaiji Commandery, an area within the modern borders of Shaoxing, he knew several Classical Buddhist texts. He learned Arabic to be able to translate. In the 1413 expedition, he visited Champa, Sumatra, Siam and Hormuz. In the 1421 expedition, he visited Malacca, Sumatra, Ceylon, Calicut and Hormuz. In the 1431 expedition, he visited Bengal, Sonargaon and Calicut. From Calicut, he was sent by Eununch Hong Bao as emissary to Mecca. During his expeditions, Ma Huan took notes about the geography, weather conditions, economy, local customs method of punishment for criminals. Returned home on his first expedition, he began writing a book about his expedition, the first draft of, ready around 1416, he expanded and modified his draft during expeditions, the final version was ready around 1451.
The title of his book was Yingya Shenglan. During the Ming dynasty and Qing dynasty, there were many handcopied editions; the latest authentic text of a printed version was annotated by historian Feng Chengjun. A newer edition, based on Ming dynasty handcopied editions, was published by Ocean Publishing House in China. An annotated English translation by J. V. G. Mills was published by the Hakluyt Society in 1970, reprinted in 1997 by The White Lotus Press in Bangkok. Mills's translation was based on the edition by Feng Cheng jun; the Yingya Shenglan is considered by sinologists worldwide as a primary source for the history of Ming dynasty naval exploration, history of South East Asia and history of India. Some scholars who have done research work on Ma Huan are J. J. L. Duyvendak, F. Hirth, Paul Pelliot, Feng Chengjun, Xiang Da, J. V. G. Mills. Fei Xin, another participants of Zheng He's expeditions who wrote a book The "Mao Kun map" in Wubei Zhi Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores 1433 by Ma Huan, translated by J.
V. G. Mills, with foreword and preface, Hakluty Society, London 1970; when Asia was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars and Monks who created the "Riches of the East" Da Capo Press, Perseus Books, 2008. ISBN 0-306-81556-7. J. V. G. Mills. Ma Huan: Ying-yai sheng-lan ‘The overall survey of the ocean's shores’, translated from the Chinese text edited by Feng Ch'eng-chün. Cambridge University Press
Ibn Sa'id al-Maghribi
Abū al-Ḥasan ʿAlī ibn Mūsā ibn Saʿīd al-Maghribī known as Ibn Saʿīd al-Andalusī, was an Arab geographer, historian and the most important collector of poetry from al-Andalus in the 12th and 13th centuries. Ibn Said was born at Alcalá la Real near Granada to a prominent family, descended from the Companion of the Prophet Ammar ibn Yasir. Many of his family members were literary figures, grew up in Marrakesh, he subsequently studied in Seville and stayed in Tunis, Cairo and Aleppo. At the age of 30, he undertook a pilgrimage to Mecca, he was a close friend of the Muladi poet Ibn Mokond Al-Lishboni. His last years were spent in Tunis, he died there in 1286. Ibn Said al-Maghribi wrote or compiled'at least forty works on various branches of knowledge'. Ibn Said's best known achievement was the completion of the fifteen-volume al-Mughrib fī ḥulā l-Maghrib, started over a century before by Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥijārī at the behest of Ibn Said's great-grandfather ‘Abd al-Malik. Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥijārī completed 6 volumes, ‘Abd al-Malik added to them.
The work is known as the Kitāb al-Mughrib, is midway between an anthology of poetry and a geography, collecting information on the poets of Maghreb organized by geographical origin. Part of the Mughrib circulated separately as Rāyāt al-mubarrizīn wa-ghāyāt al-mumayyazīn, which Ibn Said compiled in Cairo, completing it on 21 June 1243, it is, in the words of Louis Cromption,'perhaps the most important' of the various medieval Andalucian poetry anthologies.'His aim in compiling the collection seems to have been to show that poetry produced in the West was as good as anything the East had to offer'. As an indefatigable traveller, Ibn Said was profoundly interested in geography. In 1250 he wrote his Kitab bast al- ard fi't -t ul wa-'l-'ard, his Kitab al-Jughrafiya embodies the experience of his extensive travels through the Muslim world and on the shores of the Indian Ocean. He gives an account of parts of northern Europe including Ireland and Iceland, he visited Armenia and was at the Court of Hulagu Khan from 1256 to 1265.
An example of Ibn Sa'id's own poems, which he included in the Rāyāt al-mubarrizīn wa-ghāyāt al-mumayyazīn, is "Black horse with a white chest", here from Cola Franzen's translation into English of Gómez's 1930 Spanish translation: Black hindquarters, white chest: he flies on the wings of the wind. When you look at him you see dark night giving way to dawn. Sons of Shem and Ham live harmoniously in him, take no care for the words of would-be troublemakers. Men's eyes light up when they see reflected in his beauty the clear strong black and white of the eyes of beautiful women. Geographia, in Arabic Excerpt from the Book of the Maghrib, in English Ali Ibn Musa Ibn Said al-Magribi und sein Werk al-Gusun al-yaniafi mahasin su ara al-miça as-sabia by M. Kropp, in: Islam Berlin, 1980, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 68–96 His history of the world and Islamic literature: ms. Escorial 1728. Edition by Ibrahim al-Ibyari, Cairo 1968 Arberry, A. J.. Moorish poetry: a translation of the pennants, an anthology compiled in 1243 by the andalusian ibn sa'id.
Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 978-0-7007-1428-5; the Banners of the Champions of Ibn Said al-Maghribi, translated by James Bellamy and Patricia Steiner
Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī, known as Al-Biruni in English, was an Iranian scholar and polymath. He was from Khwarazm – a region which encompasses modern-day western Uzbekistan, northern Turkmenistan. Biruni is regarded as one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era and was well versed in physics, mathematics and natural sciences, distinguished himself as a historian and linguist, he studied all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings, he lived during the Islamic Golden Age, in which scholarly thought went hand in hand with the thinking and methodology of the Islamic religion. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy, he was conversant in Khwarezmian, Arabic and knew Greek and Syriac. He spent much of his life in Ghazni capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty, in modern-day central-eastern Afghanistan.
In 1017 he travelled to South Asia and authored a study of Indian culture after exploring the Hinduism practised in India. He was given the title "founder of Indology", he was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, was given the title al-Ustadh for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India. He was born in the outer district of the capital of the Afrighid dynasty of Khwarezm. To conduct research, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields. Many consider Al-Biruni one of the greatest scientists in history, of Islam because of his discoveries and methodology, he lived during the Islamic Golden Age, which promoted astronomy and encouraged all scholars to work on their research. Al-Biruni spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Khwarezm where he studied Islamic jurisprudence, grammar, astronomy, medicine and dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well; the Iranian Khwarezmian language, the language of Biruni, survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuum.
He was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids in 995. He left his homeland for Bukhara under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh. There he corresponded with Avicenna and there are extant exchanges of views between these two scholars. In 998, he went to the court of the Ziyarid amir of Tabaristan, Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir. There he wrote his first important work, al-Athar al-Baqqiya'an al-Qorun al-Khaliyya on historical and scientific chronology around 1000 A. D. though he made some amendments to the book. He visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who ruled Khwarezm, their court at Gorganj was gaining fame for its gathering of brilliant scientists. In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years.
He was forty-four years old. Biruni became acquainted with all things related to India, he may have learned some Sanskrit. During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around 1030. Along with his writing, Al-Biruni made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions, he sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, created an early version of an astrolabe for that purpose. Al-Biruni was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India. Ninety-five of 146 books known to have been written by Bīrūnī were devoted to astronomy and related subjects like mathematical geography, his religion contributed to his research of astronomy, as in Islam and prayer require knowing the precise directions of sacred locations, which can only be found using astronomical data. Biruni's major work on astrology is an astronomical and mathematical text, only the last chapter concerns astrological prognostication, his endorsement of astrology is limited, in so far as he condemns horary astrology as'sorcery'.
In discussing speculation by other Muslim writers on the possible motion of the Earth, Biruni acknowledged that he could neither prove nor disprove it, but commented favourably on the idea that the Earth rotates. He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy in the Tahqiq ma li-l-hind translation of Aryabhatta's work, in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth's rotation in a work on astronomy, no longer extant, his Miftah-ilm-alhai'a: he rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. There
Zheng He was a Chinese mariner, diplomat, fleet admiral, court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty. He was born as Ma He in a Muslim family, adopted the conferred surname Zheng from Emperor Yongle. Zheng commanded expeditionary treasure voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, East Africa from 1405 to 1433, his larger ships stretched 120 meters or more in length and carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks. As a favorite of the Yongle Emperor, whose usurpation he assisted, Zheng rose to the top of the imperial hierarchy and served as commander of the southern capital Nanjing, his voyages were long neglected in official Chinese histories but have become well known in China and abroad since the publication of Liang Qichao's Biography of Our Homeland's Great Navigator, Zheng He in 1904. A trilingual stele left by the navigator was discovered on the island of Ceylon shortly thereafter. Zheng He was born Ma He to a Muslim family of Kunyang, Yunnan, China, he had four sisters.
Ma He's religious beliefs became eclectic in his adulthood. The Liujiagang and Changle inscriptions suggest that Zheng He's devotion to Tianfei was the dominant faith to which he adhered, reflecting the goddess' central role to the treasure fleet. John Guy mentions, "When Zheng He, the Muslim eunuch leader of the great expeditions to the'Western Ocean' in the early fifteenth century, embarked on his voyages, it was from the Divine Woman that he sought protection, as well as at the tombs of the Muslim saints on Lingshan Hill, above the city of Quanzhou."Zheng He was a great-great-great-grandson of Sayyid Ajjal Shams al-Din Omar, who served in the administration of the Mongol Empire and was the governor of Yunnan during the early Yuan dynasty. His great-grandfather may have been stationed at a Mongol garrison in Yunnan. Zheng He's grandfather carried the title hajji, while his father had the sinicized surname Ma and the title hajji, which suggests that they had made the pilgrimage to Mecca. Peterson suggests that the Hajji of both his father and grandfather indicated that Zheng He may have had Mongol-Arab ancestry and that he could speak Arabic.
In the autumn of 1381, a Ming army invaded and conquered Yunnan, ruled by the Mongol prince Basalawarmi, Prince of Liang. In 1381, Ma Haji died in the fighting between the Ming armies and Mongol forces. Dreyer states that Zheng He's father died at age 39 while resisting the Ming conquest, while Levathes states Zheng He's father died at age 37, but it is unclear if he was helping the Mongol army or just caught in the onslaught of battle. Wenming, the oldest son, buried their father outside of Kunming. In his capacity as Admiral, Zheng He had an epitaph engraved in honor of his father, composed by the Minister of Rites Li Zhigang on the Duanwu Festival of the 3rd year in the Yongle era. Zheng He was captured by the Ming armies at Yunnan in 1381. General Fu Youde saw Ma He on a road and approached him in order to inquire about the location of the Mongol pretender. Ma He responded defiantly by saying. Afterwards, the general took him prisoner. One source states that he was castrated at the age of 10 and was placed in the service of the Prince of Yan, while another source indicates that the castration occurred in 1385.
Ma He was sent to serve in the household of Zhu Di, the Prince of Yan, who became the Yongle Emperor. Zhu Di was eleven years older than Ma. While enslaved as a eunuch servant, Ma He gained the confidence of Zhu Di, while Zhu Di as his benefactor would gain the allegiance and loyalty of the young eunuch. Since 1380, the prince had been governing Beiping,which was located near the northern frontier where the hostile Mongol tribes were situated. Ma would spend his early life as a soldier on the northern frontier, he participated in Zhu Di's military campaigns against the Mongols. On 2 March 1390, Ma accompanied the Prince when he commanded his first expedition, a great victory as the Mongol commander Naghachu surrendered as soon as he realized he had fallen for a deception, he would gain the confidence and trust of the prince. Ma was known as "sān bǎo" during the time of service in the household of the Prince of Yan; this name was a reference to the Three Jewels in Buddhism. There is a document saying his name could be 三保.
Ma received a proper education while at Beiping, which he would not have had if he had been placed in the imperial capital Nanjing, as the Hongwu Emperor did not trust eunuchs and believed that it was better to keep them illiterate. Meanwhile, the Hongwu Emperor purged and exterminated many of the original Ming leadership and gave his enfeoffed sons more military authority those in the north like the Prince of Yan. Ma He's appearance as an adult was recorded: he was seven chi tall, had a waist, five chi in circumference, cheeks and a forehead, high, a small nose, glaring eyes, teeth that were white and well-shaped as shells, a voice, as loud as a bell, it is recorded that he had great knowledge about warfare and was well-accustomed to battle. The young eunuch became a trusted adviser to the prince and assisted him when the Jianwen Emperor's hostility to his uncle's feudal bases prompted the 1399–1402 Jingnan Campaign which ended with the emperor's apparent death and the ascension of the Zhu Di, Prince of Yan, as the Yongle Emperor.
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi
Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī Latinized as Algorithmi, was a Persian scholar who produced works in mathematics and geography under the patronage of the Caliph Al-Ma'mun of the Abbasid Caliphate. Around 820 AD he was appointed as the astronomer and head of the library of the House of Wisdom in Baghdad. Al-Khwarizmi's popularizing treatise on algebra presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations. One of his principal achievements in algebra was his demonstration of how to solve quadratic equations by completing the square, for which he provided geometric justifications; because he was the first to treat algebra as an independent discipline and introduced the methods of "reduction" and "balancing", he has been described as the father or founder of algebra. The term algebra itself comes from the title of his book, his name gave rise to the terms algorithm. His name is the origin of guarismo and of algarismo, both meaning digit. In the 12th century, Latin translations of his textbook on arithmetic which codified the various Indian numerals, introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.
The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, translated into Latin by Robert of Chester in 1145, was used until the sixteenth century as the principal mathematical text-book of European universities. In addition to his best-known works, he revised Ptolemy's Geography, listing the longitudes and latitudes of various cities and localities, he further produced a set of astronomical tables and wrote about calendaric works, as well as the astrolabe and the sundial. Few details of al-Khwārizmī's life are known with certainty, he was born into a Persian family and Ibn al-Nadim gives his birthplace as Khwarezm in Greater Khorasan. Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari gives his name as Muḥammad ibn Musá al-Khwārizmiyy al-Majūsiyy al-Quṭrubbaliyy; the epithet al-Qutrubbulli could indicate he might instead have come from Qutrubbul, a viticulture district near Baghdad. However, Rashed suggests: There is no need to be an expert on the period or a philologist to see that al-Tabari's second citation should read "Muhammad ibn Mūsa al-Khwārizmī and al-Majūsi al-Qutrubbulli," and that there are two people between whom the letter wa has been omitted in an early copy.
This would not be worth mentioning if a series of errors concerning the personality of al-Khwārizmī even the origins of his knowledge, had not been made. G. J. Toomer... with naive confidence constructed an entire fantasy on the error which cannot be denied the merit of amusing the reader. Regarding al-Khwārizmī's religion, Toomer writes: Another epithet given to him by al-Ṭabarī, "al-Majūsī," would seem to indicate that he was an adherent of the old Zoroastrian religion; this would still have been possible at that time for a man of Iranian origin, but the pious preface to al-Khwārizmī's Algebra shows that he was an orthodox Muslim, so al-Ṭabarī's epithet could mean no more than that his forebears, he in his youth, had been Zoroastrians. Ibn al-Nadīm's Kitāb al-Fihrist includes a short biography on al-Khwārizmī together with a list of the books he wrote. Al-Khwārizmī accomplished most of his work in the period between 813 and 833. After the Muslim conquest of Persia, Baghdad became the centre of scientific studies and trade, many merchants and scientists from as far as China and India traveled to this city, as did al-Khwārizmī.
He worked in Baghdad as a scholar at the House of Wisdom established by Caliph al-Ma’mūn, where he studied the sciences and mathematics, which included the translation of Greek and Sanskrit scientific manuscripts. Douglas Morton Dunlop suggests that it may have been possible that Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī was in fact the same person as Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir, the eldest of the three Banū Mūsā. Al-Khwārizmī's contributions to mathematics, geography and cartography established the basis for innovation in algebra and trigonometry, his systematic approach to solving linear and quadratic equations led to algebra, a word derived from the title of his book on the subject, "The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing". On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals written about 820, was principally responsible for spreading the Hindu–Arabic numeral system throughout the Middle East and Europe, it was translated into Latin as Algoritmi de numero Indorum. Al-Khwārizmī, rendered as Algoritmi, led to the term "algorithm".
Some of his work was based on Persian and Babylonian astronomy, Indian numbers, Greek mathematics. Al-Khwārizmī corrected Ptolemy's data for Africa and the Middle East. Another major book was Kitab surat al-ard, presenting the coordinates of places based on those in the Geography of Ptolemy but with improved values for the Mediterranean Sea and Africa, he wrote on mechanical devices like the astrolabe and sundial. He assisted a project to determine the circumference of the Earth and in making a world map for al-Ma'mun, the caliph, overseeing 70 geographers. When, in the 12th century, his works spread to Europe through Latin translations, it had a profound impact on the advance of mathematics in