Powell Foulk Clayton was an American politician and diplomat who served as a Radical Republican Governor of Arkansas during the Reconstruction Era from 1868 to 1871, a United States Senator from Arkansas from 1871 to 1877 and as United States Ambassador to Mexico from 1899 to 1905. He was an officer in the Union Army during the U. S. Civil War, fought in battles in Missouri and Arkansas and was promoted to Brigadier General. Clayton retired to Eureka Springs and promoted the development of the resort town through his activity in the Eureka Springs Improvement Company and the Eureka Springs Railroad. Powell was the brother of U. S. Congressman-elect John Middleton Clayton, President Judge of the Thirty-Second Judicial District of Pennsylvania Thomas J. Clayton and U. S. Attorney W. H. H. Clayton. Clayton was born in Pennsylvania, to John and Ann Clayton; the Clayton family was descended from early Quaker settlers of Pennsylvania. Clayton's ancestor William Clayton emigrated from Chichester, was a personal friend of William Penn, one of nine justices who sat at the Upland Court in 1681, a member of Penn's Council.
Clayton attended the Forwood School in Wilmington and the Partridge Military Academy in Bristol, Pennsylvania. He studied civil engineering in Wilmington, Delaware. In 1855, Clayton moved to Kansas to work as a surveyor, he speculated in land in Kansas and entered politics in 1860 when he ran for the office of city engineer in Leavenworth. In May 1861 Clayton was formally mustered into the United States Volunteers as a Captain of company E in the 1st Kansas Infantry. During the war he served in Arkansas and Missouri and fought in several battles in those states. In August 1861, Clayton received a commendation for his leadership when his unit saw action in the Battle of Wilson's Creek in Missouri, he was promoted to lieutenant colonel of the 5th Kansas Cavalry in December 1861 and to colonel in March 1862. At the Battle of Helena in Arkansas on July 4, 1863, Clayton commanded the cavalry brigade on the right flank of the Union forces and received a commendation for his actions. In August and September 1863, Clayton's regiment accompanied General Frederick Steele's troops in the campaign against Little Rock.
In October 1863, Clayton commanded federal troops occupying Pine Bluff, Arkansas using the Boone-Murphy House as his headquarters. During the Battle of Pine Bluff, he repulsed a three-pronged confederate attack of the forces of General John S. Marmaduke. During the battle, his troops piled cotton bales around the Jefferson County Courthouse and surrounding streets to make a barricade for the Union defenders. Clayton was respected by his enemies. John Edwards, a Confederate officer in Joseph O. Shelby's command wrote: "Colonel Clayton was an officer of activity and enterprise, clear-headed, quick to conceive, bold and rapid to execute, his success in the field has caused him...to be considered the ablest Federal commander of Cavalry west of the Mississippi."While still the commanding Colonel at Pine Bluffs, Clayton invested in cotton and acquired sufficient capital to purchase a plantation in Pine Bluff where he settled after the war. Clayton was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers on August 1, 1864.
When he was mustered out of the service in August 1865, he commanded the cavalry division of the Seventh Army Corps. In 1867, Clayton participated in the formation of the Arkansas Republican party, he attributed his participation in Arkansas politics to confrontations with ex-Rebels on his plantation that convinced him that Unionists required additional protection. In 1866, Democrats took control of the state legislature and nominated two U. S. Senators. However, the Republican-controlled Congress refused to seat them. In March 1867, Congress passed the Reconstruction Acts of 1867 declaring the governments of Arkansas and nine other former Confederate states illegal. Congressional Reconstruction established military rule across the South and General Edward Ord was appointed military governor of the Fourth Military District which included Mississippi and Arkansas, he called for a constitutional convention. Most of the delegates to the 1868 constitutional convention were Republican since few Democrats could take the "ironclad oath" that they had not served in the Confederacy or given aid or comfort to the enemy.
Clayton was not a delegate to the constitutional convention but did participate in the Republican state nominating convention, meeting at the same time. That convention selected Clayton as the Republican gubernatorial nominee and James M. Johnson as the candidate for lieutenant governor; the ratification of the 1868 constitution was contested and violent. Union leagues, Republican clubs, Democratic clubs and the Ku Klux Klan all were involved in campaign activities, it is estimated. On April 1, 1868, the state board of election commissioners announced ratification of the constitution and Clayton's election as Governor of Arkansas. Congress accepted the Arkansas constitution of 1868 as legal. President Andrew Johnson vetoed it, but the Republican-dominated Congress was able to override his veto; the state was readmitted to representation in Congress when Clayton was inaugurated as Governor on July 2, 1868. The new legislature unanimously accepted the Fourteenth Amendment and Congress declared Arkansas reconstructed.
As governor, Clayton faced fierce opposition from the state's conservative political leaders and violence against blacks and members of the Republican party led by the Ku Klux Klan. During this time Arkansas Republican Congressman James Hinds was attacked and
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Harrison, Arkansas micropolitan area
The Harrison Micropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in the U. S. state of Arkansas, anchored by the city of Harrison. As of the 2000 census, the μSA had a population of 42,556. Boone Newton Alpena Bellefonte Bergman Diamond City Everton Harrison Jasper Lead Hill Omaha South Lead Hill Valley Springs Western Grove Zinc Marble Falls Olvey As of the census of 2000, there were 42,556 people, 17,351 households, 12,356 families residing within the μSA; the racial makeup of the μSA was 97.56% White, 0.12% African American, 0.68% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, 0.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.06% of the population. The median income for a household in the μSA was $27,372, the median income for a family was $32,554. Males had a median income of $24,760 versus $18,442 for females; the per capita income for the μSA was $14,982. Arkansas census statistical areas
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Table Rock Lake
Table Rock Lake is an artificial lake or reservoir in the Ozarks of southwestern Missouri and northwestern Arkansas. The lake is impounded by Table Rock Dam constructed from 1954 to 1958 on the White River by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, it is a popular attraction for the nearby town of Missouri. There are several commercial marinas along the lake, Table Rock State Park is located on the east side, both north and south of Table Rock Dam. Downstream from the dam, the Missouri Department of Conservation operates a fish hatchery, used to stock trout in Lake Taneycomo; the cold water discharged from the dam creates a trout fishing environment in the lake. The lake derives its name from a rock formation resembling a table at the small community of Table Rock, Missouri on Highway 165 about a mile and a half downstream from where the dam was built; the lake area temperature varies according to season: Spring: 56 to 77 °F Summer: 85 to 90 °F Fall: 71 to 82 °F Winter: 42 to 47 °F Dam and Outlet Measurements Length of dam: 6,423 feet Length of concrete section: 1,602 feet Maximum height of dam above stream bed: 252 feet Concrete in dam: 1,230,000 cubic yards Earth in embankment: 3,320,000 cubic yards Length of spillway: 531 gross feet Spillway crest gates size: 45x37 feet Outlet conduits size: 4x9 feetDam elevations above mean sea level Top of dam: 947 feet Spillway crest: 896 feet Lake elevations above mean sea level Top of flood control pool: 931 feet Top of normal pool: 915 feet Surface area of lake Flood control pool: 52,300 acres Normal pool: 43,100 acres Maximum storage capacity Flood control pool: 760,000 acre feet Shoreline length Flood control pool: 857 miles Normal pool: 745 miles Other Power drawdown and dead: 2,702,000 Lake total: 3,462,000Power generating data Number of generating units: 4 Rated capacity for each unit: 50 megawatts Station installed capacity: 200 megawatts The original purpose of the reservoir was for flood control on the White River.
The dam had been authorized a month earlier under the Flood Control Act of September 3, 1943. The reservoir has a fluctuation of 16 feet; when the reservoir is above the maximum flood pool, excess water goes over the auxiliary overflow spillway at the north end of the dam. The worst-case scenario of a catastrophic floodwater discharge from Table Rock Lake using the auxiliary floodgates would resemble this: At elevation 931 Table Rock Lake is at full flood capacity; the ten Tainter gates are opened to accommodate additional lake inflow from the White River Basin including the James River and Beaver Lake discharge. At elevation 937 Table Rock Lake is 6 feet above flood capacity; the ten Tainter gates are opened wider in an effort to stabilize reservoir rise. Outflow from the Lake under these circumstances will be nearing 200-300 thousand cubic feet per second. At elevation 942 Table Rock Lake is 11 feet above flood capacity and at its "design pool", or the maximum elevation that the reservoir is engineered to reach, under "probable maximum flood" scenarios.
The dam’s ten Tainter gates will be raised to their maximum height of 30 feet letting loose 550 thousand CFS into Lake Taneycomo. This scenario would submerge and destroy the powerhouse, power transmission grid and wreak serious destruction down stream. An illustration of how Table Rock’s ten spillways might appear under these circumstances mimics this: the floodgates will extend up and out from the structure, like eyebrows, shadowing the concrete spillways! At elevation 947 Table Rock Dam would be at its maximum capacity and water would be at the top of the dam; the auxiliary spillway would be brought online, in concert with Table Rock’s opened floodgates. This catastrophic or "last resort" protocol releases 1 million CFS of lake waters into Taneycomo and deals dreadful destruction to Branson, Point Lookout and the Powersite Dam. At this point there is a danger of water overtopping the concrete dam and breaching the earthen structure, which imminently leads to cataclysmic structural failure and the uncontrolled release of the Table Rock Lake impoundment—nearly 3 million CFS of water.
Table Rock Lake has a record crest of 935.47 feet, which occurred on April 27, 2011. In December 2015, the dam released 72,000 CFS at its peak; this is the highest amount released. Table Rock State Park provides public access to the lake. Six miles from Branson and located just south of the dam and outlet, facilities include a boat launch and full service marina, fishing access, swimming access, picnic area, amphitheater and mountain bike trails, dump station. Area71 is a recreational vehicle resort and general store on Table Rock Lake in Shell Knob, Missouri; the store and restaurant were rebuilt in 2016 with an expanded menu and bait shop. The RV park features views of Table Rock Lake with long term site rental agreements. Seventeen people were killed on July 19, 2018 when a duck boat filled with tourists capsized and sank in high winds on Table Rock Lake
U.S. Route 62 in Arkansas
U. S. Route 62 is a U. S. highway running from El Paso, Texas northeast to Niagara Falls, New York. In the U. S. state of Arkansas, the route runs 329.9 miles from the Oklahoma border near Summers east to the Missouri border in St. Francis, serving the northern portion of the state; the route passes through several cities and towns, including Fayetteville, Bentonville, Mountain Home and Piggott. US 62 runs concurrent with several highways in Arkansas including Interstate 49 and U. S. Route 71 between Fayetteville and Bentonville, U. S. Route 412 through much of the state, U. S. Route 65 in the Harrison area, with U. S. Route 63 and U. S. Route 67 in northeast Arkansas. U. S. Route 62 enters Arkansas from Oklahoma and runs by the Bean Cemetery near Lincoln and the Borden House and Prairie Grove Battlefield Park in Prairie Grove; the route enters the Northwest Arkansas metro area, including the cities of Fayetteville and Bentonville. The route concurs with I-49/US 71 through these communities. In Benton County, the route passes Garfield Elementary School near the junction with Arkansas Highway 127 in Garfield before exiting Rogers.
The route continues east near the Pea Ridge National Military Park and the Missouri state line before entering Carroll County. US 62 winds through the Ozarks, passing through small towns. US 62 passes the Thorncrown Chapel, the Tall Pines Motor Inn, the historic U. S. 62 White River Bridge near Eureka Springs. The route begins a concurrency with U. S. Route 412 in Alpena. US 62/US 412 meet U. S. Route 65 in Harrison. In Marion County, the route meets US 62S in Pyatt and the US 62 Bridge over Crooked Creek outside of town. During this stretch, US 62 crosses two of the nine Arkansas Scenic Byways, the Pig Trail and Scenic Highway 7. Continuing east, the route passes a former alignment of US 62 before entering Yellville. East of Yellville, the route enters Mountain Home in Baxter County and crosses over Norfolk Lake to enter rural Fulton County. After passing through Fulton County, US 62/US 412 enters Sharp County. In Ash Flat, US 62/US 412 serves as the northern terminus of U. S. Route 167. After passing around Cherokee Village, the route enters Hardy.
In Hardy, US 62/US 412/US 63 Business passes four properties on the National Register of Historic Places in Arkansas: the Carrie Tucker House, the Sherman Bates House, the Fred Graham House, Web Long House and Motel. US 62/US 412 meets U. S. Route 63, a patchwork of concurrencies throughout the state; the routes continue together to Imboden, when US 63/US 412 break and continue south, where US 62/AR 115 continues over the St. Louis-San Francisco Overpass headed north into Randolph County and Crowley's Ridge. In Randolph County, US 62 passes by cotton fields until Pocahontas, when the route meets US 67; the route concurs with US 67 east until Corning in Clay County. The route runs east through Crowley's Ridge to Piggott, enters Missouri near St. Francis; the route was a trail known as the Ozark Trail, the main series of routes in the area prior to the construction of U. S. Route 66; the Ozark Trails Association was responsible for maintaining and marking the routes, with William Hope Harvey in charge.
Harvey wanted an auto trail from Oklahoma to his resort town Monte Ne, which he established after retiring from the railroad business. He had grand visions of trails connecting Monte Ne with St. Louis, Kansas City, Wichita and Oklahoma City, points west. U. S. Route 62 from Gateway to Eureka Springs was designated part of The Jefferson Highway, although the highway was not marked and shifted; the highway was listed as a "Proposed Primary Federal Aid Road" on a state map in the first issue of "Arkansas Highways Magazine", but not numbered. The road brought lots of traffic through the hills of Arkansas resistant to development. Eureka Springs was a popular stop on the route, with a vibrant downtown. Nearby Arkansas Highway 23 further added tourists to the community. Further east, cities of Mountain Home and Flippin grew with US 62's traffic. Rough terrain interspersed with large waterways caused the need for large bridges, including the Cotter Bridge and the St. Louis-San Francisco Overpass. A 1981 study indicated a need of 31 climbing lanes from Harrison to Hardy necessary for safety purposes, indicative of the rough terrain.
Some historic alignments of the old road still exist with original pavement. One section, built between 1932 and bypassed in 1952, is located between Busch and Eureka Springs on either side of the White River. On the north side of the river Carroll County Route 109 follows the alignment to the former river crossing, where only concrete bridge piers remain to be seen. On the south side County Route 107 continues southward rejoining the modern alignment; this section was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008
Arkansas is a state in the southern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2018. Its name is of Siouan derivation from the language of the Osage denoting their related kin, the Quapaw Indians; the state's diverse geography ranges from the mountainous regions of the Ozark and the Ouachita Mountains, which make up the U. S. Interior Highlands, to the densely forested land in the south known as the Arkansas Timberlands, to the eastern lowlands along the Mississippi River and the Arkansas Delta. Arkansas is the 33rd most populous of the 50 United States; the capital and most populous city is Little Rock, located in the central portion of the state, a hub for transportation, business and government. The northwestern corner of the state, such as the Fayetteville–Springdale–Rogers Metropolitan Area and Fort Smith metropolitan area, is a population and economic center; the largest city in the state's eastern part is Jonesboro. The largest city in the state's southeastern part is Pine Bluff.
The Territory of Arkansas was admitted to the Union as the 25th state on June 15, 1836. In 1861, Arkansas withdrew from the United States and joined the Confederate States of America during the Civil War. On returning to the Union in 1868, the state continued to suffer due to its earlier reliance on slavery and the plantation economy, causing the state to fall behind economically and socially. White rural interests continued to dominate the state's politics until the civil rights movement. Arkansas began to diversify its economy following World War II and relies on its service industry, poultry, tourism and rice; the culture of Arkansas is observable in museums, novels, television shows and athletic venues across the state. People such as politician and educational advocate William Fulbright; the name Arkansas was applied to the Arkansas River and derives from a French term, the plural term for Quapaws, a Dhegiha Siouan-speaking Native American people who settled in Arkansas around the 13th century.
This comes from an Algonquian term, /akansa/, for the Quapaws, is also the root term for Kansas. The name has been spelled in a variety of fashions. In 1881, the pronunciation of Arkansas with the final "s" being silent was made official by an act of the state legislature after a dispute arose between Arkansas's two U. S. senators as one favored the pronunciation as AR-kən-saw while the other favored ar-KAN-zəs. In 2007, the state legislature passed a non-binding resolution declaring that the possessive form of the state's name is Arkansas's, followed by the state government. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, Missouri to the north, Tennessee and Mississippi to the east; the United States Census Bureau classifies Arkansas as a southern state, sub-categorized among the West South Central States. The Mississippi River forms most of Arkansas's eastern border, except in Clay and Greene, counties where the St. Francis River forms the western boundary of the Missouri Bootheel, in many places where the channel of the Mississippi has meandered from its original 1836 course.
Arkansas can be split into two halves, the highlands in the northwest half and the lowlands of the southeastern half. The highlands are part of the Southern Interior Highlands, including The Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains; the southern lowlands include the Arkansas Delta. This dual split can yield to general regions named northwest, northeast, southeast, or central Arkansas; these directionally named regions are broad and not defined along county lines. Arkansas has seven distinct natural regions: the Ozark Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas River Valley, Gulf Coastal Plain, Crowley's Ridge, the Arkansas Delta, with Central Arkansas sometimes included as a blend of multiple regions; the southeastern part of Arkansas along the Mississippi Alluvial Plain is sometimes called the Arkansas Delta. This region is a flat landscape of rich alluvial soils formed by repeated flooding of the adjacent Mississippi. Farther away from the river, in the southeast portion of the state, the Grand Prairie consists of a more undulating landscape.
Both are fertile agricultural areas. The Delta region is bisected by a geological formation known as Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of rolling hills, Crowley's Ridge rises from 250 to 500 feet above the surrounding alluvial plain and underlies many of the major towns of eastern Arkansas. Northwest Arkansas is part of the Ozark Plateau including the Ozark Mountains, to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, these regions are divided by the Arkansas River; these mountain ranges are part of the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachian Mountains; the highest point in the state is Mount Magazine in the Ouachita Mountains, which rises to 2,753 feet above sea level. Arkansas has many rivers and reservoirs within or along its borders. Major tributaries of the Mississippi River include the Arkansas River, the White River, the St. Francis River; the Arkansas is fed by the Mulberry River and the Fou