Augustus De Morgan
Augustus De Morgan was a British mathematician and logician. He formulated De Morgan's laws and introduced the term mathematical induction, making its idea rigorous. Augustus De Morgan was born in Madurai, India in 1806, his father was Lieut.-Colonel John De Morgan, who held various appointments in the service of the East India Company. His mother, Elizabeth Dodson, was a descendant of James Dodson, who computed a table of anti-logarithms, that is, the numbers corresponding to exact logarithms. Augustus De Morgan became blind in one eye; the family moved to England. As his father and grandfather had both been born in India, De Morgan used to say that he was neither English, nor Scottish, nor Irish, but a Briton "unattached", using the technical term applied to an undergraduate of Oxford or Cambridge, not a member of any one of the Colleges; when De Morgan was ten years old his father died. Mrs De Morgan resided at various places in the southwest of England, her son received his elementary education at various schools of no great account.
His mathematical talents went unnoticed until he was fourteen, when a family-friend discovered him making an elaborate drawing of a figure in Euclid with ruler and compasses. She explained the aim of Euclid to Augustus, gave him an initiation into demonstration, he received his secondary education from Mr Parsons, a fellow of Oriel College, who appreciated classics better than mathematics. His mother was an active and ardent member of the Church of England, desired that her son should become a clergyman, but by this time De Morgan had begun to show his non-conforming disposition, he became an atheist. There is a word in our language with which I shall not confuse this subject, both on account of the dishonourable use, made of it, as an imputation thrown by one sect upon another, of the variety of significations attached to it. I shall use the word Anti-Deism to signify the opinion that there does not exist a Creator who made and sustains the Universe. In 1823, at the age of sixteen, he entered Trinity College, where he came under the influence of George Peacock and William Whewell, who became his lifelong friends.
His college tutor was John Philips Higman, FRS. At college he was prominent in the musical clubs, his love of knowledge for its own sake interfered with training for the great mathematical race. This entitled him to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. To the signing of any such test De Morgan felt a strong objection, although he had been brought up in the Church of England. In about 1875 theological tests for academic degrees were abolished in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge; as no career was open to him at his own university, he decided to go to the Bar, took up residence in London. About this time the movement for founding London University took shape; the two ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge were so guarded by theological tests that no Jew or Dissenter outside the Church of England could enter as a student, still less be appointed to any office. A body of liberal-minded men resolved to meet the difficulty by establishing in London a University on the principle of religious neutrality.
De Morgan 22 years of age, was appointed professor of mathematics. His introductory lecture "On the study of mathematics" is a discourse upon mental education of permanent value, has been reprinted in the United States; the London University was a new institution, the relations of the Council of management, the Senate of professors and the body of students were not well defined. A dispute arose between the professor of anatomy and his students, in consequence of the action taken by the Council, several professors resigned, headed by De Morgan. Another professor of mathematics was appointed, who drowned a few years later. De Morgan had shown himself a prince of teachers: he was invited to return to his chair, which thereafter became the continuous centre of his labours for thirty years; the same body of reformers—headed by Lord Brougham, a Scotsman eminent both in science and politics who had instituted the London University—founded about the same time a Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
Its object was to spread scientific and other knowledge by means of cheap and written treatises by the best writers of the time. One of its most voluminous and effective writers was De Morgan, he wrote a great work on The Differential and Integral Calculus, published by the Society. When De Morgan came to reside in London he found a congenial friend in William Frend, notwithstanding his mathematical heresy about negative quantities. Both were arithmeticians and actuaries, their religious views were somewhat similar. Frend lived in what was a suburb of London, in a country-house occupied by Daniel Defoe and Isaac Watts. De Morgan with his flute was a welcome visitor; the London University of which De Morgan was a professor was a different institution from the University of London. The University of London was founded about ten years by the Government for the purpose of granting degrees after
William Stanley Jevons
William Stanley Jevons FRS was an English economist and logician. Irving Fisher described Jevons's book A General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy as the start of the mathematical method in economics, it made the case that economics as a science concerned with quantities is mathematical. In so doing, it expounded upon the "final" utility theory of value. Jevons's work, along with similar discoveries made by Carl Menger in Vienna and by Léon Walras in Switzerland, marked the opening of a new period in the history of economic thought. Jevons's contribution to the marginal revolution in economics in the late 19th century established his reputation as a leading political economist and logician of the time. Jevons broke off his studies of the natural sciences in London in 1854 to work as an assayer in Sydney, where he acquired an interest in political economy. Returning to the UK in 1859, he published General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy in 1862, outlining the marginal utility theory of value, A Serious Fall in the Value of Gold in 1863.
For Jevons, the utility or value to a consumer of an additional unit of a product is inversely related to the number of units of that product he owns, at least beyond some critical quantity. Jevons received public recognition for his work on The Coal Question, in which he called attention to the gradual exhaustion of Britain's coal supplies and put forth the view that increases in energy production efficiency leads to more, not less, consumption; this view is known today as the Jevons paradox, named after him. Due to this particular work, Jevons is regarded today as the first economist of some standing to develop an'ecological' perspective on the economy; the most important of his works on logic and scientific methods is his Principles of Science, as well as The Theory of Political Economy and The State in Relation to Labour. Among his inventions was the logic piano, a mechanical computer. Jevons was born in Liverpool, England, his father, Thomas Jevons, was an iron merchant who wrote about economic subjects as well.
His mother Mary Anne Jevons was the daughter of William Roscoe. At the age of fifteen he was sent to London to attend the University College School. Around this time, he seemed to have formed the belief that he was capable of important achievements as a thinker. Towards the end of 1853, after having spent two years at University College, where his favourite subjects were chemistry and botany, he received an offer as metallurgical assayer for the new mint in Australia; the idea of leaving the UK was distasteful, but pecuniary considerations had, in consequence of the failure of his father's firm in 1847, become of vital importance, he accepted the post. Jevons left the UK for Sydney in June 1854 to take up a role as an Assayer at the Mint. Jevons lived with his colleague and his wife first at Church Hill in Annangrove at Petersham and at Double Bay before returning to England. In letters to his family he described his life, took photographs and produced a social map of Sydney. Jevons returned to England via America five years later.
He resigned his appointment, in the autumn of 1859 re-entered the University College London as a student. He was granted B. A. and M. A. degrees from the University of London. He now gave his principal attention to the moral sciences, but his interest in natural science was by no means exhausted: throughout his life he continued to write occasional papers on scientific subjects, his knowledge of the physical sciences contributed to the success of his chief logical work, The Principles of Science. Not long after taking his M. A. degree, Manchester. In 1866, he was elected professor of logic and mental and moral philosophy and Cobden professor of political economy at Owens College. Jevons arrived quite early in his career at the doctrines that constituted his most characteristic and original contributions to economics and logic; the theory of utility, which became the keynote of his general theory of political economy, was formulated in a letter written in 1860. The theory of utility above referred to, that the degree of utility of a commodity is some continuous mathematical function of the quantity of the commodity available, together with the implied doctrine that economics is a mathematical science, took more definite form in a paper on "A General Mathematical Theory of Political Economy", written for the British Association in 1862.
This paper does not appear to have attracted much attention either in 1862 or on its publication four years in the Journal of the Statistical Society. It was not until after the publication of this work that Jevons became acquainted with the applications of mathematics to political economy made by earlier writers, notably Antoine Augustin Cournot and H. H. Gossen; the theory of utility was at about 1870 being independently developed on somewhat similar lines by Carl Menger in Austria and Léon Walras in Switzerland. As regards the discovery of the connection between value in exchange and final utility, the priority belongs to Gossen, but this in no way detracts from the great importance of the service which Jevons rendered to British economics by his fresh discovery of the principle, by the way in which he forced i
Alfred North Whitehead
Alfred North Whitehead was an English mathematician and philosopher. He is best known as the defining figure of the philosophical school known as process philosophy, which today has found application to a wide variety of disciplines, including ecology, education, biology and psychology, among other areas. In his early career Whitehead wrote on mathematics and physics, his most notable work in these fields is the three-volume Principia Mathematica, which he wrote with former student Bertrand Russell. Principia Mathematica is considered one of the twentieth century's most important works in mathematical logic, placed 23rd in a list of the top 100 English-language nonfiction books of the twentieth century by Modern Library. Beginning in the late 1910s and early 1920s, Whitehead turned his attention from mathematics to philosophy of science, to metaphysics, he developed a comprehensive metaphysical system which radically departed from most of western philosophy. Whitehead argued that reality consists of processes rather than material objects, that processes are best defined by their relations with other processes, thus rejecting the theory that reality is fundamentally constructed by bits of matter that exist independently of one another.
Today Whitehead's philosophical works – Process and Reality – are regarded as the foundational texts of process philosophy. Whitehead's process philosophy argues that "there is urgency in coming to see the world as a web of interrelated processes of which we are integral parts, so that all of our choices and actions have consequences for the world around us." For this reason, one of the most promising applications of Whitehead's thought in recent years has been in the area of ecological civilization and environmental ethics pioneered by John B. Cobb Jr. Alfred North Whitehead was born in Ramsgate, England, in 1861, his father, Alfred Whitehead, was a minister and schoolmaster of Chatham House Academy, a school for boys established by Thomas Whitehead, Alfred North's grandfather. Whitehead himself recalled both of them as being successful schools, but that his grandfather was the more extraordinary man. Whitehead's mother was Maria Sarah Whitehead Maria Sarah Buckmaster. Whitehead was not close with his mother, as he never mentioned her in any of his writings, there is evidence that Whitehead's wife, had a low opinion of her.
Whitehead was educated at Sherborne School, one of the best public schools in the country. His childhood was described as over-protected, but when at school he excelled in sports and mathematics and was head prefect of his class. In 1880, Whitehead began attending Trinity College and studied mathematics, his academic advisor was Edward John Routh. He earned his BA from Trinity in 1884, graduated as fourth wrangler. Elected a fellow of Trinity in 1884, Whitehead would teach and write on mathematics and physics at the college until 1910, spending the 1890s writing his Treatise on Universal Algebra, the 1900s collaborating with his former pupil, Bertrand Russell, on the first edition of Principia Mathematica, he was a Cambridge Apostle. In 1890, Whitehead married an Irish woman raised in France. Eric Whitehead died in action at the age of 19, while serving in the Royal Flying Corps during World War I. Alfred's brother Henry became Bishop of Madras, wrote a observed ethnographic account of the Village Gods of South-India, still of value today.
In 1910, Whitehead resigned his senior lectureship in mathematics at Trinity and moved to London without first lining up another job. After being unemployed for a year, Whitehead accepted a position as lecturer in applied mathematics and mechanics at University College London, but was passed over a year for the Goldsmid Chair of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, a position for which he had hoped to be considered. In 1914 Whitehead accepted a position as professor of applied mathematics at the newly chartered Imperial College London, where his old friend Andrew Forsyth had been appointed chief professor of mathematics. In 1918 Whitehead's academic responsibilities began to expand as he accepted a number of high administrative positions within the University of London system, of which Imperial College London was a member at the time, he was elected dean of the Faculty of Science at the University of London in late 1918, a member of the University of London's Senate in 1919, chairman of the Senate's Academic Council in 1920, a post which he held until he departed for America in 1924.
Whitehead was able to exert his newfound influence to lobby for a new history of science department, help establish a Bachelor of Science degree, make the school more accessible to less wealthy students. Toward the end of his time in England, Whitehead turned his attention to philosophy. Though he had no advanced training in philosophy, his philosophical work soon became regarded. After publishing The Concept of Nature in 1920, he served as president of the Aristotelian Society from 1922 to 1923. In 1924, Henry Osborn Taylor invited the 63-year-old Whitehead to join the faculty at Harvard University as a professor of philosophy. During his time at Harvard, Whitehead produced his most important philosophical contributions. In 1925, he wrote Science and the Modern World, hailed as an alternative to the Cartesian dualism that plagued popular scien
Ernst Schröder
Friedrich Wilhelm Karl Ernst Schröder was a German mathematician known for his work on algebraic logic. He is a major figure in the history of mathematical logic, by virtue of summarizing and extending the work of George Boole, Augustus De Morgan, Hugh MacColl, Charles Peirce, he is best known for his monumental Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik, in three volumes, which prepared the way for the emergence of mathematical logic as a separate discipline in the twentieth century by systematizing the various systems of formal logic of the day. Schröder learned mathematics at Heidelberg, Königsberg, Zürich, under Otto Hesse, Gustav Kirchhoff, Franz Neumann. After teaching school for a few years, he moved to the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt in 1874. Two years he took up a chair in mathematics at the Polytechnische Schule in Karlsruhe, where he spent the remainder of his life, he never married. Schröder's early work on formal algebra and logic was written in ignorance of the British logicians George Boole and Augustus De Morgan.
Instead, his sources were texts by Ohm, Hermann Grassmann, Robert Grassmann. In 1873, Schröder learned of De Morgan's work on logic. To their work he subsequently added several important concepts due to Charles Sanders Peirce, including subsumption and quantification. Schröder made original contributions to algebra, set theory, lattice theory, ordered sets and ordinal numbers. Along with Georg Cantor, he codiscovered the Cantor–Bernstein–Schröder theorem, although Schröder's proof is flawed. Felix Bernstein subsequently corrected the proof as part of his Ph. D. dissertation. Schröder was a concise exposition of Boole's ideas on algebra and logic, which did much to introduce Boole's work to continental readers; the influence of the Grassmanns Robert's little-known Formenlehre, is clear. Unlike Boole, Schröder appreciated duality. John Venn and Christine Ladd-Franklin both warmly cited this short book of Schröder's, Charles Sanders Peirce used it as a text while teaching at Johns Hopkins University.
Schröder's masterwork, his Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik, was published in three volumes between 1890 and 1905, at the author's expense. Vol. 2 is in two parts, the second published posthumously, edited by Eugen Müller. The Vorlesungen was a comprehensive and scholarly survey of "algebraic" logic up to the end of the 19th century, one that had a considerable influence on the emergence of mathematical logic in the 20th century; the Vorlesungen is a prolix affair, only a small part of, translated into English. That part, along with an extended discussion of the entire Vorlesungen, is in Brady. See Grattan-Guinness. Schröder said his aim was: Schröder's influence on the early development of the predicate calculus by popularising C. S. Peirce's work on quantification, is at least as great as that of Frege or Peano. For an example of the influence of Schröder's work on English-speaking logicians of the early 20th century, see Clarence Irving Lewis; the relational concepts that pervade Principia Mathematica are much owed to the Vorlesungen, cited in Principia's Preface and in Bertrand Russell's Principles of Mathematics.
Frege dismissed Schröder's work, admiration for Frege's pioneering role has dominated subsequent historical discussion. Contrasting Frege with Schröder and C. S. Peirce, Hilary Putnam writes: Schröder's equation Schröder number Primary Schröder, E. 1877. Der Operationskreis des Logikkalküls. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner. Schröder, E. 1890–1905. Vorlesungen über die 3 vols. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner. Reprints: 1966, Chelsea. Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik Volume 1, Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik Volume 2, Abt. 1 Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik Volume 2, Abt. 2 Algebra und Logik der Relative, der Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik 3 Volume 3, Abt. 1 Schröder, E. 1898. "Über zwei Definitionen der Abh. Kaiserl. Leop.-Car. Akad. Naturf 71: 301–362. Both Primary and Secondary Brady, Geraldine, 2000. From Peirce to Skolem. North Holland. Includes an English translation of parts of the Vorlesungen. Secondary Anellis, I. H. 1990–91, "Schröder Materials at the Russell Archives," Modern Logic 1: 237–247.
Dipert, R. R. 1990/91. "The life and work of Ernst Schröder," Modern Logic 1: 117–139. Frege, G. 1960, "A critical elucidation of some points in E. Schröder's Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik", translated by Geach, in Geach & Black, Translations from the philosophical writings of Gottlob Frege. Blackwell: 86–106. Original: 1895, Archiv für systematische Philosophie 1: 433–456. Ivor Grattan-Guinness, 2000; the Search for Mathematical Roots 1870–1940. Princeton University Press. Clarence Irving Lewis, 1960. A Survey of Symbolic Logic. Dover. Peckhaus, V. 1997. Logik, Mathesis universalis und allgemeine Wissenschaft. Leibniz und die Wiederentdeckung der formalen Logik im 19. Jahrhundert. Akademie-Verlag. Peckhaus, V. 1999, "19th Century Logic between Philosophy and Mathematics," Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 5: 433–450. Reprinted in Glen van Brummelen and Michael Kinyon, eds. 2005. Mathematics and the Historian's Craft; the Kenneth O. May Lectures. Springer: 203–220. Online here or here. Peckhaus, V. 2004. "Schröder's Logic" in Gabbay, Dov M. and John Woods, eds.
Handbook of the History of Logic. Vol. 3: The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. North Holland: 557–609. Hilary Putnam, 1982
George Boole
George Boole was a self-taught English mathematician and logician, most of whose short career was spent as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland. He worked in the fields of differential equations and algebraic logic, is best known as the author of The Laws of Thought which contains Boolean algebra. Boolean logic is credited with laying the foundations for the information age. Boole maintained that: No general method for the solution of questions in the theory of probabilities can be established which does not explicitly recognise, not only the special numerical bases of the science, but those universal laws of thought which are the basis of all reasoning, which, whatever they may be as to their essence, are at least mathematical as to their form. Boole was born in Lincoln, England, the son of John Boole senior, a shoemaker and Mary Ann Joyce, he had a primary school education, received lessons from his father, but due to a serious decline in business, he had little further formal and academic teaching.
William Brooke, a bookseller in Lincoln, may have helped him with Latin, which he may have learned at the school of Thomas Bainbridge. He was self-taught in modern languages. In fact, when a local newspaper printed his translation of a Latin poem, a scholar accused him of plagiarism under the pretence that he was not capable of such achievements. At age 16, Boole became the breadwinner for his parents and three younger siblings, taking up a junior teaching position in Doncaster at Heigham's School, he taught in Liverpool. Boole participated in the Mechanics Institute, in the Greyfriars, founded in 1833. Edward Bromhead, who knew John Boole through the institution, helped George Boole with mathematics books and he was given the calculus text of Sylvestre François Lacroix by the Rev. George Stevens Dickson of St Swithin's, Lincoln. Without a teacher, it took him many years to master calculus. At age 19, Boole established his own school in Lincoln, he continued making his living by running schools.
Four years he took over Hall's Academy in Waddington, outside Lincoln, following the death of Robert Hall. In 1840 he moved back to Lincoln. Boole became involved in the Lincoln Topographical Society, serving as a member of the committee, presenting a paper entitled, On the origin and tendencies of Polytheism amongst the ancient Egyptians and Persians, in modern India. On 30 November 1841. Boole became a prominent local figure, an admirer of John Kaye, the bishop, he took part in the local campaign for early closing. With Edmund Larken and others he set up a building society in 1847, he associated with the Chartist Thomas Cooper, whose wife was a relation. From 1838 onwards Boole was making contacts with sympathetic British academic mathematicians and reading more widely, he studied algebra in the form of symbolic methods, as far as these were understood at the time, began to publish research papers. After receiving positive feedback on his publications, he considered attending the University of Cambridge, but decided against attending when told he would have to start with the standard undergraduate courses and discontinue his own research.
Boole's status as mathematician was recognised by his appointment in 1849 as the first professor of mathematics at Queen's College, Cork in Ireland. He met his future wife, Mary Everest, there in 1850 while she was visiting her uncle John Ryall, Professor of Greek, they married some years in 1855. He maintained his ties with Lincoln, working there with E. R. Larken in a campaign to reduce prostitution. In 1844 Boole's paper On a General Method for Analysis won the first gold prize for mathematics awarded by the Royal Society, he was awarded the Keith Medal by the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1855 and was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1857. He received honorary degrees of LL. D. from the University of Dublin and the University of Oxford. Boole's first published paper was Researches in the theory of analytical transformations, with a special application to the reduction of the general equation of the second order, printed in the Cambridge Mathematical Journal in February 1840, it led to a friendship between Boole and Duncan Farquharson Gregory, the editor of the journal.
His works are in a few separate publications. In 1841 Boole published an influential paper in early invariant theory, he received a medal from the Royal Society On A General Method of Analysis. It was a contribution to the theory of linear differential equations, moving from the case of constant coefficients on which he had published, to variable coefficients; the innovation in operational methods is to admit. In 1847 Boole published The Mathematical Analysis of Logic, the first of his works on symbolic logic. Boole completed two systematic treatises on mathematical subjects during his lifetime; the Treatise on Differential Equations appeared in 1859, was followed, the next year, by a Treatise on the Calculus of Finite Differences, a sequel to the former work. In 1857, Boole published the treatise On the Comparison of Transcendents, with Certain Applications to the Theory of Definite Integrals, in which he studied the sum of residues of a rational function. Among other results, he proved what is now called Boole's identity: m e s { x ∈ R ∣ ℜ 1 π ∑ a
Charles Sanders Peirce
Charles Sanders Peirce was an American philosopher, logician and scientist, sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism". He was employed as a scientist for thirty years. Today he is appreciated for his contributions to logic, philosophy, scientific methodology and for his founding of pragmatism. An innovator in mathematics, philosophy, research methodology, various sciences, Peirce considered himself and foremost, a logician, he made major contributions to logic, but logic for him encompassed much of that, now called epistemology and philosophy of science. He saw logic as the formal branch of semiotics, of which he is a founder, which foreshadowed the debate among logical positivists and proponents of philosophy of language that dominated 20th century Western philosophy. Additionally, he defined the concept of abductive reasoning, as well as rigorously formulated mathematical induction and deductive reasoning; as early as 1886 he saw that logical operations could be carried out by electrical switching circuits.
The same idea was used decades to produce digital computers. In 1934, the philosopher Paul Weiss called Peirce "the most original and versatile of American philosophers and America's greatest logician". Webster's Biographical Dictionary said in 1943 that Peirce was "now regarded as the most original thinker and greatest logician of his time." Keith Devlin referred to Peirce as one of the greatest philosophers ever. Peirce was born at 3 Phillips Place in Massachusetts, he was the son of Sarah Hunt Mills and Benjamin Peirce, himself a professor of astronomy and mathematics at Harvard University and the first serious research mathematician in America. At age 12, Charles read his older brother's copy of Richard Whately's Elements of Logic the leading English-language text on the subject. So began his lifelong fascination with logic and reasoning, he went on to earn a A. B. and a A. M. from Harvard. In 1863 the Lawrence Scientific School awarded him a B. Sc. Harvard's first summa cum laude chemistry degree.
His academic record was otherwise undistinguished. At Harvard, he began lifelong friendships with Francis Ellingwood Abbot, Chauncey Wright, William James. One of his Harvard instructors, Charles William Eliot, formed an unfavorable opinion of Peirce; this proved fateful, because Eliot, while President of Harvard (1869–1909—a period encompassing nearly all of Peirce's working life—repeatedly vetoed Peirce'e employment at the university. Peirce suffered from his late-teens onward from a nervous condition known as "facial neuralgia", which would today be diagnosed as trigeminal neuralgia, his biographer, Joseph Brent, says that when in the throes of its pain "he was, at first stupefied, aloof, depressed suspicious, impatient of the slightest crossing, subject to violent outbursts of temper". Its consequences may have led to the social isolation which made his life's years so tragic. Between 1859 and 1891, Peirce was intermittently employed in various scientific capacities by the United States Coast Survey and its successor, the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, where he enjoyed his influential father's protection until the latter's death in 1880.
That employment exempted Peirce from having to take part in the American Civil War. At the Survey, he worked in geodesy and gravimetry, refining the use of pendulums to determine small local variations in the Earth's gravity, he was elected a resident fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in January 1867. The Survey sent him to Europe five times, first in 1871 as part of a group sent to observe a solar eclipse. There, he sought out Augustus De Morgan, William Stanley Jevons, William Kingdon Clifford, British mathematicians and logicians whose turn of mind resembled his own. From 1869 to 1872, he was employed as an Assistant in Harvard's astronomical observatory, doing important work on determining the brightness of stars and the shape of the Milky Way. On April 20, 1877 he was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences. In 1877, he proposed measuring the meter as so many wavelengths of light of a certain frequency, the kind of definition employed from 1960 to 1983. During the 1880s, Peirce's indifference to bureaucratic detail waxed while his Survey work's quality and timeliness waned.
Peirce took years to write reports. Meanwhile, he wrote entries thousands during 1883–1909, on philosophy, logic and other subjects for the encyclopedic Century Dictionary. In 1885, an investigation by the Allison Commission exonerated Peirce, but led to the dismissal of Superintendent Julius Hilgard and several other Coast Survey employees for misuse of public funds. In 1891, Peirce resigned from the Coast Survey at Superintendent Thomas Corwin Mendenhall's request, he never again held regular employment. In 1879, Peirce was appointed Lecturer in logic at Johns Hopkins University, which had strong departments in a number of areas that interested him, such as philosophy and mathematics, his Studies in Logic by Members of the Johns Hopkins University contained works by himself and Allan Marquand, Christine Ladd, Benjamin Ives Gilman, Oscar Howard Mitchell, several of whom were his graduate students. Peirce's nonte
Electrical engineering
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the study and application of electricity and electromagnetism. This field first became an identifiable occupation in the half of the 19th century after commercialization of the electric telegraph, the telephone, electric power distribution and use. Subsequently and recording media made electronics part of daily life; the invention of the transistor, the integrated circuit, brought down the cost of electronics to the point they can be used in any household object. Electrical engineering has now divided into a wide range of fields including electronics, digital computers, computer engineering, power engineering, telecommunications, control systems, radio-frequency engineering, signal processing and microelectronics. Many of these disciplines overlap with other engineering branches, spanning a huge number of specializations such as hardware engineering, power electronics and waves, microwave engineering, electrochemistry, renewable energies, electrical materials science, much more.
See glossary of electrical and electronics engineering. Electrical engineers hold a degree in electrical engineering or electronic engineering. Practising engineers may be members of a professional body; such bodies include the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Electrical engineers work in a wide range of industries and the skills required are variable; these range from basic circuit theory to the management skills required of a project manager. The tools and equipment that an individual engineer may need are variable, ranging from a simple voltmeter to a top end analyzer to sophisticated design and manufacturing software. Electricity has been a subject of scientific interest since at least the early 17th century. William Gilbert was a prominent early electrical scientist, was the first to draw a clear distinction between magnetism and static electricity, he is credited with establishing the term "electricity". He designed the versorium: a device that detects the presence of statically charged objects.
In 1762 Swedish professor Johan Carl Wilcke invented a device named electrophorus that produced a static electric charge. By 1800 Alessandro Volta had developed the voltaic pile, a forerunner of the electric battery In the 19th century, research into the subject started to intensify. Notable developments in this century include the work of Hans Christian Ørsted who discovered in 1820 that an electric current produces a magnetic field that will deflect a compass needle, of William Sturgeon who, in 1825 invented the electromagnet, of Joseph Henry and Edward Davy who invented the electrical relay in 1835, of Georg Ohm, who in 1827 quantified the relationship between the electric current and potential difference in a conductor, of Michael Faraday, of James Clerk Maxwell, who in 1873 published a unified theory of electricity and magnetism in his treatise Electricity and Magnetism. In 1782 Georges-Louis Le Sage developed and presented in Berlin the world's first form of electric telegraphy, using 24 different wires, one for each letter of the alphabet.
This telegraph connected two rooms. It was an electrostatic telegraph. In 1795, Francisco Salva Campillo proposed an electrostatic telegraph system. Between 1803-1804, he worked on electrical telegraphy and in 1804, he presented his report at the Royal Academy of Natural Sciences and Arts of Barcelona. Salva’s electrolyte telegraph system was innovative though it was influenced by and based upon two new discoveries made in Europe in 1800 – Alessandro Volta’s electric battery for generating an electric current and William Nicholson and Anthony Carlyle’s electrolysis of water. Electrical telegraphy may be considered the first example of electrical engineering. Electrical engineering became a profession in the 19th century. Practitioners had created a global electric telegraph network and the first professional electrical engineering institutions were founded in the UK and USA to support the new discipline. Francis Ronalds created an electric telegraph system in 1816 and documented his vision of how the world could be transformed by electricity.
Over 50 years he joined the new Society of Telegraph Engineers where he was regarded by other members as the first of their cohort. By the end of the 19th century, the world had been forever changed by the rapid communication made possible by the engineering development of land-lines, submarine cables, from about 1890, wireless telegraphy. Practical applications and advances in such fields created an increasing need for standardised units of measure, they led to the international standardization of the units volt, coulomb, ohm and henry. This was achieved at an international conference in Chicago in 1893; the publication of these standards formed the basis of future advances in standardisation in various industries, in many countries, the definitions were recognized in relevant legislation. During these years, the study of electricity was considered to be a subfield of physics since the early electrical technology was considered electromechanical in nature; the Technische Universität Darmstadt founded the world's first department of electrical engineering in 1882.
The first electrical engineering degree program was started at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the physics department