Orange is a city located in Orange County, California. It is 3 miles north of the county seat, Santa Ana. Orange is unusual in this region because many of the homes in its Old Town District were built before 1920. While many other cities in the region demolished such houses in the 1960s, Orange decided to preserve them; the small city of Villa Park is surrounded by the city of Orange. The population was 139,812 as of 2014. Members of the Tongva and Juaneño/Luiseño ethnic group long inhabited this area. After the 1769 expedition of Gaspar de Portolá, an expedition out of San Blas, Mexico, led by Father Junípero Serra, named the area Vallejo de Santa Ana. On November 1, 1776, Mission San Juan Capistrano became the area's first permanent European settlement in Alta California, New Spain. In 1801, the Spanish Empire granted 62,500 acres to José Antonio Yorba, which he named Rancho San Antonio. Yorba's great rancho included the lands where the cities of Olive, Villa Park, Santa Ana, Costa Mesa and Newport Beach stand today.
Smaller ranchos evolved from this large rancho, including the Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana. Don Juan Pablo Grijalva, a retired known Spanish soldier and the area's first landowner, was granted permission in 1809 by the Spanish colonial government to establish a rancho in "the place of the Arroyo de Santiago." After the Mexican–American War, Alta California was ceded to the United States by México with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, though many Californios lost titles to their lands in the aftermath, Grijalva's descendants retained ownership through marriages to Anglo-Americans. Since at least 1864, Los Angeles attorneys Alfred Chapman and Andrew Glassell together and separately, held about 5,400 acres along both sides of the Santiago Creek. Water was the key factor for the location of their townsite. Glassell needed a spot he could irrigate, bringing water down from the Santa Ana Canyon and the quality of the soil may have influenced his choice; the community was named Richland, but in 1873 Richland got a new name.
In the book, "Orange, The City'Round The Plaza" by local historian Phil Brigandi, it states, "In 1873 the town had grown large enough to require a post office, so an application was sent to Washington. It was refused, however, as there was a Richland, California in Sacramento County. Undaunted, the Richlanders proposed a new name – Orange." The small town was incorporated on April 1888, under the general laws of the state of California. Orange was the only city in Orange County to be planned and built around a plaza, earned it the nickname Plaza City. Orange was the first developed town site to be served by the California Southern Railroad when the nation's second transcontinental rail line reached Orange County; the town experienced its first growth spurt during the last decade of the 19th century, thanks to ever-increasing demands for California-grown citrus fruits, a period some refer to as the "Orange Era." Southern California's real estate "boom" of 1886–1888, fueled by railroad rate wars contributed to a marked increase in population.
Like most cities in Orange County, agriculture formed the backbone of the local economy, growth thereafter was slow and steady until the 1950s, when a second real estate boom spurred development. Inspired by the development of a region-wide freeway system which connected Los Angeles' urban center with outlying areas like Orange, large tracts of housing were developed from the 1950s to the early 1970s, this continues today, albeit at a much slower pace, at the eastern edge of the city; the city has a total area of 25.2 square miles, 24.8 square miles of, land and 0.4 square miles of, water. The total area is 1.75% water. Southern California is well known for year-round pleasant weather: – On average, the warmest month is August. – The highest recorded temperature was 113 °F in June 2016. – On average, the coolest month is December. – The lowest recorded temperature was 29 °F in December 1990. – The maximum average precipitation occurs in January. The period of April through November is warm to hot and dry with average high temperatures of 74 to 84 °F and lows of 52 to 64 °F.
Due to the moderating effect of the ocean, temperatures are cooler than more inland areas of Orange County, where temperatures exceed 90 °F and reach 100 °F. The period of November through March is somewhat rainy; the Orange County area is subject to the phenomena typical of a microclimate. As such, the temperatures can vary as much as 18 °F between inland areas and the coast, with a temperature gradient of over 1 °F per mile from the coast inland. California has a weather phenomenon called "June Gloom" or "May Gray," which sometimes brings overcast or foggy skies in the morning on the coast, but gives way to sunny skies by noon, during late spring and early summer; the Orange County area averages 15 in of precipitation annually, which occurs during the winter and spring with light rain showers, but sometimes as heavy rainfall and thunderstorms. Coastal Torrance receives less rainfall, while the mountains receive more. Snowfall is rare in the city basin, but the mountains within city limits receive snowfall every winter.
Old Towne, Orange Historic District
Palmdale is a city in northern Los Angeles County in the U. S. state of California. The city lies in the Antelope Valley region of Southern California; the San Gabriel Mountains separate Palmdale from the city of Los Angeles to the south. On August 24, 1962, Palmdale became the first community in the Antelope Valley to incorporate. Forty seven years in November 2009, voters approved making it a charter city. Palmdale's population was 152,750 at the 2010 census, up from 116,670 at the 2000 census. Palmdale is the 33rd most populous city in California. Together with its immediate northern neighbor of the city of Lancaster, the Palmdale/Lancaster urban area had an estimated population of 513,547 as of 2013. Populated by different cultures for an estimated 11,000 years, the Antelope Valley was a trade route for Native Americans traveling from Arizona and New Mexico to California’s coast. "Palmenthal", the first European settlement within the limits of Palmdale, was established as a village on April 20, 1886, by westward Lutheran travelers from the American Midwest of German and Swiss descent.
According to area folklore, the travelers had been told they would know they were close to the ocean when they saw palm trees. Never having seen palm trees before, they mistook the local Joshua trees for palms and so named their settlement after them. According to David L. Durham Joshua trees were sometimes called yucca palms at the time, the reason for the name; the village was established upon the arrival of a post office on June 17, 1888. By the 1890s farming families continued to migrate to Palmenthal and nearby Harold to grow grain and fruit. However, most of these settlers were unfamiliar with farming in a desert climate, so when the drought years occurred, most abandoned their settlement. By 1899, only one family was left in the original village; the rest of the settlers, including the post office, moved closer to the Southern Pacific railroad tracks. This new community was located where the present day civic center is. A railroad station was built along the tracks there; this railroad was traveled between Los Angeles and San Francisco.
The Wells Fargo stagecoach line that ran between San Francisco and New Orleans stopped there as well. The only remaining pieces of evidence of the original settlements of Palmenthal and Harold are the old Palmdale Pioneer cemetery located on the northeast corner of Avenue S and 20th Street East acquired and restored by the city as part of a future historical park, the old schoolhouse now relocated to McAdam Park. Palmdale was first inhabited by Native Americans. Spanish soldier Captain Pedro Fages explored the Antelope Valley in 1772; the opening of California to overland travel through the forbearing desert was due to Captain Juan Bautista de Anza and Father Francisco Garces, a most remarkable Spanish padre. They led a colonizing expedition including 136 settlers across the Mojave Desert from Mexico to Monterey in 1773. In 1776 while exploring the Valley, Garces with several Indian guides from the San Gabriel Mission recorded viewing the vast expanse of what was the El Tejon Rancheria of the Cuabajoy Indians.
After the Shoshone Indians left the valley, immigrants from Spain and Mexico established large cattle ranches there. In the late 1880s, the ranches were broken up into smaller homesteads by farmers from Germany and the state of Nebraska; as the population of Palmdale began to increase after relocation, water became scarce, until November 5, 1913 when the California – Los Angeles Aqueduct system was completed by William Mulholland, bringing water from the Owens Valley into Los Angeles County. During this period, crops of apples and alfalfa became plentiful. In 1915, Palmdale's first newspaper, the Palmdale Post, was published. Today it is called the Antelope Valley Press. In 1921, the first major link between Palmdale and Los Angeles was completed, Mint Canyon/Lancaster Road designated U. S. Route 6. Completion of this road caused the local agricultural industry to flourish and was the first major step towards defining the metropolis that exists today. Presently this road is known as Sierra Highway.
In 1924, the Little Rock Dam and the Harold Reservoir, present day Lake Palmdale, were constructed to assist the agricultural industry and have enough water to serve the growing communities. Agriculture continued to be the foremost industry for Palmdale and its northern neighbor Lancaster until the outbreak of World War II. In 1933, the United States government established Muroc Air Base six miles north of Lancaster in Kern County, now known as Edwards Air Force Base, they bought Palmdale Airport in 1952 and established an aerospace development and testing facility called United States Air Force Plant 42. One year in 1953, Lockheed established a facility at the airport. After this point in time, the aerospace industry took over as the primary local source of employment, where it has remained since. Today the city is referred to as the "Aerospace Capital of America" because of its rich heritage in being the home of many of the aircraft used in the United States military. In August 1956 an unpiloted out of control Navy drone flew over Palmdale while Air Force Interceptor aircraft tried to shoot it down with unguided rockets.
Many rockets landed around the city starting fires and damaging property. In 1957, Palmdale's first high school, Palmdale High School, was established, making it easier for youths to not have to travel to Antelope Valley High School in nearb
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University known as Virginia Tech and by the initialisms VT and VPI, is a public, land-grant, research university with its main campus in Blacksburg, Virginia. It has educational facilities in six regions statewide and a study-abroad site in Riva San Vitale, Switzerland. Through its Corps of Cadets ROTC program, Virginia Tech is designated as one of six senior military colleges in the United States. Virginia Tech offers 280 undergraduate and graduate degree programs to some 34,400 students and manages a research portfolio of $522 million, the largest of any university in Virginia. Virginia Tech is the state's second-largest public university by enrollment; the deadliest mass shooting on a college campus occurred on campus in 2007, during which a student fatally shot 32 other students and faculty members and wounded 23 other people. In 1872, with federal funds provided by the Morrill Act of 1862, the Virginia General Assembly purchased the facilities of Preston and Olin Institute, a small Methodist school in Southwest Virginia's rural Montgomery County.
That same year, 250 acres of the Solitude Farm including the house and several farm buildings on the estate were acquired for $21,250 The commonwealth incorporated a new institution on the site, a state-supported land-grant military institute named Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College. Virginia Tech's first student, Addison "Add" Caldwell registered on October 1, 1872, after hiking over 25 miles from his home in Craig County, Virginia. A statue, located in the Upper Quad of campus commemorates Add's journey to enroll. First-year cadets and their training cadre re-enact Addison Caldwell's journey every year in the Caldwell March, they complete the first half of the second half in the spring. The first five presidents of Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College served in the Confederate States Army or the Confederate government during the Civil War as did many of its early professors including the first Commandant, James H. Lane, a VMI graduate and former Confederate General who taught civil engineering and commerce at the college and is the namesake of Lane Hall, one of the oldest buildings on campus, built in 1888.
Its third president, Thomas Nelson Conrad, was a notorious Confederate spy who ran a covert intelligence gathering operation from a home in the heart of Washington D. C, his wartime exploits included among other things, hatching a plot to assassinate the Commanding General of the United States Army, Winfield Scott, vetoed by the Confederate government who feared that the elderly and obese Scott would be replaced by someone more fit for command. S. President Abraham Lincoln from the White House. In a nod to this southern heritage the Confederate Battle Flag was traditionally waved by cheerleaders at Virginia Tech football games and the Highty Tighties played Dixie when the Hokies scored a touchdown. A large Confederate flag hung inside Cassell Colosseum where Virginia Tech basketball games are played. Since 1963, "Skipper", a replica of a Civil War cannon has been fired at football games by members of the Corps of Cadets when the team scores; the Confederate Flag was prominently featured on all Virginia Tech class rings.
The display of the Confederate flag at athletic events ended in the late 1960s after Marguerite Harper, a black woman attending Virginia Tech on a Rockefeller Scholarship for culturally disadvantaged students, was elected to the student senate during her sophomore year and made a successful resolution to end the practice. Following the resolution there was a large demonstration in opposition to the removal of the Confederate flag; the campus was covered in Confederate flags and Dixie was blasting from dormitory windows. Harper and her white roommate received hate mail and threatening phone calls but the resolution stood and the display of the rebel flag ended in 1969; the Confederate flag on Virginia Tech class rings became optional in 1972 and could be left off of the ring at the student's request. Under the 1891–1907 presidency of John McLaren McBryde, the school organized its academic programs into a traditional four-year college and a graduate department was founded; the evolution of the school's programs led to a name change in 1896 to Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytechnic Institute.
The "Agricultural and Mechanical College" portion of the name was popularly omitted immediately. In 1923, VPI changed a policy of compulsory participation in the Corps of Cadets from four years to two years. In 1931, VPI began teaching classes at the Norfolk Division of the College of Mary; this program developed into a two-year engineering program that allowed students to transfer to VPI for their final two years of degree work. In 1943, VPI merged with Radford State Teachers College, in nearby Radford which became VPI's women's division. Today, Radford University is a co-educational research university and enrolls more than 9,900 students and offers more than 150 undergraduate and graduate programs. In 1953 under the leadership of President Walter Stephenson Newman, VPI became the first white, four-year public institution among the 11 states in the former Confederacy to admit a black undergraduate
Irvine is a master-planned city in Orange County, United States in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. The Irvine Company started developing the area in the 1960s and the city was formally incorporated on December 28, 1971; the 66-square-mile city had a population of 212,375 as of the 2010 census. A number of corporations in the technology and semiconductor sectors, have their national or international headquarters in Irvine. Irvine is home to several higher education institutions including the University of California, Concordia University, Irvine Valley College, the Orange County Center of the University of Southern California, campuses of California State University Fullerton, University of La Verne, Pepperdine University; the Gabrieleño indigenous group inhabited Irvine about 2,000 years ago. Gaspar de Portolà, a Spanish explorer, came to the area in 1769, which led to the establishment of forts and cattle herds; the King of Spain parceled out land for private use. After Mexico's independence from Spain in 1821, the Mexican government secularized the missions and assumed control of the lands.
It began distributing the land to Mexican citizens. Three large Spanish/Mexican grants made up the land that became the Irvine Ranch: Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana, Rancho San Joaquin and Rancho Lomas de Santiago. In 1864, Jose Andres Sepulveda, owner of Rancho San Joaquin sold 50,000 acres to Benjamin and Thomas Flint, Llewellyn Bixby and James Irvine for $18,000 to resolve debts due to the Great Drought. In 1866, Irvine and Bixby acquired 47,000-acre Rancho Lomas de Santiago for $7,000. After the Mexican-American war the land of Rancho Santiago de Santa Ana fell prey to tangled titles. In 1868, the ranch was divided among four claimants as part of a lawsuit: Flint and Irvine; the ranches were devoted to sheep grazing. However, in 1870, tenant farming was permitted. In 1878, James Irvine acquired his partners' interests for $150,000, his 110,000 acres stretched 23 miles from the Pacific Ocean to the Santa Ana River. James Irvine died in 1886; the ranch was inherited by James Irvine II, who incorporated it into The Irvine Company.
James Irvine II shifted the ranch operations to field crops and citrus crops. In 1888, the Santa Fe Railroad extended its line to Fallbrook Junction, north of San Diego, named a station along the way after James Irvine; the town that formed around this station was named Myford, after Irvine's son, because a post office in Calaveras County bore the family name. The town was renamed Irvine in 1914. By 1918, 60,000 acres of lima beans were grown on the Irvine Ranch. Two Marine Corps facilities, MCAS El Toro and MCAS Tustin, were built during World War II on ranch land sold to the government. James Irvine II, died in 1947 at the age of 80, his son, assumed the presidency of The Irvine Company. He began opening small sections of the Irvine Ranch to urban development; the Irvine Ranch played host to the Boy Scouts of America's 1953 National Scout Jamboree. Jamboree Road, a major street which now stretches from Newport Beach to the city of Orange, was named in honor of this event. David Sills a young Boy Scout from Peoria, was among the attendees at the 1953 Jamboree.
Sills went on to serve four terms as the city's mayor. Myford Irvine died in 1959; the same year, the University of California asked The Irvine Company for 1,000 acres for a new university campus. The Irvine Company sold the requested land for $1 and the state purchased an additional 500 acres. William Pereira, the university's consulting architect, The Irvine Company planners drew up master plans for a city of 50,000 people surrounding the new university; the plan called for industrial and recreational areas, commercial centers and greenbelts. The new community was to be named Irvine; the first phases of the villages of Turtle Rock, University Park, Westpark, El Camino Real, Walnut were completed by 1970. On December 28, 1971, the residents of these communities voted to incorporate a larger city than the one envisioned by the Pereira plan. By January 1999, Irvine had a total area of 43 square miles. In the 1970s, the mayor was Bill Vardoulis. After the Fall of Saigon in 1975, a large influx of Vietnamese refugees settled in nearby Fountain Valley in the late 1970s and throughout the 80s, forming a large percentage of Asian Americans in the city.
In late 2003, after a ten-year-long legal battle, Irvine annexed the former El Toro Marine Corps Air Station. This added 7.3 square miles of land to the city and blocked an initiative championed by Newport Beach residents to replace John Wayne Airport with a new airport at El Toro. Most of this land has become part of the Orange County Great Park. Irvine borders Tustin to the north, Santa Ana to the northwest, Lake Forest to the east, Laguna Hills and Laguna Woods to the southeast, Costa Mesa to the west, Newport Beach to the southwest. Irvine shares a small border with Orange to the north on open lands by the SR 261. San Diego Creek, which flows northwest into Upper Newport Bay, is the primary watercourse draining the city, its largest tributary is Peters Canyon Wash. Most of Irvine is in a broad, flat valley between Loma Ridge in the north and San Joaquin Hills in the south. In the extreme northern and southern areas, are several hill
Gilbert is a town in Maricopa County, United States, located southeast of Phoenix, within the Phoenix metropolitan area. Once known as the "Hay Shipping Capital of the World", It is the sixth-largest municipality in Arizona, the fifth-largest in the Metropolitan Phoenix Area. Gilbert encompasses 76 square miles and has made a rapid transformation from an agriculture-based community to an economically diverse suburban center located in the southeast valley of the Greater Phoenix area. In the last three decades, Gilbert has grown at an high rate, increasing in population from 5,717 in 1980 to 208,453 as of the 2010 census; the town grew at an average annual growth rate of nearly 13% during this 30-year period. In 2017, the town's population was estimated to be at 242,354. Gilbert owes its beginnings to William "Bobby" Gilbert who provided land to the Arizona Eastern Railway in 1902 to construct a rail line between Phoenix and Florence, Arizona. Ayer's Grocery Store, the first store in Gilbert, opened in 1910 and became the location of the first post office in 1912.
The location of the town post office moved several times before settling on the east side of Gilbert Road in downtown, where it still stands today. In 1912, many Mormons who had fled the Mormon colonies in Mexico due to the actions of the forces of Pancho Villa settled in Gilbert. By 1915, they began holding church meetings at the Gilbert Elementary School. In 1918, they were organized into the Gilbert Ward. Incorporated in July 1920, Gilbert was a farming community fueled by the rail line and construction of the Roosevelt Dam and the Eastern and Consolidated Canals, it remained an agricultural town for many years and was known as the "Hay Capital of the World" from 1911 until the late 1920s. Gilbert is located in the southeast portion of the Phoenix metropolitan area, it is northeast of Chandler. According to the United States Census Bureau, in the 2000 Census, the town had an estimated area of 40 square miles; as of 2009, due to annexations the current Municipal Planning Area of Gilbert has a total area of 76.0 square miles, of which 75.76 square miles is land and 0.24 square miles is water.
Gilbert has a tropical and subtropical, hot desert type of climate with dry and hot summers, mild to warm winters, with a little amount of rainfall. As of the census of 2010, there were 208,453 people, 74,147 housing units, 3.01 persons per household. Fastest growing municipality in the United States from 1990–2003 4th fastest growing municipality in the United States Ranked by CNN's Money magazine in 2008 as one of the best places to live in the United States One of the top 25 safest cities in the United States 34.5% of Gilbert residents hold a bachelor's degree or higher. Highest household median income in the Phoenix Metropolitan Area with population 50,000+ According to Nielsen's Claritas demographics, in 2009 the racial makeup of the town was: 81.51% White 15.39% Hispanics or Latinos 3.08% Black or African American 0.79% Native American 4.70% Asian 0.23% Pacific Islander 5.97% from other races 3.73% from two or more races2009 estimated population data by gender/age: 31.37 average age male/female 50.22% male 30.03 est. average age 49.78% female 31.82 est. average age 37.14% population under 21 33.25% population under 18 70.01% population over 16 66.76% population over 18 62.86% population over 21 5.30% population over 652009 estimated population age 15+ by marital status: 20.87% never married 66.71% married, spouse present 2.23% married, spouse absent 2.11% widowed 8.07% divorced2009 estimated population age 25+ educational attainment: 92.33% high school/GED or higher 37.5% bachelor's degree or higher 10.46% master's degree or higher2009 estimated household by household income: $109,213 average household income $89,077 median household income $35,559 per capita Income 2.28% of families are below the poverty level Various religious denominations are represented in Gilbert.
The town has been known for its high population of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a fact evidenced by the building of [ dedicated March 2, 2014. According to the town's 2013 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city are: These performers have been associated with Gilbert: Elektrolytes, dance crew that won season 7 of America's Best Dance Crew Lydia, band Scary Kids Scaring Kids, band Lindsey Stirling, violinist and performer. Washington, DC-based CQ Press rated Gilbert the "safest municipality in Arizona, 25th safest in the nation."Since Gilbert remains incorporated as a town, it lacks the additional powers possessed by nearby Mesa and Chandler, which are incorporated as cities. For instance, Arizona towns do not have as much power to regulate utilities and construction within their borders as cities possess. Unlike most of its neighboring communities, Gilbert is theoretically vulnerable to annexation; the town is part of Arizona's 5th congressional district, represented by Republican and Gilbert resident Andy Biggs.
The mayor of Gilbert is Jenn Daniels. Gilbert is rated as a town of low crime. According to FBI records, Gilbert was the largest town in the United States with zero murders in 2005, 2007, 2014. Most of Gilbert is zoned to schools in the Gilbert Public Schools, while other portions are zoned to districts including the Chandler Unified School District, Mesa Public Schools, the Higley Unified School District
Escondido is a city located in San Diego County's North County region, 30 miles northeast of downtown San Diego. The city occupies a shallow valley ringed by rocky hills. Incorporated in 1888, it is one of the oldest cities in San Diego County; the city had a population of 143,911 in the 2010 census. "Escondido" is a Spanish word meaning "hidden". One source says the name referred to agua escondida or hidden water; the city is known as Eskondiid in Diegueño. The Escondido area was first settled by the Luiseño, who established campsites and villages along the creek running through the area, they named the place "Mehel-om-pom-pavo." The Kumeyaay migrated from areas near the Colorado River, settling both in the San Pasqual Valley and near the San Dieguito River in the southwestern and western portions of what is now Escondido. Most of the villages and campsites today have been destroyed by agriculture. Spain controlled the land from the late 18th century to the early 19th century, established many missions in California to convert the indigenous people.
When Mexico gained its independence from Spain, the local land was divided into large ranchos. Most of what is now Escondido occupies the former Rancho Rincon del Diablo, a Mexican land grant given to Juan Bautista Alvarado in 1843 by Governor Manuel Micheltorena. Alvarado was a Regidor of Los Angeles at the time, the first Regidor of the pueblo of San Diego; the southern part of Escondido occupies the former Rancho San Bernardo, granted in 1842 and 1845. In 1846, during the Mexican–American War, the Battle of San Pasqual was fought southeast of Escondido; this battle pitted Mexican forces under Andrés Pico against Americans under Stephen W. Kearny, Archibald Gillespie, Kit Carson. A park in Escondido is named for Carson; the city was home to a Spanish-speaking population in the first census, taken in 1850 when California became a state. After statehood, non-Hispanic settlers came to Southern California in increasing numbers; the decade of the 1880s is known as the "Southern California Land Boom" because so many people moved to the state.
In 1853, pro-Southern Copperheads proposed dividing the state of California to create a new Territory of Colorado. San Diego Judge Oliver S. Witherby suggested placing the capitol of the new territory in Rancho Rincon del Diablo, he envisioned a railroad connecting San Diego to Fort Yuma through an area about two miles south of the current Escondido site, heading east through San Pasqual. With a series of deeds in 1855 and 1856, the rancho was transferred from the heirs of Juan Bautista Alvarado to Witherby, he planned to profit from the town that he believed would be established from the dividing point on the railroad below the eastern hills. The proposal for splitting the state and creating the new territory passed in the California legislature, but died in Congress in the run-up to the Civil War, it was killed in 1861 when Congress organized the Territory of Colorado in the area occupied by the Jefferson Territory. With Witherby's vision of owning a bustling state capitol unrealized, he set up a mining operation on the rancho instead.
In 1868, Witherby sold the rancho for $8000 to Edward McGeary and John and Matthew Wolfskill. McGeary owned half the rancho, while the three Wolfskill brothers each owned an equal share of the other half. John Wolfskill farmed sheep and cattle on the rancho for a number of years. Wolfskill had frequent conflicts with the Couts family, owners of the neighboring Guajome, Buena Vista, San Marcos ranchos, over grazing lands and watering holes. In October 1883, a group of Los Angeles investors purchased Rancho Rincon del Diablo; this group sold the land to the newly formed Escondido Company in 1884. On December 18, 1885, investors incorporated the Escondido Land and Town Company, in 1886 this company purchased the 12,814-acre area for $100,000. Two years in 1888, Escondido was incorporated as a city. Railroads such as the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific were laid in the 1880s; the opening of U. S. Route 395 in 1930 boosted economic growth in Escondido. Escondido was an agricultural community, growing muscat grapes initially.
After a dam was built in 1894-5 to form what is known today as Lake Wohlford and lemon trees were planted in large numbers, as were olive and walnut trees. By the 1960s, avocados became the largest local crop. Since the 1970s, Escondido has lost most of its agricultural land to housing developments. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 37.0 square miles. 36.8 square miles of it is land and 0.2 square miles of it is water. The total area is 0.48% water. The city is growing at a rapid rate with new communities like Hidden Trails appearing at the east end of East Valley Parkway; the city proper is surrounded by several sparsely populated unincorporated communities. These include Jesmond Hidden Meadows to the north. Residents of these communities have Escondido mailing addresses and zip codes, their children are sometimes assigned to Escondido schools, but residents of these communities cannot participate in city elections; the city contains several neighborhoods including: Downtown Escondido centers on Grand Avenue between Centre City Parkway and Palomar Hospital.
The city's general plan defines the Downtown Specific Plan Area as 460 acres (1
Santa Clarita, California
Santa Clarita the City of Santa Clarita, is the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 24th largest in the state of California. The city has annexed a number of unincorporated areas, contributing to the large population increase, it is located about 35 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles, occupies most of the Santa Clarita Valley. It is a notable example of a U. S. edge boomburb. Santa Clarita was ranked by Money magazine in 2006 as 18th of the top 100 places to live. Santa Clarita was incorporated in December 1987 as the union of four unincorporated communities, Canyon Country, Newhall and Valencia, most of which are situated on the land of the former Rancho San Francisco; the four communities retain separate identities, it is common for residents to refer to a specific neighborhood when asked where they are from. Santa Clarita is bounded on the west by the Golden State Freeway; the Antelope Valley Freeway runs northeast-southwest through an irregular east border, the Newhall Pass is the city's southernmost point.
Six Flags Magic Mountain amusement park and Stevenson Ranch are both associated with Santa Clarita, though since both are located west of Interstate 5, neither is within the Santa Clarita city limits. The Santa Clara River was named by Spanish explorers for Clare of Assisi; the valley and the settlement became known as "little Santa Clara" in deference to the Northern California mission and city of Santa Clara, California. In time, "little Santa Clara" became "Santa Clarita." Santa Clarita was incorporated in December 1987. About AD 450, the Tataviam arrived. In 1842, Francisco Lopez made the first "documented" discovery of gold in California; the event is memorialized in an 1842 mining claim issued by Gov. Juan B. Alvarado; the discovery was made in Placerita Canyon, an area used as Hollywood's original back lot. The community of Newhall is named after Henry Newhall, a businessman who made his fortune during the California Gold Rush after opening up the H. M. Newhall & Company, a successful auction house in San Francisco.
Newhall's next business interest was railroads. He invested in rail companies that would connect San Francisco to other cities and became president of the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad. In 1870, he and his partners sold the company to Southern Pacific Railroad, on whose board of directors he sat. After railroads, Newhall turned to real ranching, he purchased a number of the old Spanish and Mexican land grants in the state for a total of 143,000 acres between Monterey and Los Angeles counties. The most significant portion was the 46,460 acres Rancho San Francisco in northern Los Angeles County, which he purchased for $2/acre, which became known as Newhall Ranch after Newhall's death. Within this territory, he granted a right-of-way to Southern Pacific through what is now Newhall Pass, he sold them part of the land, upon which the company built a town named after him: Newhall; the first station built on the line he named for his hometown, Massachusetts. After his death, Newhall's heirs incorporated the Newhall Land and Farming Company, which oversaw the development of the communities that now make up Santa Clarita.
On September 26, 1876, Charles Alexander Mentry brought in the state's first productive oil well at Mentryville, giving rise to the California oil industry. The oil was brought to a refinery at Newhall, now the oldest existing petroleum refinery in the world. A few days earlier, on September 5, 1876, Charles Crocker and Leland Stanford joined their railroads in Canyon Country, linking Los Angeles with the rest of the nation for the first time; the Saugus Cafe, on Railroad Avenue in Saugus, was established in 1887 and appears to be, by far, the oldest still-operating restaurant in Los Angeles County. Filming in Santa Clarita began shortly after the turn of the 20th century with a veritable Who's Who of actors, including William S. Hart, Tom Mix, Harry Carey and a young John Wayne. Hart and Carey made their homes in the Santa Clarita Valley; the Santa Clarita Valley was the scene of the second worst disaster in California's history in terms of lives lost, known as the "worst civil engineering failure of the 20th century".
Shortly before midnight on March 12, 1928, the St. Francis Dam collapsed. By the time the floodwaters reached the Pacific Ocean near Ventura five hours nearly 600 people were dead. Within modern Santa Clarita city limits, the present day site of the Westfield Valencia Town Center mall would have been buried beneath muck and debris; some buildings in Newhall became makeshift morgues. After multiple failed attempts to form a city and at least two failed attempts to form a separate county, the people of the Santa Clarita Valley incorporated the City of Santa Clarita at 4:30 PM on December 15, 1987 after voting in favor of incorporation by a margin of two to one in that year's general election; the other proposed name for the new city, narrowly defeated, was "City of the Canyons." Santa Clarita, according to the United States Census Bureau, has an area of 62.16 square miles, of which 62.10 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Santa Clarita is near the San Fernando fault zone and was affected by the 1971 San Fernando earthquake known as the Sylmar quake.
The city was affected by the 1994 Northridge earthquake, many commercial and residential buildings were devastated by its aftermath, including the nearby Newhall Pass, the Valencia Town Center, Six Flags Magic Mountain. Magi