Hoorn is a municipality and a town in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. It is located on the Markermeer, 35 kilometres north of Amsterdam, acquired city rights in 1357. Hoorn had a population of 72,707 in 2017; the area of the municipality is 53.25 km2 of which 33.00 km2 consists of water the Markermeer. The municipality consists of the following villages and/or districts: Blokker, Hoorn and parts of Bangert and De Hulk. Cape Horn, the most southerly point of the Americas, was named after the town by Willem Schouten, who navigated the cape in 1616; the Hoorn Islands of the French overseas collectivity of Wallis and Futuna in Oceania are named after this city. The origin of the name Hoorn in old spelling Hoern or Hoirne, is surrounded in myths. Hoorn's name, according to Old Frisian legends, is derived from the stepson of King Redbad, called Hornus. Another story about the origin of the name is that it is derived from a sign depicting a post horn in an early 14th-century hanging outside one of the establishments situated on the Roode Steen Square.
A third version says. The author of the'Origo Civitatis Hornensis' assumes. Damphoorn is the medieval name for a weed that could be made into whistles, which grew in abundance in the area outside the dykes of Hoorn. Chronicler Velius rejects this statement because there are no old historical entries that Hoorn was called Damphoorn, he wrote: The name was from the start Hoorn: not derived from the weed Damphoorn, as the current sentiment holds. Velius rejects the assertion that the name's origin is Dampter Horn: a neighbourhood of the village Dampten, which flooded and had fallen into disuse; the name is most derived from Hornicwed, a name, popping up in early mediaeval documents. The medieval meaning of hornic is ` corner', with wedor being the medieval word for water. Many places and neighbourhoods in the Netherlands are called today, Heurne and Horn. Hornicwed would therefore refer to the location of a corner on the coastline: the location of Hoorn at the Zuiderzee. We see hornic in the meaning of'corner' reflected in another municipality in the mediaeval County of Holland: Uithoorn, meaning uithoek, which refers to a certain occupied area at some distance.
It is sometimes argued that hornic refers to a corner in a dike, but this raises doubts: the coast of the Zuiderzee was farther away from Hoorn compared to the present day: the Westfriese Omringdijk ran, originating from the West, in a straight line to Schardam and in front of this dyke there were low-lying tracts of land, where the village of Dampten was located according to Velius. This area was flooded after 1391, following the abandonment of the old dyke. A new dyke was built farther inland, resulting in a bay, now the Hoornse Hop. Hoorn was in existence then. Founded in 716, Hoorn grew to become a major harbour town. During Holland's'Golden Age', Hoorn was an important home base for the Dutch East India Company and a prosperous centre of trade; the Hoorn fleet returned laden with precious commodities. Exotic spices such as pepper, nutmeg and mace were sold at vast profits. With their skill in trade and seafaring, sons of Hoorn established the town's name wide. Jan Pieterszoon Coen is famous for his violent raids in Dutch Indies, where he "founded" the city of Batavia in 1619.
He has a big statue on the Rode Steen square in the center of Hoorn. In 1618 Willem Bontekoe undertook his first and only voyage for the VOC, his story of his travel and hardship found its way into the history books when he published his adventures in 1646 under the title Journael ofte gedenckwaerdige beschrijvinge van de Oost-Indische reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz. Bontekoe van Hoorn, begrijpende veel wonderlijcke en gevaerlijcke saecken hem daer in wedervaren. In 1616, the explorer Willem Corneliszoon Schouten braved furious storms as he rounded the southernmost tip of South America, he named it Kaap Hoorn in honour of his home town. Hoorn's fortunes declined somewhat in the eighteenth century; the prosperous trading port became little more than a sleepy fishing village on the Zuiderzee. Following Napoleonic occupation, there was a period during which the town turned its back on the sea, it developed to become the market for the entire West Frisian agricultural region. Stallholders and shopkeepers devoted themselves to trading in dairy produce and seeds.
When the railway and metalled roads came to Hoorn in the late nineteenth century, the town took its rightful place as a conveniently located and accessible centre in the network of towns and villages which make up the province of Noord-Holland. In 1932, the Afsluitdijk, or Great Enclosing Dyke, was completed, Hoorn was no longer a seaport; the years after the Second World War saw a period of renewed growth. At the centre of a flourishing horticultural region, Hoorn developed an varied economy. During the 1960s, Hoorn was designated an'overflow' city to relieve pressure on the overcrowded Randstad region. Thousands of people swapped their cramped little apartment
Twente is a non-administrative region in the eastern Netherlands. It encompasses the most easternmost part of the province of Overijssel. Twente is most named after the Tuihanti or Tvihanti, a Germanic tribe that settled in the area and was mentioned by the Roman historian Tacitus; the region's borders are defined by the Overijssel region of Salland in the northwest and west, the German County of Bentheim in the northeast and east and the Gelderland region of the Achterhoek in the south. Twente has 620,000 inhabitants, most of whom live in its three largest cities: Almelo and Enschede, the latter being the main city of the region, it comprises fourteen municipalities: Almelo, Dinkelland, Haaksbergen, Hengelo, Hof van Twente, Oldenzaal, Rijssen-Holten, Tubbergen and Wierden. The whole of Hellendoorn and the western parts of both Rijssen-Holten and Twenterand belong to the cultural region of Salland, but to the city region of Twente. Various sources provide several explanations of the name Twente.
In his work Germania, the Roman historicus Tacitus mentions a tribe called Tvihanti, who lived near or in present-day Twente. This same name was found on two altar stones found in the ruins of Vercovicium, a Roman guard post on Hadrian's Wall near present-day Housesteads in Northern England; the Tvihanti served in a Roman-Frisian cavalry unit, stationed there. Another explanation of the origins of the name, is that Twente was part of the Oversticht, a Medieval administrative construction which included the adjacent shires of Twente and Drenthe; as the name Drenthe is said to stem from *thrija-hantja meaning "three lands", Twente is said to stem from *twai-hantja or "two lands". Although Twente is the most urbanized part of the province of Overijssel, it is renowned for its scenic countryside; this is sometimes characterized as a bocage landscape, attracting many tourists from other parts of the country, with popular sights such as the Lutterzand on the meandering Dinkel, or the wide heather fields on the Frezenbaarg near Markelo.
Twente is bisected from north to south by a range of hills in western Twente, hills in the east, with the Tankenberg near Oldenzaal being the highest point. The towns of Ootmarsum, Oldenzaal to a lesser extent, are known for their scenic historical buildings, the latter of which has a noteworthy Romanesque church called Oale Grieze, the oldest Romanesque church in the Netherlands. Eight Twents towns have obtained city rights: Almelo, Diepenheim, Goor, Oldenzaal and Rijssen. Since Twente's economy is to a great extent reliant on agriculture, this leaves its marks on the landscape, with lots of meadows and pastures, alternating with undergrowth and copse. There are several fens and peat bogs, which long made Twente less accessible for the rest of the Netherlands, which formed some natural defence, it made the inhabitants of Twente incline towards the east in trade and fashion, rather than to the more western parts of the Netherlands. Geologically, Twente is one of the most interesting areas of the Netherlands.
It has strata from various eras concentrated in a small area. There is an open stone quarry at Losser, while there are several salt mines at Boekelo; the western Twente town of Nijverdal is the only place in the Netherlands where gold was found. Twente is reliant on agriculture, next to services, to a lesser degree on tourism; the improved national image of Twente has stimulated an increase in sales of regional products. One of the largest Dutch beer breweries, the Grolsch Brewery, is in Twente. Twente has many construction companies, most notably in the town of Rijssen, which houses over twenty companies in construction and related services, such as electricity and insulation; some north-western Twents villages, such as Westerhaar-Vriezenveensewijk, are known for their many inhabitants employed in road engineering. A number of construction companies have set up or invested in offices overseas, such as in the US and Asia. Next to aforementioned occupations, many Twents people are engaged in the transport sector.
The second half of the twentieth century saw an explosive increase in the number of freight transportation companies. The flag of Twente is a bright red cloth with a white rampant horse, believed to be derived from the Saxon Steed, the rampant horse in the coats of arms of Westphalia and Lower Saxony introduced in the coat of arms of the English county of Kent. In the more rural parts of Twente, a notion called noaberskop, which may be translated as neighbourship, is deemed of great importance. In short, noaberskop involves neighbours looking after each other or giving good counsel whenever a neighbour asks for advice. For instance, it may include collecting each other's mail and watering plants and flowers while the other family is on holiday and looking after each other's pets. Noaberskop is regarded a matter of obligations. A neighbour may for instance call on another neighbour for help if something needs to be repaired or otherwise taken care of, but it is indecent to refuse if the other neighbour asks for a favour in return.
Neighbours are expected to help each other preparing wedding celebrations, birthday parties, etc. Though modern social security service has reduced the need for strong noaberskop bonds, some communitie
The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Philip G. Altbach is an American author and former professor at Boston College, the founding director of the Boston College Center for International Higher Education. Philip Altbach was educated at the University of Chicago. In 1960 as a college freshman, he imported peace symbol buttons into the United States from Britain in 1960. Altbach traveled to England to meet with British peace groups as a delegate from the Student Peace Union and on his return he persuaded the SPU to adopt the symbol, he was a lecturer on education and a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Social Relations at Harvard University, an assistant to associate professor at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where he was affiliated with the Department of Educational Policy Studies and the Department of Indian Studies. At SUNY Buffalo, he was an adjunct professor in the School of Information and Library Studies and the Department of Sociology. In 1994, Altbach moved to the Boston College and founded the Center for International Higher Education, soon became the J. Donald Monan SJ professor of higher education at Boston College, a position which he held until his retirement in 2013.
Altbach has held additional academic appointments, including visiting associate at the Center for Studies in Higher Education at the University of California, visiting professor in the School of Education and visiting senior scholar at the Hoover Institution at Stanford University, senior associate of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, Fulbright research professor in the Department of Sociology, University of Bombay and senior Fulbright scholar in Singapore and Malaysia. In 2006–2007, Altbach was the Distinguished Scholar Leader of the Fulbright New Century Scholars program, he holds guest professor appointments from two universities in China, Peking University and Huazhong University of Science and Technology. He created and directed the Bellagio Publishing Network, funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, a forum devoted to improving book publishing in Africa from 1992 to 2000. Altbach is the editor for International Higher Education and an associate editor of the American Education Research Journal since 2008.
He has been editor of the Comparative Education Review, editor of the Review of Higher Education and North American editor of Higher Education, was a founding editor of Educational Policy. He has authored or edited more than 50 books on topics ranging from higher education to India’s publishing industry to student activism; some of his books include: Turmoil and Transition: The International Imperative in Higher Education, Comparative Higher Education, Student Politics in America. He is co-editor the International Handbook of Higher Education, The Road to Academic Excellence: The Making of World-Class Research Universities, Leadership for World-Class Universities: Challenges for Developing Countries, World Class Worldwide: Transforming Research Universities in Asia and Latin America. Altbach's contribution to the field of international education has been recognized in relation to topics such as the academic profession, internationalization of higher education, academic mobility, linking academic research to policy practice.
Moreover, he is considered one of the foremost scholars on student politics and activism in the 20th century
An incunable, or sometimes incunabulum, is a book, pamphlet, or broadside printed in Europe before the year 1501. Incunabula are not documents written by hand; as of 2014, there are about 30,000 distinct known incunable editions extant, but the probable number of surviving copies in Germany alone is estimated at around 125,000. "Incunable" is the anglicised singular form of incunabula, Latin for "swaddling clothes" or "cradle", which can refer to "the earliest stages or first traces in the development of anything". A former term for "incunable" is "fifteener"; the term incunabula as a printing term was first used by the Dutch physician and humanist Hadrianus Iunius and appears in a passage from his posthumous work: Hadrianus Iunius, Batavia, ex officina Plantiniana, apud Franciscum Raphelengium, 1588, p. 256 l. 3: «inter prima artis incunabula», a term to which he arbitrarily set an end of 1500 which still stands as a convention. Only by a misunderstanding was Bernhard von Mallinckrodt considered to be the inventor of this meaning of incunabula.
Ita igitur Iunius». So the source is only one, the other is a quotation; the term incunabula came to denote the printed books themselves in the late 17th century. John Evelyn, in moving the Arundel Manuscripts to the Royal Society in August 1678, remarked of the printed books among the manuscripts: "The printed books, being of the oldest impressions, are not the less valuable; the convenient but arbitrarily chosen end date for identifying a printed book as an incunable does not reflect any notable developments in the printing process, many books printed for a number of years after 1500 continued to be visually indistinguishable from incunables. "Post-incunable" refers to books printed after 1500 up to another arbitrary end date such as 1520 or 1540. From around this period the dating of any edition becomes easier, as the practice of printers including information such as the place and year of printing became more widespread. There are two types of incunabula in printing: the block book, printed from a single carved or sculpted wooden block for each page, employing the same process as the woodcut in art.
Many authors reserve the term incunabula for the latter kind only. The spread of printing to cities both in the north and in Italy ensured that there was great variety in the texts chosen for printing and the styles in which they appeared. Many early typefaces were modelled on local forms of writing or derived from the various European forms of Gothic script, but there were some derived from documentary scripts, in Italy, types modelled on handwritten scripts and calligraphy employed by humanists. Printers congregated in urban centres where there were scholars, ecclesiastics and nobles and professionals who formed their major customer base. Standard works in Latin inherited from the medieval tradition formed the bulk of the earliest printed works, but as books became cheaper, vernacular works began to appear; the most famous incunabula include two from Mainz, the Gutenberg Bible of 1455 and the Peregrinatio in terram sanctam of 1486, printed and illustrated by Erhard Reuwich. Other printers of incunabula were Günther Zainer of Augsburg, Johannes Mentelin and Heinrich Eggestein of Strasbourg, Heinrich Gran of Haguenau and William Caxton of Bruges and London.
The first incunable to have woodcut illustrations was Ulrich Boner's Der Edelstein, printed by Albrecht Pfister in Bamberg in 1461. Many incunabula are undated; the post-incunabula period marks a time of development during which the printed book evolved as a mature artefact with a standard format. After c. 1540 books tended to conform to a template that included the author, title-page, date and place of printing. This makes it much easier to identify any particular edition; as noted above, the end date for identifying a printed book as an incunable is convenient but was chosen arbitrarily. Books printed for a number of years after 1500 continued to look much like incunables, with the notable exception of the small format books printed in italic type introduced by Aldus Manutius in 1501; the term post-incunable is sometimes used to refer to books printed "after 1500—how long aft