George Bird Grinnell
George Bird Grinnell was an American anthropologist, historian and writer. Grinnell was born in Brooklyn, New York, graduated from Yale University with a B. A. in 1870 and a Ph. D. in 1880. Specializing in zoology, he became a prominent early conservationist and student of Native American life. Grinnell has been recognized for his influence on public opinion and work on legislation to preserve the American bison. Mount Grinnell is named after Grinnell. Grinnell had extensive contact with the terrain and Native Americans of the northern plains, starting with being part of the last great hunt of the Pawnee in 1872, he spent many years studying the natural history of the region. As a graduate student, he accompanied Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer’s 1874 Black Hills expedition as a naturalist, he declined a similar appointment to the ill-fated 1876 Little Big Horn expedition. In 1875, Colonel William Ludlow, part of Custer's gold exploration effort, invited Grinnell to serve as naturalist and mineralogist on an expedition to Montana and the newly established Yellowstone Park.
Grinnell prepared an attachment to the expedition's report, in which he documented the poaching of buffalo, deer and antelope for hides. "It is estimated that during the winter of 1874-1875, not less than 3,000 Buffalo and mule deer suffer more than the elk, the antelope nearly as much." His experience in Yellowstone led Grinnell to write the first of many magazine articles dealing with conservation, the protection of the buffalo, the American West. Grinnell made hunting trips to the St. Mary Lakes region of what is now Glacier National Park in 1885, 1887 and 1891 in the company of James Willard Schultz, the first professional guide in the region. During the 1885 visit and Schultz while traveling up the Swiftcurrent valley observed the glacier that now bears his name. Along with Schultz, Grinnell participated in the naming of many features in the Glacier region, he was influential in establishing Glacier National Park in 1910. He was a member of the Edward Henry Harriman expedition of 1899, a two-month survey of the Alaskan coast by an elite group of scientists and artists.
Grinnell was prominent in movements to preserve conservation in the American West. Grinnell wrote articles to help spread the awareness of the conservation of buffalo. For many years, he published articles and lobbied for congressional support for the endangered American buffalo. In 1887, Grinnell was a founding member, with Theodore Roosevelt, of the Boone and Crockett Club, dedicated to the restoration of America's wildlands. Other founding members included Gifford Pinchot. Grinnell and Roosevelt published the Club's first book in 1895. Grinnell organized the first Audubon Society and was an organizer of the New York Zoological Society. With the passage of the 1894 National Park Protective Act, the remaining 200 wild buffalo in Yellowstone National Park received a measure of protection, it was nearly too late for the species. Poaching continued to reduce the animal's population, which reached its lowest number of 23 in 1902. Grinnell's actions led to ongoing efforts by the Department of Interior to find additional animals in the wild and to manage herds to supplement the Yellowstone herd.
This led to a genetically pure viable herd, the survival of the species. Grinnell was editor of Forest and Stream magazine from 1876 to 1911, he contributed many articles and essays to magazines and professional publications, including: "In Buffalo Days", in American Big-Game Hunting, edited by Theodore Roosevelt and George Bird Grinnell, New York, 1893. "The Bison," in Musk-Ox, Bison and Goat, edited by Caspar Whitney, George Bird Grinnell, Owen Wister, New York, 1904 American Sportsman's Library. Grinnell’s books and publications reflect his lifelong learnings about the ways of northern American plains and the Plains tribes. Along with J. A. Allen and William T. Hornaday, Grinnell was a historian of the buffalo and their relationship to Plains tribal culture. In When Buffalo Ran, he describes working buffalo from a buffalo horse. Grinnell’s best-known works are on the Cheyenne, including The Fighting Cheyennes, a two-volume work, The Cheyenne Indians: Their History and Lifeways, his principal informant for both books was George Bent, a Cheyenne of mixed race who had fought for the Confederacy during the Civil War.
George E. Hyde may have done much of the writing. In 1928, Grinnell explored the story of brothers Major Frank North and Captain Luther H. North, who led Pawnee Scouts for the US Army. In other works on the Plains culture area, he focused on the Pawnee and Blackfeet people: Pawnee Hero Stories, Blackfoot Lodge Tales, The Story of the Indian. Of his work, President Theodore Roosevelt said: Selected papers by Grinnell were edited by J. F. Reiger in 1972. Grinnell is interred in Woodlawn Cemetery in The Bronx, New York City. Pawnee Hero Stories and Folk-Tales Blackfoot Lodge Tales ISBN 978-1-4264-4744-0 Hunting In Many Lands: The Book Of The Boone And Crockett Club ISBN 978-0-548-08525-7 The Story of the Indian The Indians of Today American Duck Shooting ISBN 978-0-8117-2427-2 The Punishment of the Stingy Alaska 1899: Essays from the Harriman Expedition ISBN 978-0-295-97377-7 American Big Gam
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, conservationist and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900; as a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is ranked as one of the five best presidents. Roosevelt was born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, but he overcame his physical health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle, he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College.
His book, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the near-simultaneous deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley, but resigned from that post to lead the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. Returning a war hero, he was elected Governor of New York in 1898. After the death of Vice President Garret Hobart, the New York state party leadership convinced McKinley to accept Roosevelt as his running mate in the 1900 election. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously, the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of peace and conservation. After taking office as Vice President in March 1901, he assumed the presidency at age 42 following McKinley's assassination that September, remains the youngest person to become President of the United States.
As a leader of the Progressive movement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established many new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, he expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States' naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, he avoided controversial money issues. Elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, many of which were passed in Congress. Roosevelt groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, Taft won the 1908 presidential election to succeed him. Frustrated with Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt belatedly tried to win the 1912 Republican nomination, he failed, walked out and founded a third party, the Progressive, so-called "Bull Moose" Party, which called for wide-ranging progressive reforms.
He ran in the 1912 election and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Following his defeat, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition to the Amazon basin, where he nearly died of tropical disease. During World War I, he criticized President Wilson for keeping the country out of the war with Germany, his offer to lead volunteers to France was rejected. Though he had considered running for president again in 1920, Roosevelt's health continued to deteriorate, he died in 1919. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 1858, at East 20th Street in New York City. He was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr.. He had an older sister, Anna, a younger brother, a younger sister, Corinne. Elliott was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Theodore's distant cousin, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, his paternal grandfather was of Dutch descent. Theodore Sr. was the fifth son of businessman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.
V. S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Theodore's fourth cousin, James Roosevelt I, a businessman, was the father of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart. Through the Van Schaacks, Roosevelt was a descendant of the Schuyler family. Roosevelt's youth was shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma, he experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents. Doctors had no cure, he was energetic and mischievously inquisitive. His lifelong interest in zoology began at age seven. Having learned the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught. At age nine, he recorded his observation of insects in a paper entitled "The Natural History of Insects". Roosevelt'
Tennessee's 9th congressional district
Tennessee's 9th congressional district is a congressional district in West Tennessee. It has been represented by Democrat Steve Cohen since 2006; the district is located within Shelby County, where the city of Memphis is located. It encompasses most of Millington, it travels south to the district's anchor city of Memphis. Nearly all of Memphis is in the 9th; the district juts out east to capture Cordova, but avoids Bartlett and Germantown. The district is bounded on the west and south by Mississippi respectively; the district is exclusively urban, due to its cohabitant nature with Memphis. Memphis is recognized worldwide for being the hub for FedEx. Due to FedEx's presence, Memphis International Airport boasts handles more cargo than any other airport in the country. Memphis is known for jazz, Beale Street, barbecue, it is the only majority minority congressional district in Tennessee. Politically speaking, it is considered a safe area for Democrats. Since 1875, the area has sent Democrats to Congress with the exception of a brief period from 1967 to 1974 when it was represented by Republican Dan Kuykendall.
Arguably, the district's current characteristics began to take shape in 1925- the first year a congressional district consisted of Shelby County. A congressional district was coextensive with Shelby County from 1925 until 1966, when the Supreme Court case Baker v. Carr took effect. In that ruling, the court laid out a "one one vote" standard. Prior to 1966, the 9th was nearly ten times larger in population than 8th. 1967 was the first year where the district was a fraction of Shelby County rather than the county's entirety. In that election, the district chose former US Senate Republican nominee Dan Kuykendall. In 1974, in the midst of Watergate, Kuykendall supported Nixon throughout the scandal, he was subsequently defeated in election by Democrat Harold Ford Sr. whose family had strong political ties in Memphis dating back to at least the 1920s. The district has swung Democrat in every congressional race since 1974. Ford served in Congress for 22 years, when he was replaced by his son - Harold Ford, Jr. - in 1997.
The younger Ford served for ten years. Concurrent to Ford's senate bid, the district chose state senator Steve Cohen over Ford's brother Jake. Cohen is noted for being Tennessee's first Jewish congressman, for being a white congressman in a majority minority district; as of 2019, Cohen has been elected seven times for a little over fourteen years in Congress. Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming and Idaho. It was established by the U. S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone was the first national park in the U. S. and is widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features Old Faithful geyser, one of its most popular features, it has many types of ecosystems. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion. Native Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early-to-mid-19th century, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. Management and control of the park fell under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, the first being Columbus Delano. However, the U. S. Army was subsequently commissioned to oversee management of Yellowstone for a 30-year period between 1886 and 1916. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, created the previous year.
Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, researchers have examined more than a thousand archaeological sites. Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles, comprising lakes, canyons and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent; the caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geysers and hydrothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone; the park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. In 1978, Yellowstone was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hundreds of species of mammals, birds and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened.
The vast forests and grasslands include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the contiguous United States. Grizzly bears and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in this park; the Yellowstone Park bison herd is the largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, boating and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles; the park contains the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. Near the end of the 18th century, French trappers named the river Roche Jaune, a translation of the Hidatsa name Mi tsi a-da-zi. American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone". Although it is believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is unclear.
The human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago when Native Americans began to hunt and fish in the region. During the construction of the post office in Gardiner, Montana, in the 1950s, an obsidian projectile point of Clovis origin was found that dated from 11,000 years ago; these Paleo-Indians, of the Clovis culture, used the significant amounts of obsidian found in the park to make cutting tools and weapons. Arrowheads made of Yellowstone obsidian have been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley, indicating that a regular obsidian trade existed between local tribes and tribes farther east. By the time white explorers first entered the region during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805, they encountered the Nez Perce and Shoshone tribes. While passing through present day Montana, the expedition members heard of the Yellowstone region to the south, but they did not investigate it. In 1806, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, left to join a group of fur trappers.
After splitting up with the other trappers in 1807, Colter passed through a portion of what became the park, during the winter of 1807–1808. He observed at least one geothermal area near Tower Fall. After surviving wounds he suffered in a battle with members of the Crow and Blackfoot tribes in 1809, Colter described a place of "fire and brimstone" that most people dismissed as delirium. Over the next 40 years, numerous reports from mountain men and trappers told of boiling mud, steaming rivers, petrified trees, yet most of these reports were believed at the time to be myth. After an 1856 exploration, mountain man Jim Bridger reported observing boiling springs, spouting water, a mountain of glass and yellow rock; these reports were ignored because Bridger was a known "spinner of yarns". In 1859, a U. S. Army Surveyor named Captain William F. Raynolds embarked on a two-year survey of the northern Rockies. After wintering in Wyoming, in May 1860, Raynolds and his party – which included naturalist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden and guide Jim B
Sterne–Hoya House Museum and Library
The Sterne–Hoya House Museum and Library is located at 211 S. Lanana, in the city and county of Nacogdoches, in the U. S. state of Texas. It is on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Nacogdoches County and is a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark. Davy Crockett was a guest in the house, Sam Houston was baptized in the house. Adolphus Sterne was an immigrant from Germany. During a sojourn through Tennessee, he became friends with Sam Houston, he moved to Nacogdoches in 1826. Sterne became a munitions smuggler during the Fredonian Rebellion, he was a financier of the Texas Revolution. When Texas became a state, Sterne served in both houses of the legislature. In 1830, he built the house at 211 S. Lanana. Davy Crockett was a guest in the house for two weeks of 1835. Sam Houston was baptized into the Catholic faith in the parlor of this house, thereby meeting the requirements of the Mexican government to settle in Coahuila y Tejas and own property; the house is a 1-1/2 story wood frame construction on a brick pier foundation.
A Victorian porch serves as the entrance. On the same lot, to the rear of the main house, is the servants quarters. Sterne built a stable, smoke house, hen house and corn crib on the property, but they are no longer there. Sterne made repairs in the two decades following the home's original construction. Charles Hoya was a county surveyor in Nacogdoches, operating the Hoya Land Office Building on the downtown square, his father Joseph T. Von der Hoya was a Prussian immigrant. Hoya, his wife Frances, his father lived in the house at 211 S. Lanana, which the Hoya family purchased in 1866; the house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places listings in Nacogdoches County in 1976, became a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1977. The museum and library house many local historic artifacts donated by the Hoyas. Admission is free; the museum is open 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Tuesday through Saturday. Tour groups need to book in advance. List of museums in East Texas Millard's Crossing Historic Village Old Stone Fort Museum National Register of Historic Places listings in Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Nacogdoches County Media related to Sterne-Hoya House Museum and Library at Wikimedia Commons