Morgan Murphy (food critic)
Morgan Murphy is an American Southern food critic, humorist and Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy Reserve. Murphy began his career at Vanity Fair; as a reporter for Forbes under Jim Michaels, Murphy served as the magazine's food critic, travel editor, national spokesman. He has appeared on the Travel Channel's American Grilled, the Today Show, Fox & Friends, Fox News, CNN, Sirius XM, Food Talk, Car Talk, NPR, the Speed Channel, QVC. Murphy joined the United States Naval Reserve in 1999, has since served on four continents. In 2010, Murphy was called to Afghanistan, where he served in Operation Enduring Freedom as the Director of Media Outreach for the International Security Assistance Force and briefed General David R. Petraeus, 40 general officers, two ambassadors on a daily basis; as of December 2010, he held the rank of Lieutenant Commander and had served in Morocco and South Korea. He has been awarded the NATO Freedom Medal, Afghanistan Campaign Medal, Defense Meritorious Service Medal Navy Achievement Medal, National Defense Service Medal, Global War on Terrorism Medal, Overseas Service Ribbon, Outstanding Volunteer Service Medal.
In November 2012, he was assigned to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Murphy's first book, I Love You – Now Hush, co-authored with author Melinda Rainey Thompson and released in 2010, was named the gold humor book of the year by the American Library Association. Murphy's cookbook Off the Eaten Path: Favorite Southern Dives and 150 Recipes that Made Them Famous is a collection of his favorite restaurants and their most famous recipes from the American South. A sequel Off the Eaten Path: Second Helpings: Tasty eats and delicious stories from the South's less-traveled trails followed in 2013, In 2014 he published Bourbon & Bacon: The Ultimate Guide to the South's Favorite Food Groups, featuring recipes using bourbon, bacon, or a combination of the two; the book includes a history of tasting notes for 75 of his favorite whiskies. In 2015, he published Off the Eaten Path: On the Road Again: More Unforgettable Foods and Characters from the South's Back Roads and Byways, a third entry in his "Off the Eaten Path" series.
Murphy is a classic car enthusiast with a special focus on vintage Cadillacs. In 2005, Murphy discovered "The Duchess" – a 1941 Cadillac limousine created for the abdicated king Edward VIII and his consort Wallis Simpson – in a barn in Fort Worth, Texas; the car was a one-of-a-kind creation by General Motors' chief designer Harley Earl, under the direction of the company's chairman and chief executive officer, Alfred P. Sloan; when Murphy purchased the car, it was in disrepair and its provenance was unproven. Murphy conducted a three-year restoration effort, in November 2013, he offered the car for sale through an RM Auctions and Sotheby's "Art of the Automobile" sale; the auction houses called it "one of the most famous and iconic cars of both American and English society", suggested the car should sell for between $500,000 and $800,000. In 2007, Murphy left Southern Living and founded Motorpool.com, claimed to be the world's first social network for classic car enthusiasts. The launch was backed by more than $1 million in venture capital.
In late 2010, Murphy had toured the country in a vintage Cadillac to promote the site's launch. However, as of March 2015, the Motorpool.com domain name was no longer operating as a distinct website and was a redirect to Murphy's personal site. Murphy was born in Mountain Brook and grew up in Birmingham, where he resides, he received a Bachelor's degree in 1994 from Birmingham-Southern College. He received an MBA from the University of Oxford, where he was a member of Exeter College and was elected by the university as its "MBA of the Year". Official website of Morgan Murphy Morgan Murphy on IMDb Morgan Murphy on Amazon
Kentucky the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Although styled as the "State of Kentucky" in the law creating it, Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth. A part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 26th most populous of the 50 United States. Kentucky is known as the "Bluegrass State", a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the major regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky, which houses two of its major cities and Lexington, it is a land with diverse environments and abundant resources, including the world's longest cave system, Mammoth Cave National Park, the greatest length of navigable waterways and streams in the contiguous United States, the two largest man-made lakes east of the Mississippi River. Kentucky is known for horse racing, bourbon distilleries, coal, the "My Old Kentucky Home" historic state park, automobile manufacturing, bluegrass music, college basketball, Kentucky Fried Chicken.
In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, named for the Kentucky River. The precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but based on an Iroquoian name meaning " the meadow" or " the prairie". Others have put forth the possibility of Kenta Aki, which would come from Algonquian language and, would have derived from the Shawnees. Folk etymology states that this translates as "Land of Our Fathers." The closest approximation in another Algonquian language, Ojibwe translates it more-so to "Land of Our In-Laws", thus making a fairer English translation "The Land of Those Who Became Our Fathers." In any case, the word aki comes out as land in all Algonquian languages. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South. A significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Southeast. West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more. Kentucky's northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. However, the official border is based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792. For instance, northbound travelers on U. S. 41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a thoroughbred racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the only land border between Kentucky. Kentucky has a non-contiguous part known at the far west corner of the state, it exists as an exclave surrounded by Missouri and Tennessee, is included in the boundaries of Fulton County. Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee; the epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area causing the river to flow backwards in some places. Though the series of quakes did change the area geologically and affect the inhabitants of the area at the time, the Kentucky Bend was formed because of a surveying error, not the New Madrid earthquake.
Kentucky can be divided into five primary regions: the Cumberland Plateau in the east, the north-central Bluegrass region, the south-central and western Pennyroyal Plateau, the Western Coal Fields and the far-west Jackson Purchase. The Bluegrass region is divided into two regions, the Inner Bluegrass—the encircling 90 miles around Lexington—and the Outer Bluegrass—the region that contains most of the northern portion of the state, above the Knobs. Much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and narrow hills; the Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps. Located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate, only small higher areas of the southeast of the state has an oceanic climate influenced by the Appalachians. Temperatures in Kentucky range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the winter low of 23 °F; the average precipitation is 46 inches a year.
Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28, 1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19, 1994, it has four distinct seasons, but experiences the extreme cold as far northern states, nor the high heat of the states in the Deep South. Temperatures seldom drop below 0 degrees or rise above 100 degrees. Rain and snowfall totals about 45 inches per year. There are big variations in climate within the state; the northern parts tend to be about 5 degrees cooler than those in western parts of the state. Somerset in the south-central part receives 10 more inches of rain per year than, for instance, Covington to the north. Average temperatures for the entire Commonwe
Small batch whiskey
Small batch whiskey is whiskey produced by mixing the contents of a small number of selected barrels. Small batch whiskeys are commercially positioned for the upper-premium market; the term is most used for American whiskey but is sometimes used for other whiskeys as well. For example, the Bowmore distillery in Islay, has produced a single malt Scotch whisky labeled as "small batch". American small batch whiskeys are aged from six to nine years in oak barrels, but more limited series that are aged up to 23 years are available. There are no clear criteria as to what defines a "small batch". For example, there are no federal regulations. Many producers of whiskeys labeled as such do not provide a clear indication of what they mean by the term. Small batch whiskey should not be confused with pot still distilling, common for malt whiskey in Scotland and Ireland; the vast majority – and all major brands – of American whiskeys are produced from continuous column stills known as a Coffey still. George Dickel uses "approximately 10 barrels" of whiskey to make each batch of its Barrel Select Tennessee Whiskey brand.
Willett Distillery, a producer of bourbon and rye whiskey, uses at most 12 barrels per batch for its small batch brands. Jefferson's Bourbon has a Jefferson's Reserve expression that gives its 750 ml bottles a number "x" out of 2,400 bottles in the batch. Assuming the angel's share and other losses amount to about 40%, this number of bottles equates to about 15 typical bourbon barrels per batch, each 53 US gallons in size. Maker's Mark bourbon says the traditional definition is a whiskey produced using "approximately 1,000 gallons or less from a mash bill of around 200 bushels of grain". Bernheim Original wheat whiskey says that a small batch would involve "typically no more than 100" barrels. Elijah Craig bourbon has a brand expression that it describes on its label as "a true'Small Batch' Bourbon before the term existed", produced with "200 barrels or less"; the batch size for the brand was increased from 100 to 200 barrels in January 2016 when the brand expression's 12-year age statement was dropped.
Brands and brand expressions that are advertised as small batch bourbon whiskey include 1792 Bourbon, Basil Hayden's, Maker's Mark, Rowan's Creek. Brands and brand expressions that are advertised as small batch Tennessee whiskey include Dickel Barrel Select. Brands and brand expressions advertised as small batch rye whiskey include Rebel Yell Small Batch Rye. Bottled in bond Single barrel whiskey Single malt whisky
Alcohol proof is a measure of the content of ethanol in an alcoholic beverage. The term was used in the United Kingdom and was equal to about 1.821 times the alcohol by volume. The UK now uses the ABV standard instead of alcohol proof. In the United States, alcohol proof is defined as twice the percentage of ABV; the measurement of alcohol content and the statement of content on bottles of alcoholic beverages is regulated by law in many countries. The term proof dates back to 16th century England, when spirits were taxed at different rates depending on their alcohol content. Spirits were tested by soaking a pellet of gunpowder in them. If the gunpowder could still burn, the spirits were taxed at a higher rate; as gunpowder would not burn if soaked in rum that contained less than 57.15% ABV, rum that contained this percentage of alcohol was defined as having 100 degrees proof. The gunpowder test was replaced by a specific gravity test in 1816. From the 19th century until 1 January 1980, the UK measured alcohol content by proof spirit, defined as spirit with a gravity of 12⁄13 that of water, or 923 kg/m3, equivalent to 57.15% ABV.
The value 57.15% is close to the fraction 4⁄7 ≈ 0.5714. This led to the definition that 100° proof spirit has an ABV of 4⁄7. From this it follows that, to convert the ABV expressed as a percentage to degrees proof, it is only necessary to multiply the ABV by 7⁄4, thus pure 100% alcohol will have 100× = 175° proof, a spirit containing 40% ABV will have 40× = 70° proof. The proof system in the United States was established around 1848 and was based on percent alcohol rather than specific gravity. 50% alcohol by volume was defined as 100 proof. Note that this is different from 50% volume fraction; the latter does not take into account change in volume on mixing. To make 50% ABV from pure alcohol, one would take 50 parts of alcohol and dilute to 100 parts of solution with water, all the while mixing the solution. To make 50% alcohol by volume fraction, one would take 50 parts alcohol and 50 parts water, measured separately, mix them together; the resulting volume will not be 100 parts, but between 96 and 97 parts, since the smaller water molecules can take up some of the space between the larger alcohol molecules.
The use of proof as a measure of alcohol content is now historical. Today, liquor is sold in most locations with labels that state its alcohol content as a percentage of alcohol by volume; the European Union follows recommendations of the International Organization of Legal Metrology. OIML's International Recommendation No. 22 provides standards for measuring alcohol strength by volume and by mass. A preference for one method over the other is not stated in the document, but if alcohol strength by volume is used, it must be expressed as a percentage of total volume, the water/alcohol mixture must have a temperature of 20 °C when measurement is done; the document does not address the labeling of bottles. Since 1 January 1980, the United Kingdom has used the ABV standard to measure alcohol content, as prescribed by the European Union. In common with other EU countries, on 1 January, 1980, Britain adopted the system of measurement recommended by the International Organisation of Legal Metrology, a body with most major nations among its members.
The OIML system measures alcohol strength as a percentage of alcohol by volume at a temperature of 20 °C. It replaced the Sikes system of measuring the proof strength of spirits, used in Britain for over 160 years. Britain, which used to use the Sikes scale to display proof, now uses the European scale set down by the International Organization of Legal Metrology; this scale, for all intents and purposes the same as the Gay-Lussac scale used by much of mainland Europe, was adopted by all the countries in the European Community in 1980. Using the OIML scale or the GL scale is the same as measuring alcohol by volume except that the figures in the latter case are expressed in degrees, not percentages and measured at a temperature of 15 °C. In the United States, alcohol content is measured in terms of the percentage of alcohol by volume; the Code of Federal Regulations requires that liquor labels must state the percentage of ABV. The regulation permits, but does not require, a statement of the proof provided that it is printed close to the ABV number.
For bottled spirits over 100 mL containing no solids, actual alcohol content is allowed to vary within 0.15% of ABV stated on the label. Alcohol proof in the United States is defined as twice the percentage of alcohol by volume. 100-proof whiskey contains 50% alcohol by volume. In the United States the term "degrees proof" is not used. For example, 50% ABV would be described as "100 proof" rather than "100 degrees proof". Canada labels by percentage of alcohol by volume; the old UK proof standard was still in use as late as 1972. Alcohol by volume Cask strength Gravity Volume percent
Alcohol by volume
Alcohol by volume is a standard measure of how much alcohol is contained in a given volume of an alcoholic beverage. It is defined as the number of millilitres of pure ethanol present in 100 mL of solution at 20 °C; the number of millilitres of pure ethanol is the mass of the ethanol divided by its density at 20 °C, 0.78924 g/mL. The ABV standard is used worldwide; the International Organization of Legal Metrology has tables of density of water–ethanol mixtures at different concentrations and temperatures. In some countries, e.g. France, alcohol by volume is referred to as degrees Gay-Lussac, although there is a slight difference since the Gay-Lussac convention uses the International Standard Atmosphere value for temperature, 15 °C. Mixing two solutions of alcohol of different strengths causes a change in volume. Mixing pure water with a solution less than 24% by mass causes a slight increase in total volume, whereas the mixing of two solutions above 24% causes a decrease in volume; the phenomenon of volume changes due to mixing dissimilar solutions is called "partial molar volume".
Water and ethanol are both polar solvents. When water is added to ethanol, the smaller water molecules are attracted to the ethanol's hydroxyl group, each molecule alters the polarity field of the other; the attraction allows closer spacing between molecules than is found in non-polar mixtures. Thus, ABV is not the same. Volume fraction, used in chemistry, is defined as the volume of a particular component divided by the sum of all components in the mixture when they are measured separately. To make a 50% v/v ethanol solution, for example, you would measure 50 mL of ethanol and separately measure 50 mL of water mix the two together; the resulting volume of solution will not measure 100 mL due to the change of volume on mixing. Details about typical amounts of alcohol contained in various beverages can be found in the articles about them. Another way of specifying the amount of alcohol is alcohol proof, which in the United States is twice the alcohol-by-volume number; this may lead to confusion over similar products bought in varying regions that have different names on country specific labels.
For example, Stroh rum, 80% ABV is advertised and labeled as Stroh 80 when sold in Europe, but is named Stroh 160 when sold in the United States. In the United Kingdom proof is 1.75 times the number. For example, 40% abv is 80 proof in the US and 70 proof in the UK. However, since 1980, alcohol proof in the UK has been replaced by ABV as a measure of alcohol content. In the United States, a few states regulate and tax alcoholic beverages according to alcohol by weight, expressed as a percentage of total mass; some brewers print the ABW on beer containers on low-point versions of popular domestic beer brands. One can use the following equation to convert between ABV and ABW: A B V × 0.78924 = A B W × density of beverage at 20 C in g/mL At low ABV, the alcohol percentage by weight is about 4/5 of the ABV. However, because of the miscibility of alcohol and water, the conversion factor is not constant but rather depends upon the concentration of alcohol. 100% ABW is equivalent to 100% ABV. During the production of wine and beer, yeast is added to a sugary solution.
During fermentation, the yeasts produce alcohol. The density of sugar in water is greater than the density of alcohol in water. A hydrometer is used to measure the change in specific gravity of the solution before and after fermentation; the volume of alcohol in the solution can be estimated. There are a number of empirical formulae which brewers and winemakers use to estimate the alcohol content of the liquor made; the simplest method for wine has been described by English author C. J. J. Berry: A B V = / 7.36 The calculation for beer is: A B V = 133.62 × However, many brewers use the following formula which uses a different constant: A B V = 131.25 It is derived in this manner: A B V = ρ
Osaka is a designated city in the Kansai region of Japan. It is the capital city of Osaka Prefecture and the largest component of the Keihanshin Metropolitan Area, the second largest metropolitan area in Japan and among the largest in the world with over 19 million inhabitants. Osaka will host Expo 2025; the current mayor of Osaka is Ichiro Matsui. Some of the earliest signs of human habitation in the Osaka area at the Morinomiya ruins comprise shell mounds, sea oysters and buried human skeletons from the 6th–5th centuries BC, it is believed that what is today the Uehonmachi area consisted of a peninsular land with an inland sea in the east. During the Yayoi period, permanent habitation on the plains grew. By the Kofun period, Osaka developed into a hub port connecting the region to the western part of Japan; the large numbers of larger tomb mounds found in the plains of Osaka are seen as evidence of political-power concentration, leading to the formation of a state. The Kojiki records that during 390–430 AD there was an imperial palace located at Osumi, in what is present day Higashiyodogawa ward, but it may have been a secondary imperial residence rather than a capital.
In 645, Emperor Kōtoku built his Naniwa Nagara-Toyosaki Palace in what is now Osaka, making it the capital of Japan. The city now known as Osaka was at this time referred to as Naniwa, this name and derivations of it are still in use for districts in central Osaka such as Naniwa and Namba. Although the capital was moved to Asuka in 655, Naniwa remained a vital connection, by land and sea, between Yamato and China. Naniwa was declared the capital again in 744 by order of Emperor Shōmu, remained so until 745, when the Imperial Court moved back to Heijō-kyō. By the end of the Nara period, Naniwa's seaport roles had been taken over by neighboring areas, but it remained a lively center of river and land transportation between Heian-kyō and other destinations. In 1496, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhists established their headquarters in the fortified Ishiyama Hongan-ji, located directly on the site of the old Naniwa Imperial Palace. Oda Nobunaga began a decade-long siege campaign on the temple in 1570 which resulted in the surrender of the monks and subsequent razing of the temple.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi constructed Osaka Castle in its place in 1583. Osaka was long considered Japan's primary economic center, with a large percentage of the population belonging to the merchant class. Over the course of the Edo period, Osaka grew into one of Japan's major cities and returned to its ancient role as a lively and important port, its popular culture was related to ukiyo-e depictions of life in Edo. By 1780, Osaka had cultivated a vibrant arts culture, as typified by its famous Kabuki and Bunraku theaters. In 1837, Ōshio Heihachirō, a low-ranking samurai, led a peasant insurrection in response to the city's unwillingness to support the many poor and suffering families in the area. One-quarter of the city was razed before shogunal officials put down the rebellion, after which Ōshio killed himself. Osaka was opened to foreign trade by the government of the Bakufu at the same time as Hyōgo on 1 January 1868, just before the advent of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration. Osaka residents were stereotyped in Edo literature from at least the 18th century.
Jippensha Ikku in 1802 depicted Osakans as stingy beyond belief. In 1809, the derogatory term "Kamigata zeeroku" was used by Edo residents to characterize inhabitants of the Osaka region in terms of calculation, lack of civic spirit, the vulgarity of Osaka dialect. Edo writers aspired to samurai culture, saw themselves as poor but generous and public spirited. Edo writers by contrast saw "zeeroku" as obsequious apprentices, greedy and lewd. To some degree, Osaka residents are still stigmatized by Tokyo observers in the same way today in terms of gluttony, evidenced in the phrase, "Residents of Osaka devour their food until they collapse"; the modern municipality was established in 1889 by government ordinance, with an initial area of 15 square kilometres, overlapping today's Chūō and Nishi wards. The city went through three major expansions to reach its current size of 223 square kilometres. Osaka was the industrial center most defined in the development of capitalism in Japan, it became known as the "Manchester of the Orient."The rapid industrialization attracted many Korean immigrants, who set up a life apart for themselves.
The political system was pluralistic, with a strong emphasis on promoting industrialization and modernization. Literacy was high and the educational system expanded producing a middle class with a taste for literature and a willingness to support the arts. In 1927, General Motors operated a factory called Osaka Assembly until 1941, manufacturing Chevrolet, Pontiac and Buick vehicles and staffed by Japanese workers and managers. In the nearby city of Ikeda in Osaka Prefecture is the headquarters office of Daihatsu, one of Japan's oldest automobile manufacturers. Like its European and American counterparts, Osaka displayed slums and poverty. In Japan it was here that municipal government first introduced a comprehensive system of poverty relief, copied in part from British models. Osaka policymakers stressed the importance of family formation and mutual assistance as the best way to combat poverty; this minimized
Bourbon whiskey is a type of American whiskey, a barrel-aged distilled spirit made from corn. The name derives from the French Bourbon dynasty, although the precise inspiration for the whiskey's name is uncertain. Bourbon has been distilled since the 18th century; the use of the term "bourbon" for the whiskey has been traced to the 1820s, with consistent use beginning in Kentucky in the 1870s. Although bourbon may be made anywhere in the United States, it is associated with the American South and with Kentucky in particular; as of 2014, distillers' wholesale market revenue for bourbon sold within the U. S. was about $2.7 billion, bourbon made up about two-thirds of the $1.6 billion of U. S. exports of distilled spirits. It was recognized in 1964 by the United States Congress as a "distinctive product of the United States". Bourbon sold in the United States must be produced in America from at least 51% corn and stored in a new container of charred oak. Distilling was most brought to present-day Kentucky in the late 18th century by Scots, Scots-Irish, other settlers who began to farm the area in earnest.
The origin of bourbon as a distinct form of whiskey is not well documented. There are many conflicting legends and claims, some more credible than others. For example, the invention of bourbon is attributed to Elijah Craig, a Baptist minister and distiller credited with many Kentucky firsts, said to have been the first to age the product in charred oak casks, a process that gives bourbon its reddish color and distinctive taste. Across the county line in Bourbon County, an early distiller named Jacob Spears is credited with being the first to label his product as Bourbon whiskey. Although still popular and repeated, the Craig legend is apocryphal; the Spears story is a local favorite but is repeated outside the county. There was no single "inventor" of bourbon, which developed into its present form in the late 19th century. Any type of grain can be used to make whiskey, the practice of aging whiskey and charring the barrels for better flavor had been known in Europe for centuries; the late date of the Bourbon County etymology has led Louisville historian Michael Veach to dispute its authenticity.
He proposes the whiskey was named after Bourbon Street in New Orleans, a major port where shipments of Kentucky whiskey sold well as a cheaper alternative to French cognac. Another proposed origin of the name is the association with the geographic area known as Old Bourbon, consisting of the original Bourbon County in Virginia organized in 1785; this region included much of today's Eastern Kentucky, including 34 of the modern counties. It included the current Bourbon County in Kentucky, which became a county when Kentucky separated from Virginia as a new state in 1792; when American pioneers pushed west of the Allegheny Mountains following the American Revolution, the first counties they founded covered vast regions. One of these original, huge counties was Bourbon, established in 1785 and named after the French royal family. While this vast county was being carved into many smaller ones, early in the 19th century, many people continued to call the region Old Bourbon. Located within Old Bourbon was the principal port on the Ohio River, Kentucky, from which whiskey and other products were shipped.
"Old Bourbon" was stencilled on the barrels to indicate their port of origin. Old Bourbon whiskey was different because it was the first corn whiskey most people had tasted. In time, bourbon became the name for any corn-based whiskey. Although many distilleries operated in Bourbon County no distilleries operated there between 1919, when Prohibition began in Kentucky, late 2014, when a small distillery opened – a period of 95 years. Prohibition was devastating to the bourbon industry. With the ratification of the 18th amendment in 1919, all distilleries were forced to stop operating, although a few were granted permits to bottle existing stocks of medicinal whiskey. A few were allowed to resume production when the stocks ran out. Distilleries that were granted permits to produce or bottle medicinal whiskey included Brown-Forman, Frankfort Distillery, James Thompson and Brothers, American Medical Spirits, the Schenley Distillery, the A. Ph. Stitzel Distillery. A refinement dubiously credited to James C.
Crow is the sour mash process, which conditions each new fermentation with some amount of spent mash. Spent mash is known as spent beer, distillers' spent grain and slop or feed mash, so named because it is used as animal feed; the acid introduced when using the sour mash controls the growth of bacteria that could taint the whiskey and creates a proper pH balance for the yeast to work. A concurrent resolution adopted by the United States Congress in 1964 declared bourbon to be a "distinctive product of the United States" and asked "the appropriate agencies of the United States Government... take appropriate action to prohibit importation into the United States of whiskey designated as'Bourbon Whiskey'." Federal regulation now defines bourbon whiskey to only include bourbon produced in the United States. In recent years and Tennessee whiskey, sometimes regarded as a different type of spirit but meets the legal requirements to be called bourbon, have enjoyed significant growth in popularity; the industry trade group Distilled Spirits Council of the United States tracks sales of bourbon and Tennessee whiskey together.
According to the Distilled Spirits Counci