St Kilda, Victoria
St Kilda is an inner suburb of the metropolitan area of Melbourne, Australia, 6 km south-east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Port Phillip. At the 2016 Census, St Kilda had a population of 20,230. St Kilda was named by Charles La Trobe, after a schooner, Lady of St Kilda, which moored at the main beach for much of 1841, the ship's master and early settler Lieutenant James Ross Lawrence. During the Victorian and Edwardian eras, St Kilda became a favoured suburb of Melbourne's elite, many palatial mansions were constructed along its hills and waterfront. Shortly after the turn of the 20th century, St Kilda served a similar function for Melburnians as did Coney Island to the residents of New York City. Densely populated postwar St Kilda became Melbourne's red-light district, home to low-cost rooming houses. Since the late 1960s, St Kilda has become known for its culture of bohemianism and as home to many prominent artists and subcultures, including punk and LGBT.
While some of these groups still maintain a presence in St Kilda, in recent years the district has experienced rapid gentrification pushing many lower socio-economic groups out to other areas. St Kilda is home to many of Melbourne's visitor attractions including Luna Park, the Esplanade Hotel, Acland Street and Fitzroy Street, it is home to several theatres and many of Melbourne's big events and festivals. Before being named St Kilda in 1841 by Charles La Trobe, superintendent of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, the area was known by several names, including'Green Knoll','Punk Town' and'The Village of Fareham', it was named after the schooner Lady of St Kilda, owned between 1834 and 1840 by Sir Thomas Acland. In 1840 Thomas Acland sold the vessel to Jonathan Cundy Pope of Plymouth who sailed for Port Phillip in Melbourne in February 1841; the vessel was moored at the main beach for most of that year, soon known as "the St Kilda foreshore."The schooner Lady of St Kilda was named in honour of Lady Grange, imprisoned on the island of Hirta, the largest island in the St Kilda archipelago, on the western edge of Scotland, by her husband in 1734–40.
Kulin people lived in Euroe Yroke for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years. Evidence has been found of shellfish middens and huts along Albert Park and Lake and axes which were most sharpened on the sandstone cliffs behind the main beach. Corroborees were held at the historic tree which still stands at St Kilda Junction, at the corner of Fitzroy Street and Queens Road. Much of the area north of present-day Fitzroy Street was swampland, part of the Yarra River Delta which comprised vast areas of wetlands and sparse vegetation; the first European settler in St Kilda was Benjamin Baxter in around 1839. He was a settler from Melbourne on a grazing lease. In 1840, St Kilda was the home to Melbourne's first quarantine station for Scottish immigrants; the area was named St Kilda in 1841. The first sale of Crown lands in St Kilda took place on 7 December 1842; the first block was bought by James Ross Lawrence, master of the Lady of St Kilda until 1842. Lawrence had now settled in Melbourne, his block was bounded by three unmade roads.
One of these roads he named Acland Street after Thomas Acland, his employer until 1840 but who had never been to Port Phillip District. The remaining two became The Esplanade. By 1845, Lawrence had sold the land on which he had built a cottage; the land on the sea-side of The Esplanade has continued to be Crown land. Within a few years, St Kilda became a fashionable area for wealthy settlers and the indigenous peoples were driven out to surrounding areas; the high ground above the beach offered a cool fresh breeze during Melbourne's hot summer months. St Kilda became a separate municipality on 24 April 1857, in the same year, the railway line and railway station connected St Kilda to Melbourne city and a loop line to Windsor; these railway lines brought many visitors to St Kilda and increased patronage to the run sea baths, the jetty promenade and the St Kilda Cup and bowling clubs were formed in 1855 and 1865. By the mid-1860s St Kilda had about fifteen hotels including the George the Seaview.
St Kilda's population more than doubled between 1890 to about 19,000 persons. During the Land Boom of the 1880s, St Kilda became a densely populated district of great stone mansions and palatial hotels along the seaside streets such as Fitzroy Street, Grey Street and Acland Street the area once known as St Kilda Hill centred between Wellington Street, Alma Road, former High Street and Chapel Street; the Esplanade Hotel was built in 1878 overlooking St Kilda Beach and the George Hotel was built in 1889 at the railway terminus on Fitzroy Street, on the site of the Seaview hotel. The lower inland areas of St Kilda East were not so wealthy and included many smaller, semi detached cottages, many constructed of timber. Much of the area, now St Kilda West was swampland, but was reclaimed and subdivided in the 1870s. Cable tram lines were opened in 1888 and 1891 to run from the Melbourne central city area along St Kilda Road to St Kilda Junction and branch out along Wellington and Fitzroy Streets. During the Depression of the 1890s, however, St Kilda began to decline.
Many wealthy families had lost much of their fortunes and several of the large mansions were subdivided for apartment or boarding-house accommodation. After a cable tram line was extended south from the Melbourne central city area, the seaside area beca
The Mornington Peninsula is a peninsula located south-east of Melbourne, Australia. It is surrounded by Port Phillip to the west, Western Port to the east and Bass Strait to the south, is connected to the mainland in the north. Geographically, the peninsula begins its protrusion from the mainland in the area between Pearcedale and an area south of Frankston; the area was home to the Mayone-bulluk and Boonwurrung-Balluk clans and formed part of the Boonwurrung nation's territory prior to European settlement. Much of the peninsula has been cleared for agriculture and settlements. However, small areas of the native ecology remain in the peninsula's south and west, some of, protected by the Mornington Peninsula National Park. In 2002, around 180,000 people lived on the peninsula and in nearby areas, most in the built-up towns on its western shorelines which are sometimes regarded as outlying suburbs of greater Melbourne. On the 30th of June 2017, the Mornington Peninsula population was recorded at 163,847 people.
However, in the peak of summer the population increases to 225,000-250,000 people each year becoming the most populous coastal holiday area in Victoria with a larger population than Hobart. The peninsula is a local tourist region, with popular natural attractions such as the variety of beaches both sheltered and open-sea and many scenic sights and views. Other popular attractions include the various wineries and the diverse array of water sports made available by the diversity of beaches and calm waters of Port Phillip and Western Port. Most visitors to the peninsula are residents of Melbourne who camp, rent villas and share houses or stay in private beach houses; the peninsula was formed by the flooding of Port Phillip Bay after the end of the glacial period about 10000 BC. It may have extended into Port Phillip at various times, most between 800 BC and 1000 AD when Port Phillip Bay may have dried out. Indigenous Australians of the Mayone-bulluk and Boonwurrung-Balluk clans lived on the peninsula as part of the Boonwurrung People's territory prior to European settlement.
The territory hosted six clans who lived along the Victorian coast from the Werribee River across to Western Port Bay and Wilsons Promontory. The peninsula may have been home to between 100 – 500 people prior to European settlement; the first European settlement on the Mornington Peninsula was the first settlement in Victoria, situated in what is now Sorrento. The Sullivan's Bay settlement was a short-lived penal colony established in 1803, 30 years before the establishment of Melbourne, by Lieutenant-Colonel David Collins. At the time of European settlement in 1803 much of the Mornington Peninsula was covered with she-oak forests; these were cleared to provide firewood for the growing city of Melbourne, much of the peninsula was covered with fruit orchards. Much natural vegetation still exists in an area of bushland in the south known as Greens Bush, the coastal fringe bordering Bass Strait and Western Port Bay. Most large areas of bushland are now included within the Mornington Peninsula National Park.
As serious farming has declined, hobby farmers with an interest in the aesthetic and the natural environment have taken over much of the peninsula. This has led to an expansion of natural bushland on private property, many native species, such as koalas, are becoming common; the local council has a slight lean towards sustainable practices. On 17 December 1967, Prime Minister Harold Holt went swimming at Cheviot Beach on what is now Point Nepean National Park. At the time, however, it was still a restricted area. Holt, 59 and had had a recent shoulder injury, plunged into the surf, he was never seen again. Despite an extensive search his body was never found, he was presumed dead on 19 December 1967. In 2016, 17.8% of people in Mornington Peninsula Shire were born overseas. 8.9% of the total population were born in the United Kingdom being the largest migrant group in the region.. 1.4% were born in New Zealand, 0.7% were born in Italy, 0.6% were born in Germany and 0.6% were born in the Netherlands.
This was followed by smaller migrant groups from Ireland, United States of America, South Africa and Greece. While 88.9% of the population speak English the Mornington Peninsula population can speak other popular languages. 1.0% speak Italian, 0.7% speak Greek, 0.4% speak German, 0.3% speak Mandarin and 0.2% speak French. The peninsula extends from the mainland between Pearcedale and Frankston in a south-westerly direction for about 40 km at a width of about 15–20 kilometres, it begins to extend 15 km in a west/north-westerly direction and tapers down to a width of about 2–3 km before terminating at Point Nepean. Much of the topography is flat in the north where it connects to the mainland, however moving south-west, it soon becomes hilly, culminating in the central hilly landscapes of Boneo, Main Ridge, Red Hill and Moorooduc; the highest point, Arthurs Seat, located unusually close to the shoreline, stands at 305 metres above sea level. The peninsula hosts around 190 km of coastline, its eastern shorelines meet many mangroves and mudflats in the waters of Western Port before it tapers down to form Crib Point, Stony Point and Sandy Point at the peninsula's most south-easterly point.
In the south-east between Sandy Point and West Head, the mudflats give way to sandy beaches which in turn become more and more rocky further south. In the south the peninsula meets Bass Strait and the coastline becomes rocky between West Head and Cape Schanck; the coast between Cape Schanck and P
Gippsland is an economic rural region of Victoria, located in the south-eastern part of that state. It covers an area of 41,556 square kilometres, lies to the east of the eastern suburbs of Greater Melbourne, to the north of Bass Strait, to the west of the Tasman Sea, to the south of the Black-Allan Line that marks part of the Victorian/New South Wales border, to the east and southeast of the Great Dividing Range that lies within the Hume region and the Victorian Alps. Gippsland is broken down into the East Gippsland, South Gippsland, West Gippsland, the Latrobe Valley statistical divisions; as at the 2016 Australian census, Gippsland had a population of 271,266, with the principal population centres of the region, in descending order of population, being Traralgon, Warragul, Sale, Drouin and Phillip Island. Gippsland is best known for its primary production such as mining, power generation and farming as well as its tourist destinations— Phillip Island, Wilsons Promontory, the Gippsland Lakes, the Baw Baw Plateau, the Strzelecki Ranges.
The area was inhabited by Indigenous Australians of the Gunai nation and part of West Gippsland by the Bunurong nation. Before permanent European settlement, the area was visited by sealers and wattle bark gatherers, but who did not settle. Samuel Anderson, a Scottish immigrant from Kirkcudbright and explorer, arrived in Hobart, Tasmania in 1830, in 1835 established a squatter agricultural settlement on the Bass River in Gippsland, the third permanent settlement in Victoria, his business partner Robert Massie joined him in 1837. Both had worked for the Van Diemen's Land Company at Tasmania. Samuel's brothers Hugh and Thomas arrived at Bass shortly after, where they established a successful farming venture. Further European settlement followed two separate expeditions to the area. During his expedition to the South in March 1840, Polish explorer Paweł Edmund Strzelecki led an expedition across the terrain, gave his own names to many natural landmarks and places. Following these expeditions, the area was named "Gippsland", a name chosen by Strzelecki in honour of the New South Wales Governor, George Gipps, his sponsor.
See Count Strzelecki - a magic name in Gippsland Angus McMillan led the second European expedition between 1840, naming the area "Caledonia Australis". The naming of this geographical region, remained the name given by P. E. Strzelecki - Gippsland The township of Bass was surveyed and settled in the early 1860s; the intensive settlement of south Gippsland began late in the 1870s. The story of that process is told in, The land of the Lyre Bird. Gippsland is traditionally subdivided into four or five main sub–regions or districts: West Gippsland South Gippsland the Latrobe Valley East Gippsland. Sometimes a fifth region, Central Gippsland, is added to refer to the drier zone between the Gippsland Lakes and Yarram; the climate of Gippsland is temperate and humid, except in the central region around Sale, where annual rainfall can be less than 600 millimetres. In the Strzelecki Ranges annual rainfall can be as high as 1,500 millimetres, while on the high mountains of East Gippsland it reaches similar levels – much of it falling as snow.
In lower levels east of the Snowy River, mean annual rainfall is about 900–950 millimetres and less variable than in the coastal districts of New South Wales. Mean maximum temperatures in lower areas range from 24 °C in January to 15 °C in July. In the highlands of the Baw Baw Plateau and the remote Errinundra Plateau, temperatures range from a maximum of 18 °C to a minimum of 8 °C. However, in winter, mean minima in these areas can be as low as −4 °C, leading to heavy snowfalls that isolate the Errinundra Plateau between June and October; the soils in Gippsland are very infertile, being profoundly deficient in nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium. Apart from flooded areas, they are classed as Spodosols and Ultisols. Heavy fertilisation is required for agriculture or pastoral development. Despite this, parts of Gippsland have become productive dairying and vegetable-growing regions: the region supplies Melbourne with most of its needs in these commodities. A few alluvial soils have much better native fertility, these have always been intensively cultivated.
In the extreme northeast is a small section of the Monaro Tableland used for grazing beef cattle. Gippsland possesses few deposits of metallic minerals. However, the deep underground gold mines operated at Walhalla for a fifty-year period between 1863-1913. Gippsland has no deposits of major industrial nonmetallic minerals, but it does feature the world's largest brown coal deposits and, around Sale and offshore in the Bass Strait, some of the largest deposits of oil and natural gas in Australia. Like the rest of Australia, the seas around Gippsland are of low productivity as there is no upwelling due to the warm currents in the Tasman Sea. Nonetheless, towns such as Marlo and Mallacoota depended for a long time on the fishing of abalone, whose shells could fetch high prices because of their use for pearls and pearl inlays. For Australian federal elections
Werribee is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 32 km south-west of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Wyndham local government area. Werribee recorded a population of 40,345 at the 2016 Census. Werribee is situated on the Werribee River halfway between Melbourne and Geelong, on the Princes Highway, it is the administrative centre of the City of Wyndham Local Government Area and is the City's most populous centre. Werribee is part of the Greater Melbourne metropolitan area and is included in the capital's population statistical division. Since the 1990s the suburb has experienced rapid suburban growth into surrounding greenfield land, becoming a commuter town in the Melbourne-Geelong growth corridor. Due to this urban sprawl Wyndham and its suburbs have merged into the Melbourne conurbation, it was established as an agricultural settlement in the 1850s named Wyndham and was renamed Werribee in 1904. The suburb is best known for its major tourist attractions, which include the former estate of wealthy pastoralist Thomas Chirnside, known as Werribee Park, the Victoria State Rose Garden, the Werribee Park National Equestrian Centre and the Werribee Open Range Zoo.
The name "Werribee" originated from the Victorian Aboriginal name for the Werribee River, Wirribi-yaluk in Wathawurrung and Boonwurrung, wirribi meaning "backbone" or "spine". It is thought that this name was given as the shape of the Werribee River valley and the landscape look like a backbone. Early leasing of pastures was led by members of John Batman's Port Phillip Association. A rural township began in the early 1850s; this village was named Wyndham. The name derived from a suggestion by the owner of a local village inn, Elliott Armstrong, who sought to honour Scottish soldier Sir Henry Wyndham; the Post Office opened on 12 January 1858 as Wyndham and was renamed Werribee in 1904. However, its adjacent river was called the Werribee River, the town's name was changed to Werribee in 1884, the Shire Council at that time was renamed Werribee in 1909. Werribee at this time was popular for development. Thomas Chirnside, a person famous in this area today, was attracted to the open plain's suitability for agricultural uses.
By 1863 he controlled more than 280 square kilometres around Werribee. Chirnside bought other smaller holdings of land at this time; the town grew helped by a railway line from Melbourne to Geelong, with a station at Werribee in 1857. The Shire was huge, extending from the inner suburbs of Melbourne to Little River to the northward town of Melton and covering 715 square kilometres. Thomas Chirnside committed suicide in 1887, he was found dead in the laundry at Werribee Park with a shotgun lying beside him. His brother Andrew died three years and the property was now divided between Andrew's two sons. A new mansion was built, called "The Manor". In 1881 a quarter of the Shire's population lived in the Werribee Township. There were hotels there, as well as recreational venues such as the Werribee Racecourse as well as the Mechanics' Institute. From 1923 to 1973, Chirnside's property was the site of Corpus Christi College, the seminary of the Catholic Church for Victoria and Tasmania. Werribee's central business district is located along Watton Street.
Werribee is surrounded by several residential suburbs: Wyndham Vale to the north-west, Hoppers Crossing and Tarneit to the north and Williams Landing to the north-east, Point Cook to the east. The market gardens and well-known tourist precinct are found in Werribee South, on the other side of the Maltby Bypass; the area's major regional shopping centre, the Pacific Werribee Shopping Centre is located just across the suburb boundary in Hoppers Crossing. Werribee's town centre and its Civic Centre are located adjacent to the Princes Highway, known locally as Synnot Street. Major local arterial roads Derrimut Road and Old Geelong Road connect the highway to the City of Wyndham's north, as does Cherry Street. Ballan Road is the major arterial to Wyndham's north-west; the CBD links with the Princes Freeway via Duncans Road to the south-east, via Geelong Road to the south west. The Princes Freeway circumvents the township via a section, known as the Maltby Bypass, which opened in June 1961. There are two major railway stations in the area – Werribee railway station and Hoppers Crossing railway station to the north-east, both part of the Melbourne metropolitan network.
Werribee Station is the terminus of the Werribee line. V/Line services to and from Geelong ceased in mid 2015 due to the completion of the Regional Fast Rail Project which sees trains diverted out towards Wyndham Vale. A disused station exists on the line near Werribee Racecourse, which at times has had calls to be reopened. Additionally, tracks have been left spread apart for a future station near Derrimut Road. Further suburban stations to the north and west have been constructed on a new line as part of the Regional Rail Link to be joined with the regional rail network. An extensive bus network links Werribee with neighbouring suburbs, with major bus interchanges at Werribee station, Pacific Werribee and Hoppers Crossing station. Wyndham City Council is one of the highest spending councils when it comes to bicycle infrastructure, thus Werribee is well served with bike paths and bike lanes. Major trails include: The Federation T
HMS Lady Nelson (1798)
His Majesty's Armed Survey Vessel Lady Nelson was commissioned in 1799 to survey the coast of Australia. At the time large parts of the Australian coast were unmapped and Britain had claimed only part of the continent; the British Government were concerned that, in the event of settlers of another European power becoming established in Australia, any future conflict in Europe would lead to a widening of the conflict into the southern hemisphere to the detriment of the trade that Britain sought to develop. It was against this background that Lady Nelson was chosen to survey and establish sovereignty over strategic parts of the continent. Lady Nelson left Portsmouth on 18 March 1800 and arrived at Sydney on 16 December 1800 after having been the first vessel to reach the east coast of Australia via Bass Strait. Prior to that date all vessels had sailed around the southern tip of Tasmania to reach their destination. Lady Nelson's survey work commenced shortly after her arrival at Sydney in the Bass Strait area.
She was involved in the discovery of Port Phillip, on the coast of Victoria, in establishing settlements on the River Derwent and at Port Dalrymple in Tasmania, at Newcastle and Port Macquarie in New South Wales, on Melville Island off the north coast of the continent. At the end of the 1790s the New South Wales Colonial Government had no vessels capable of reaching the outside world. Supply was subsequently condemned. Reliance was unseaworthy. Reliance was temporarily repaired to enable her to sail back to England, whither she departed in March 1800; the only other vessel under the control of the colonial government was Francis, a schooner of only 44 tons. The situation was relieved when Buffalo arrived in May 1799, but the colony possessed no vessels for exploration and surveying. In 1799 the Admiralty's Commissioners of Transport, ordered a cutter of 60 tons, to be built for their own use in the River Thames and called it Lady Nelson, her design followed that of the armed cutter Trial, built in Plymouth in 1789 to a design developed by Captain John Schanck.
Trialwas unusual in that she had three sliding keels, or centre-boards, that the crew could raise or lower individually. Philip Gidley King, in England in 1799, was aware of the lack of vessels in New South Wales, lobbied for Lady Nelson to be taken over for use in the Colony; the cost to the government was said to be £890. He inspected the vessel on 8 October 1799, whilst it was being fitted-out at Deptford, suggested that:as few seamen know anything about the management of a cutter, her being constructed into a brig would make her more manageable to the generality of seamen. Schanck agreed with this change and the Commissioners of Transport were directed to rig the vessel as a brig, not as a cutter like the Trial as had been intended; the ability to raise the keels was a useful feature for a survey vessel required to work in shallow waters. Lady Nelson's draught was 12 feet when she left England provisioned for her voyage; this would draught. The keels were of timber construction with no added ballast.
Lady Nelson was built by John Dudman in the dockyard, known as Deadman's Dock, at Grove Street, Deptford. Lady Nelson's first commander was Lieutenant James Grant, the commission of whom came into effect on 19 October 1799. Lady Nelson was commissioned:for the purpose of prosecuting the discovery and survey of the unknown parts of the coast of New Holland, ascertaining, as far as is practicable, the hydrography of that part of the globe. Philip Gidley King departed for New South Wales in Speedy on 26 Nov 1799 with a despatch recalling the incumbent Governor, John Hunter, who returned to England. King took over as Governor and subsequently played a key part in the affairs of Lady Nelson after she arrived. Lady Nelson was loaded with sufficient provisions for nine months and enough water for six months, at an allowance of one gallon for each man per day, she was not equipped with a chronometer. The beginning of the voyage to Australia was recorded by Grant: On 13 January 1800, the Lady Nelson hauled out of Deadman's Dock into the River, having her complement of men and provisions on board.
Lady Nelson reached Gravesend on 16 January, anchored in the Downs on 20 January 1800. After riding out a heavy gale Grant decided to seek shelter in Ramsgate Harbour. Lady Nelson remained there until 7 February, when she sailed for Portsmouth to await a convoy to escort her past the French and Spanish coasts. Whilst at Portsmouth Lady Nelson's armament, consisting of two brass carriage guns, was increased to six. On 15 March 1800, Captain Schanck, accompanied by Mr. Bayley, of the Royal Academy, paid Grant a visit. Many people who saw Lady Nelson did not consider her suitable to undertake such a long voyage and this caused Grant some difficulty in keeping his crew together and finding replacements for those that deserted; the carpenter, who had deserted when leaving Portsmouth, one other member of the crew were not replaced and one man was put ashore due to illness. When Lady Nelson sailed her complement was therefore only three officers and ten crew. Lady Nelson departed from Isle of Wight, at 6 pm on 18 March.
The convoy consisted of East Indiamen, heading for the East, HMS Porpoise, bound for New South Wales. Shortly after departure it became apparent that Lady Nelson could not keep up with the larger and faster vessels in the convoy. Brunswick therefore took Lady Nelson in tow, but Grant became concerned that the vessel might be strained too much in the heavy seas and therefore, after a couple of days, ordered the hawser to be cast off, prefer
William Buckley (convict)
William Buckley was an English convict, transported to Australia, was given up for dead and lived in an Aboriginal community for many years. According to one source Buckley was born in Marton, England, to Eliza Buckley. In the book The life and adventures of William Buckley his place of birth is, given as Macclesfield. Buckley had one brother. At around the age of six he was being raised by his mother's father in Macclesfield, he was left to enlist in the King's Foot Regiment. He was soon transferred to the King's Own Regiment. In 1799 his regiment went to the Netherlands to fight against Napoleon, under the command of the Duke of York, where Buckley suffered an injury to his hand. In London, Buckley was convicted of knowingly receiving a bolt of stolen cloth, he was sentenced to transportation to New South Wales for 14 years. Descriptions of the adult Buckley vary. According to John Helder Wedge, who met him in 1835,'with his long, matted hair, he was a most awfully savage-looking fellow, standing 6 feet 5 7⁄8 inches in height without shoes, erect in person, well proportioned'.
When Buckley appeared at their camp, James Gumm out of curiosity measured him as 6 feet 7 inches or 6 feet 8 inches. Buckley himself records his height as being 6 feet 5 inches. John Fawkner, at Sullivan Bay when he was 11 years old, states that Buckley's height was 6 feet 4 1⁄2 inches. According to George Russell who met him near the Yarra River in 1836, Buckley stood 6 feet 4 inches tall, but numerous other heights are reported, ranging from 6 feet 3 inches to 6 feet 7 inches. According to Russell, Buckley "was a tall, ungainly man... and altogether his looks were not in his favour. That general description was echoed by other reports of the day, he was represented as being of low intelligence. Buckley left England in April 1803 aboard HMS Calcutta, one of two ships sent to Port Phillip to form a new settlement under Lieutenant-Colonel David Collins, they arrived in October 1803, anchored on the south-eastern side of the bay, near modern-day Sorrento. The new settlement, called Sullivan Bay ran into problems.
It lacked fresh water and had poor soil, so a decision was made a few weeks to abandon the site. After hearing that the settlement was about to move to Van Diemen's Land, at 9 pm on 27 December 1803, Buckley and three other convicts ran away into the bush. One was shot and injured, but the others made their way around Port Phillip Bay, they split up in the vicinity of present-day Melbourne. Buckley's companions went north-east, hoping to reach Sydney, which they thought was not far away, although it was 1000 km away around the coast. Buckley and dehydrated, continued alone around the bay. During the weeks following his escape, Buckley avoided contact with Aboriginal people, travelling around Port Phillip Bay as far as the Bellarine Peninsula. In an account collected by George Langhorne in 1835, Buckley told of his first meeting with a small Aboriginal family group, who gave him immense help and shared food, from whom he began to learn their language, before parting company. In the well known account collected by John Morgan in 1852, Buckley describes travelling much further.
Common to both accounts, however, is his significant first meeting with a group of Wathaurung women, several months after his escape. Buckley had taken a spear used to mark a grave for use as a walking stick; the women befriended him after recognising the spear as belonging to a relative who had died and invited him back to their camp. Believed to be the returned spirit of the former tribesman, he was joyfully welcomed and adopted by the group. For the next thirty-two years, he continued to live among the Wathaurung people on the Bellarine Peninsula being treated with great affection and respect. "By virtue of his age and peaceful ways, Buckley... became a Ngurungaeta, a person of considerable respect among his people and his voice was influential in deciding matters of war and peace." Buckley became expert with Aboriginal weapons, though despite this, as a revered spirit, he was banned from participating in tribal wars. He had at least two Aboriginal wives, certainly a daughter by one of them.
One of these is said to have been killed by the tribe for preferring an Aboriginal man. Buckley recounted information about warfare among the Aborigines. According to Buckley he was a central part of life among the Australian hunter-gatherers, he had witnessed wars and blood-feuds. This information was uniquely important. On 6 July 1835 William Buckley appeared at the camp site of John Batman's Port Phillip Association with a party of Aboriginal people who had told him about the sighting of a ship at Indented Head. Wearing kangaroo skins and carrying Aboriginal weapons, he walked into the camp; the three European men at the camp were William Todd, James Gumm and Alexander Thomson and five Sydney aborigines, left behind to maintain a base
Cape Schanck is a locality in the Australian state of Victoria. It is the southernmost tip of the Mornington Peninsula and separates the wild ocean waters of Bass Strait from the calmer waters of Western Port. At the 2016 Census, Cape Schanck had a population of 446; the most recognisable symbol of Cape Schanck is the Cape Schanck Lighthouse. The lighthouse was the second lighthouse built in Victoria. A prominent rock outcrop is Pulpit Rock and stands out at the tip of the cape. Cape Schanck is home to the RACV Resort Cape Schanck on Boneo Road which includes an eighteen-hole golf course and The National Golf Club on Cups Drive. British-Australian artist Georgiana McCrae produced many of her paintings at Cape Schanck. A keen artist–traveller in the Romantic tradition, Nicholas Chevalier concentrated on effects of atmosphere and dramatic lighting in his depictions of the iconic natural wonders he found at Cape Schanck; the location was named in 1800 after Captain John Schank, R. N. by Lieutenant James Grant sailing on the Lady Nelson.
Schank had designed the raised keel on the Lady Nelson. The spelling of the locality as'Schanck' is a misspelling of Schank. Nicolas Baudin called it Cap Richelieu when he sailed past on the Géographe on 30 March 1802. Cape Schanck Post Office opened around March 1879 and closed in 1962. In 1893 a steamship, the SS Alert, sank off the coast at Cape Schanck during a storm, it was rediscovered after 113 years on the ocean floor in June 2007. Albatrosses are spotted off the cliffs as are short-tailed shearwaters, black-faced and pied cormorants, kelp gulls and Australasian gannets; the shrubs decorating the area are home to brown thornbills, singing honeyeaters and a number of other passerines. The elusive striated fieldwren has been known to inhabit the area; some flora include cushion bushes. Website for Cape Schanck Lighthouse