The Pleistocene is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the worlds most recent period of repeated glaciations. The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period, the Pleistocene is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era. In the ICS timescale, the Pleistocene is divided into four stages or ages, all of these stages were defined in southern Europe. In addition to this subdivision, various regional subdivisions are often used. Charles Lyell introduced the term pleistocene in 1839 to describe strata in Sicily that had at least 70% of their molluscan fauna still living today and this distinguished it from the older Pliocene Epoch, which Lyell had originally thought to be the youngest fossil rock layer. The Pleistocene has been dated from 2.588 million to 11,700 years before present and it covers most of the latest period of repeated glaciation, up to and including the Younger Dryas cold spell.
The end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9640 BC, the IUGS has yet to approve a type section, Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point, for the upper Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. The proposed section is the North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core 75°06 N 42°18 W, the lower boundary of the Pleistocene Series is formally defined magnetostratigraphically as the base of the Matuyama chronozone, isotopic stage 103. Above this point there are notable extinctions of the calcareous nanofossils, Discoaster pentaradiatus, the Pleistocene covers the recent period of repeated glaciations. The name Plio-Pleistocene has, in the past, been used to mean the last ice age. The revised definition of the Quaternary, by pushing back the date of the Pleistocene to 2.58 Ma. Pleistocene climate was marked by repeated glacial cycles in which continental glaciers pushed to the 40th parallel in some places and it is estimated that, at maximum glacial extent, 30% of the Earths surface was covered by ice.
In addition, a zone of permafrost stretched southward from the edge of the sheet, a few hundred kilometres in North America. The mean annual temperature at the edge of the ice was −6 °C, during interglacial times, such as at present, drowned coastlines were common, mitigated by isostatic or other emergent motion of some regions. The effects of glaciation were global, antarctica was ice-bound throughout the Pleistocene as well as the preceding Pliocene. The Andes were covered in the south by the Patagonian ice cap, there were glaciers in New Zealand and Tasmania. The current decaying glaciers of Mount Kenya, Mount Kilimanjaro, glaciers existed in the mountains of Ethiopia and to the west in the Atlas mountains. In the northern hemisphere, many glaciers fused into one, the Cordilleran ice sheet covered the North American northwest, the east was covered by the Laurentide
The Swartberg mountains are a mountain range in the Western Cape province of South Africa. It is composed of two mountain chains running roughly east-west along the northern edge of the semi-arid Little Karoo. To the north of the lies the other large semi-arid area in South Africa. Most of the Swartberg Mountains are above 2000 m high, making them the tallest mountains in the Western Cape and it is one of the longest, spanning some 230 km from south of Laingsburg in the west to between Willowmore and Uniondale in the east. Geologically, these mountains are part of the Cape Fold Belt, much of the Swartberg is part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Swartberg consists of two officially named ranges, the Smaller and the Greater Swartberg Mountains, the Smaller Swartberg are the westernmost of the two. Ironically, this range is the one, including the provinces highest peak. The famous Towerkop towers over the Klein Karoo town of Ladismith at a height of 2189 m, the peak is so named for its cleft peak, according to legend, was split by a spell and subsequent bolt of lightning.
The Greater Swartberg is located to the east, with the line between the two ranges being the Gouritz River, which cuts a gorge directly through the range. This section, almost of a height, is slightly lower in elevation. These mountains are home to the Cango Caves in the exposed limestone basement rocks exposed by upliftment along a 300 km fault line runs along the southern flank of the Swartberg ranges. These are the most famous subterranean system in South Africa, located just north of Oudtshoorn, until the first pass was cut, these mountains were virtually insurmountable, and cut the Great Karoo off from the Little Karoo and from the coast. John Molteno, Beaufort West businessman first surveyed the range for a pass with Andrew Bain and they rode out from Beaufort West on horseback, in 1854, for a week-long ride to traverse the range and plan the routes. The pass was cut and the route completed in only 223 working days and it was a huge economic step for the interior of the Cape Colony. For example, by 1870, an eighth of the countrys wool exports passed through the Meiringspoort, the Meiringspoort provides paved road transit through the Swartberg range, using the route largely carved by a river.
The poort connects the town of De Rust in the south, with the town of Klaarstroom in the north and it offers a spectacular drive through incredible rock formations, and is the setting for an annual half marathon that ends in the town of De Rust. Modern additions mean several different passes now cut different routes through the range and this pass, to the far west in the Klein Swartberge, connects the modern town of Laingsburg and the Rooinek pass in the north, with the Little Karoo to the south. It was built purely by a team of convicts without engineers
The Eastern Cape is a province of South Africa. Its capital is Bhisho, but its two largest cities are Port Elizabeth and East London and it was formed in 1994 out of the Xhosa homelands of Transkei and Ciskei, together with the eastern portion of the Cape Province. Landing place and home of the 1820 settlers, the central and this resulted in several anomalies including the fact that the Province has four supreme courts and enclaves of KwaZulu-Natal in the province. The latter anomaly has fallen away with amendments to municipal and provincial boundaries. The province is made of Mpondo clan. Some of the Mpondo clan went to this province when they were running away from King Shakas war, Mpondo people are more closely related to Xhosa, as they use Xhosa as their main home language. The west is mostly semi-arid Karoo, except in the far south, the coast is generally rugged with interspersed beaches. Most of the province is hilly to very mountainous between Graaff-Reinet and Rhodes including the Sneeuberge, Stormberge and Drakensberg, the highest point in the province is Ben Macdhui at 3001m.
Eastern Cape has a shoreline on its east which lines southward, the west is dry with sparse rain during winter or summer, with frosty winters and hot summers. The area Tsitsikamma to Grahamstown receives more precipitation, which is relatively evenly distributed. Further east, rainfall becomes more plentiful and humidity increases, becoming more subtropical along the coast with summer rainfall, the interior can become very cold in winter, with heavy snowfalls occasionally occurring in the mountainous regions between Molteno and Rhodes. Port Elizabeth, Jan Max,25 °C, Min,18 °C, Jul Max,20 °C, Min,9 °C Molteno & Barkly East, Jan Max 28 °C, Min 11 °C, Jul Max,14 °C, Min, -7 °C The landscape is extremely diverse. The western interior is largely arid Karoo, while the east is well-watered, the Addo Elephant National Park, situated 73 km from Port Elizabeth, was proclaimed in 1931. Its 743 km² offers sanctuary to 170 elephants,400 Cape buffalo and 21 black rhino of the very scarce Kenyan sub-species.
The National Arts Festival, held annually in Grahamstown, is Africas largest and most colourful cultural event, every year for 11 days the towns population almost doubles, as over 50,000 people flock to the region for a feast of arts and sheer entertainment. The Tsitsikamma National Park is an 80 km long strip between Natures Valley and the mouth of the Storms River. In the park the visitor finds an almost untouched natural landscape, aliwal North, lying on a splendid agricultural plateau on the southern bank of the Orange River, is one of the countrys most popular inland resorts and is famous for its hot springs. The rugged and unspoilt Wild Coast is a place of spectacular scenery, Eastern Cape, situated in the beautiful Amatola Mountains, is now famous for the first wine estate in the province. The Eastern Cape is one of the poorest provinces in South Africa and this is largely due to the poverty found in the former homelands, where subsistence agriculture predominates
It is one of the earliest hominins, which are those hominids that comprise the original members and species of the human clade after splitting from the line of the chimpanzees. Homo ergaster is thought to be ancestral to, or as sharing a common ancestor with, or as being the same species as. Some palaeoanthropologists consider H. ergaster to be a variety of H. erectus, that is, others call H. ergaster the direct ancestor of H. erectus, which emigrated out of Africa into Eurasia and branched into a distinct species. Still others dispense with the specific epithet ergaster and make no distinctions among fossils assigned to erectus. The latest discoveries at Dmanisi, suggest that all the groups of early Homo in Africa, including Homo ergaster, are of the same species. The binomial name was published in 1975 by Groves and Mazák, South African palaeontologist John T. Robinson discovered in 1949 a mandible of a new hominin in southern Africa, which he named Telanthropus capensis and which today is classified as Homo ergaster.
That taxon was first applied to a mandible found near Lake Rudolf, Kenya, by Colin Groves and Vratislav Mazák in 1975, dubbed KNM-ER992, it became the type-specimen of the species. A near-complete skeleton of H. ergaster, KNM-WT15000, or Turkana Boy, was discovered in 1984 at Lake Turkana by Kamoya Kimeu and it is dated to 1.6 million years ago and is one of the most complete early hominin fossils found to date. Paleoanthropologists debate the defining of H. ergaster and H. erectus as separate species, although Homo ergaster has gained some acceptance as a valid taxon and erectus are often identified as separate populations of the larger species H. erectus. Sura et al declared that Homo erectus was a source of multiple events of gene flow to the Eurasian continent. The major implication of the analyses of the Dmanisi skull and the finds at Dmanisi is that all the earliest varieties of Homo are of one species. This implies that H. ergaster is subsumed under the taxon H. erectus, derived features separating it from earlier non-Homo species include reduced sexual dimorphism, a smaller, more orthognathous face, a smaller dental arcade, and a larger cranial capacity.
Remains have been found in Tanzania, Kenya, there are broad divisions in the scientific community re interpreting the development of the earliest species of genus Homo. H. habilis is generally accepted as the ancestor of Homo. However, habiliss status as a species within Homo is particularly contentious. It is unclear what genetic influence H. ergaster had on hominins, recent genetic analysis has generally supported the recent-Out-of-Africa hypothesis, and that same kind of analysis may in time designate H. ergaster as the ancestor to all hominins. H. ergaster is believed to have diverged from the lineage of H. habilis by 1.8 million years ago and these early descendants of H. habilis may have been discovered at Dmanisi, Georgia as Homo erectus georgicus. In 2013, a fragment of fossilized jawbone was discovered in the Ledi-Geraru research area in the Afar depression, Ethiopia
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
The scientific name Pithecanthropus rudolfensis was proposed in 1978 by V. P. Alekseyev who changed it to Homo rudolfensis for the specimen Skull 1470. On 8 August 2012, a team led by Meave Leakey announced the discovery of a face, the fossil KNM-ER1470 was the center of much debate concerning its species. The skull was at first incorrectly dated at nearly three years old, predating the Homo habilis species. Since then, the estimate has been corrected to 1 and it is not certain whether H. rudolfensis, H. habilis or some, as of yet undiscovered, third species was ancestral to the Homo line. In March 2007, a team led by Timothy Bromage, an anthropologist at New York University, reconstructed the skull of KNM-ER1470. Bromage said his teams reconstruction included biological knowledge not known at the time of the skulls discovery, a newer publication by Bromage has since increased the cranial capacity estimate back up, from 526 cm³ to 700 cm³. When compared to other older H. habilis fossils like OH24, KNM-ER1470 displays less prognathism and a rounder brain case.
After much debate, but no settlement, fossil KNM ER1813 was found in 1973 by Kamoya Kimeu. When compared to ER1813, ER1470 manifests a larger braincase ranging from 750-800ml, even if sexual dimorphism were considered, the size difference in the mandible and teeth would be too great compared to KNM-ER1813. Fossil KNM-ER1470, a male H. rudolfensis, has massive teeth in comparison to the female H. habilis fossil KNM-ER1813 and portrays a much larger brain case than KNM-ER1813. When KNM-ER1813 and KNM-ER1470 are compared to OH24 and these similarities include smaller orbits, the projection of the mid-face below the nose and a smaller skull size over all. The face was of a juvenile, but had features in common with KNM-ER1470, suggesting that the latter skulls uniqueness is due to being a separate species, rather than a large male H. habilis. Team member Fred Spoor described the face as incredibly flat, with a line from the eye socket to the incisor tooth. The jawbones, which appeared to match KNM-ER1470 and KNM-ER62000, were shorter, the fossils were dated to about two million years ago, being contemporaneous with H. habilis.
According to Leakey et al. the new fossils confirm the presence of two species of early Homo, in addition to Homo erectus, in the early Pleistocene of eastern Africa. Lee Rogers Berger, called the argument weak, and proposed the finds be compared to other possibilities, such as Australopithecus africanus and Australopithecus sediba. Tim D. Leakey replied, I would challenge Tim to find any primate in which you would see the same degrees of variation as those that we are seeing between our new fossils and KNM-ER1802. KNM-ER1802 is a fossil that is thought to be of a Homo rudolfensis
Australopithecus anamensis is a stem-human species that lived approximately four million years ago. Nearly one hundred specimens are known from Kenya and Ethiopia. It is accepted that A. anamensis is ancestral to A. afarensis, fossil evidence determines that the Australopithecus anamensis is the earliest hominin species in the Turkana Basin. Due to an inability to retrieve a collection of fossils researchers are not able to make enough observations to differentiate a lot of the early hominids. The specimen was assigned at the time to Australopithecus and dated about four million years old. One method used to determine the age of the Kanapoi fossils was based on faunal correlation data, based on the limited postcranial evidence available, A. anamensis appears to have been habitually bipedal, although it retained some primitive features of its upper limbs. Leakey determined that this species was independent of many others and it does not represent an intermediate species of any type. Although the excavation team did not find hips, feet or legs, tree climbing was one behavior retained by early hominins until the appearance of the first Homo species about 2.5 million years ago. A.
anamensis shares many traits with Australopithecus afarensis and may well be its direct predecessor. Fossil records for A. anamensis have been dated to between 4.2 and 3.9 million years ago, with recent findings from stratigraphic sequences dating to about 4. 1–4. 2 million years ago. Specimens have been found two layers of volcanic ash, dated to 4.17 and 4.12 million years. The fossils include upper and lower jaws, cranial fragments, in addition to this, the aforementioned fragment of humerus found thirty years ago at the same site at Kanapoi has now been assigned to this species. In 2006, a new A. anamensis find was officially announced, one site known as Asa Issie provided 30 A. anamensis fossils. These new fossils, sampled from a context, include the largest hominid canine tooth yet recovered. Ardipithecus was a primitive hominid, considered the next known step below Australopithecus on the evolutionary tree. Australopithecus anamensis was found in Kenya, specifically at Allia Bay, through analysis of stable isotope data, it is believed that their environment had more closed woodland canopies surrounding Lake Turkana than are present today.
The greatest density of woodlands at Allia Bay was along the ancestral Omo River, there was believed to be more open savanna in the basin margins or uplands. Similarly at Allia Bay, it is suggested that the environment was much wetter, while it is not definitive, it could have been possible that nut or seed-bearing trees could have been present at Allia Bay, however more research is needed
The Holocene is the geological epoch that began after the Pleistocene at approximately 11,700 years before present. The term Recent has often used as an exact synonym of Holocene. The Holocene is part of the Quaternary period and its name comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος and καινός, meaning entirely recent. It has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS1, given these, a new term, Anthropocene, is specifically proposed and used informally only for the very latest part of modern history involving significant human impact. It is accepted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy that the Holocene started approximately 11,700 years ago, the epoch follows the Pleistocene and the last glacial period. The Holocene can be subdivided into five time intervals, or chronozones, based on climatic fluctuations, Boreal, Atlantic and they find a general correspondence across Eurasia and North America, though the method was once thought to be of no interest. The scheme was defined for Northern Europe, but the changes were claimed to occur more widely.
The periods of the include a few of the final pre-Holocene oscillations of the last glacial period. Paleontologists have not defined any faunal stages for the Holocene, if subdivision is necessary, periods of human technological development, such as the Mesolithic and Bronze Age, are usually used. However, the time periods referenced by these terms vary with the emergence of those technologies in different parts of the world, the Holocene may be divided evenly into the Hypsithermal and Neoglacial periods, the boundary coincides with the start of the Bronze Age in Europe. According to some scholars, a division, the Anthropocene, has now begun. Continental motions due to plate tectonics are less than a kilometre over a span of only 10,000 years, ice melt caused world sea levels to rise about 35 m in the early part of the Holocene. The sea level rise and temporary land depression allowed temporary marine incursions into areas that are now far from the sea, Holocene marine fossils are known, for example, from Vermont and Michigan.
Other than higher-latitude temporary marine incursions associated with depression, Holocene fossils are found primarily in lakebed, floodplain. Holocene marine deposits along low-latitude coastlines are rare because the rise in sea levels during the period exceeds any likely tectonic uplift of non-glacial origin, post-glacial rebound in the Scandinavia region resulted in the formation of the Baltic Sea. The region continues to rise, still causing weak earthquakes across Northern Europe, the equivalent event in North America was the rebound of Hudson Bay, as it shrank from its larger, immediate post-glacial Tyrrell Sea phase, to near its present boundaries. Climate has been stable over the Holocene. It appears that this was influenced by the glacial ice remaining in the Northern Hemisphere until the date
Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct homininae species that is dated to about 7 million years ago, during the Miocene epoch, possibly very close to the time of the chimpanzee–human divergence. Few specimens are known, other than the partial skull nicknamed Toumaï, existing fossils include a relatively small cranium named Toumaï, five pieces of jaw, and some teeth, making up a head that has a mixture of derived and primitive features. The braincase, being only 320 cm³ to 380 cm³ in volume, is similar to that of extant chimpanzees and is less than the approximate human volume of 1350 cm³. The teeth, brow ridges, and facial structure differ markedly from those found in Homo sapiens, cranial features show a flatter face, u-shaped dental arcade, small canines, an anterior foramen magnum, and heavy brow ridges. No postcranial remains have been recovered, the only known skull suffered a large amount of distortion during the time of fossilisation and discovery, as the cranium is dorsoventrally flattened, and the right side is depressed.
Sahelanthropus tchadensis may have walked on two legs, upon examination of the foramen magnum in the primary study, the lead author speculated that a bipedal gait would not be unreasonable based on basicranial morphology similar to more recent hominins. Further, according to recent information, what might be a femur of a hominid was discovered near the cranium—but which has not been published nor accounted for. All known material of Sahelanthropus was found between July 2001 and March 2002 at three sites, TM247, TM266, which yielded most of the material, including a cranium and a femur, and TM292. The discoverers claimed that S. tchadensis is the oldest known human ancestor after the split of the line from that of chimpanzees. The bones were found far from most previous hominin fossil finds, however, an Australopithecus bahrelghazali mandible was found in Chad by Mamelbaye Tomalta and Alain Beauvilain, Michel Brunet and Aladji H. E. With the sexual dimorphism known to have existed in early hominins, Sahelanthropus may represent a common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, though no consensus has been reached yet by the scientific community.
The original placement of species as a human ancestor but not a chimpanzee ancestor would complicate the picture of human phylogeny. Another possibility is that Toumaï is related to humans and chimpanzees, but is the ancestor of neither. Brigitte Senut and Martin Pickford, the discoverers of Orrorin tugenensis, even if this claim is upheld the find would lose none of its significance, because at present, very few chimpanzee or gorilla ancestors have been found anywhere in Africa. Thus if S. tchadensis is a relative of the chimpanzees or gorillas. And S. tchadensis does indicate that the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees is unlikely to closely resemble extant chimpanzees, some researchers consider suggestions that Sahelanthropus is too early to be a human ancestor to have evaporated. Sediment isotope analysis of atoms in the fossil yielded an age of about 7 million years. In fact, Toumaï may have been reburied in the recent past, taphonomic analysis reveals the likelihood of one, perhaps two, burial
Members of the human clade, that is, the Hominina, including Homo and those species of the australopithecines that arose after the split from the chimpanzees, are called homininans. Not all homininans are directly related to the emergence of early Homo and this is a modern cladogram, For each clade, the cladogram above shows approximately when newer extant clades emerged. Some texts refer to Homonini as the Hominina branch, the subtribe Hominina is the human branch, that is, it contains only the genus Homo. Researchers proposed the taxon Hominini on the basis that the least similar species of a trichotomy should be separated from the other two. The common chimpanzee and the bonobo of the genus Pan are the closest living relatives to humans. All the extinct genera listed to the right are ancestral to, or offshoots of, both Orrorin and Sahelanthropus existed around the time of the split, and so may be ancestral to both Pan and Homo. In the proposal of Mann and Weiss, the tribe Hominini includes Pan as well as Homo and all bipedal apes are referred to the subtribe Hominina, while Pan is assigned to the subtribe Panina.
Wood discusses the different views of this taxonomy, the assumption of late hybridization was in particular based on the similarity of the X chromosome in humans and chimpanzees, suggesting a divergence as late as some 4 million years ago. Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct species that lived seven million years ago. Human Timeline – Smithsonian, National Museum of Natural History
The Khoikhoi or Khoi, spelled Khoekhoe in standardised Khoekhoe/Nama orthography, are a group of Khoisan people native to southwestern Africa. Unlike the neighbouring hunter-gatherer San people, the Khoikhoi traditionally practised nomadic pastoral agriculture, when European immigrants colonised the area after 1652, the Khoikhoi maintained large herds of Nguni cattle in the Cape region. The Dutch settlers labelled them Hottentots, in imitation of the sound of the sounds that are characteristic of the Khoekhoe language. The Khoikhoi, originally part of a culture and language group to be found across Southern Africa. Southward migration of the group was steady, eventually reaching the Cape approximately 2,000 years ago. Khoikhoi subgroups include the Namaqua to the west, the Korana of mid-South Africa, advancing Bantu in the 3rd century AD encroached on the Khoikhoi territory, forcing movement into more arid areas. There was some intermarriage between migratory Khoi bands living around what is today Cape Town and the San, however the two groups remained culturally distinct as the Khoikhoi continued to graze livestock and the San to subsist on hunting-gathering.
The Khoi first encountered Portuguese explorers and merchants around AD1500, the ongoing encounters were often violent. Local population dropped when the Khoi were exposed to smallpox by Europeans, warfare against Europeans flared when the Dutch East India Company enclosed traditional grazing land for farms. Over the following century, the Khoi were steadily driven off their land, Khoikhoi social organisation was profoundly damaged and, in the end, destroyed by colonial expansion and land seizure from the late 17th century onwards. As social structures broke down, some Khoikhoi people settled on farms and became bondsmen or farm workers, others were incorporated into existing clan, like many Khoikhoi and mixed-race people, the Griqua left the Cape Colony and migrated into the interior. Responding to the influence of missionaries, they formed the states of Griqualand West, by the early 1800s, the remaining Khoi of the Cape Colony suffered from restricted civil rights and discriminatory laws on land ownership.
The more cynical motive was probably to create a buffer-zone on the Capes frontier, the settlements thrived and expanded, and Kat River quickly became a large and successful region of the Cape that subsisted more or less autonomously. The people were predominantly Afrikaans-speaking Gonaqua Khoi, but the settlement began to attract other Khoi, the Khoi were known at the time for being very good marksmen, and were often invaluable allies of the Cape Colony in its frontier wars with the neighbouring Xhosa. In the Seventh Frontier War against the Gcaleka Xhosa, the Khoi gunmen from Kat River distinguished themselves under their leader Andries Botha in the assault on the Amatola fastnesses. However harsh laws were implemented in the Eastern Cape, to encourage the Khoi to leave their lands in the Kat River region. The growing resentment exploded in 1850, when the Xhosa rose against the Cape Government, large numbers of Khoi for the first time joined the Xhosa rebels. However, this principle was eroded in the late 1880s by a literacy test
The adze is a cutting tool shaped somewhat like an axe that dates back to the stone age. It can be any tool with a cutting edge. Adzes are used for smoothing or carving wood in hand woodworking, similar to an axe, the blade of an adze is set at right angles to the tools shaft, in contrast to an axes blade, which is in plane with the shaft. A similar, but blunt, tool used for digging in hard ground is called a mattock, the adze is depicted in ancient Egypt art from the Old Kingdom onward. Originally the adze blades were made of stone, but already in the Predynastic Period copper adzes had all, while stone blades were fastened to the wooden handle by tying, metal blades had sockets into which the handle was fitted. Examples of Egyptian adzes can be found in museums and on the Petrie Museum website, a depiction of an adze was used as a hieroglyph, representing the consonants stp and used as. Pharaoh XX, chosen of God/Goddess YY. The ahnetjer depicted as an instrument, was used in the Opening of the Mouth ceremony.
It was apparently the foreleg of a freshly sacrificed bull or cow with which the mouth was touched, as iron-age technology moved south into Africa with migrating ancient Egyptians, they carried their technology with them, including adzes. Prehistoric Māori adzes from New Zealand, used for carving, were made from nephrite. At the same time on Henderson Island, a coral island in eastern Polynesia lacking any rock other than limestone. American Northwest coast native peoples traditionally used adzes for both construction and art. Northwest coast adzes take two forms, hafted and D-handle, the hafted form is similar in form to a European adze with the haft constructed from a natural crooked branch which approximately forms a 60% angle. The thin end is used as the handle and the end is flattened and notched such that an adze iron can be lashed to it. Modern hafts are sometimes constructed from a blank with a dowel added for strength at the crook. The second form is the D-handle adze which is basically an iron with a directly attached handle.
The D-handle therefore provides no mechanical leverage, Northwest coast adzes are often classified by size and iron shape vs. role. As with European adzes, iron shapes include straight, final surfacing is sometimes performed with a crooked knife. Ground stone adzes are still in use by a variety of people in Irian Jaya, Papua New Guinea, the hardstone is ground on a riverine rock with the help of water until it has got the desired shape