Bago Bluff National Park
Bago Bluff is a national park in New South Wales, Australia 410 km northeast of Sydney. It is situated south west of Wauchope and includes parts of the former Broken Bago State Forest and a part of Lorne State Forest; the Bago Bluff National Park includes in the northern section the old Bago Bluff Flora Reserve and Six B Flora Reserve. Bago Bluff offers splendid views of the Hastings Valley from the top of the bluff which can be accessed via several forest roads from the south, including Bago Road; the park's northern boundary is on southern side of the Oxley Highway where there are two badly washed 4WD tracks into the park. Quarries in the park have yielded leaf and shell fossils. Birds that may be spotted in the park include: Australian magpies, golden whistlers, green winged pigeons, grey fantails, large-billed scrubwrens, spotted pardalotes, pied currawongs, striated thornbills and white-browed scrubwrens. Lantana has become a problem in the park where it is covering some of the tracks. Protected areas of New South Wales
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes. It is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a sovereign state declares or owns. Although individual nations designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, its World Commission on Protected Areas, has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. While this type of national park had been proposed the United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve, the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain are seen as the oldest protected areas, predating Yellowstone by nearly a century.
The first area to use "national park" in its creation legislation was the U. S.'s Mackinac, in 1875. Australia's Royal National Park, established in 1879, was the world's third official national park. In 1895 ownership of Mackinac National Park was transferred to the State of Michigan as a state park and national park status was lost; as a result, Australia's Royal National Park is by some considerations the second oldest national park now in existence. Canada established Parks Canada in 1911, becoming the world's first national service dedicated to protecting and presenting natural and historical treasures; the largest national park in the world meeting the IUCN definition is the Northeast Greenland National Park, established in 1974. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park. National parks are always open to visitors. Most national parks provide outdoor recreation and camping opportunities as well as classes designed to educate the public on the importance of conservation and the natural wonders of the land in which the national park is located.
In 1969, the IUCN declared a national park to be a large area with the following defining characteristics: One or several ecosystems not materially altered by human exploitation and occupation, where plant and animal species, geomorphological sites and habitats are of special scientific and recreational interest or which contain a natural landscape of great beauty. In 1971, these criteria were further expanded upon leading to more clear and defined benchmarks to evaluate a national park; these include: Minimum size of 1,000 hectares within zones in which protection of nature takes precedence Statutory legal protection Budget and staff sufficient to provide sufficient effective protection Prohibition of exploitation of natural resources qualified by such activities as sport, fishing, the need for management, etc. While the term national park is now defined by the IUCN, many protected areas in many countries are called national park when they correspond to other categories of the IUCN Protected Area Management Definition, for example: Swiss National Park, Switzerland: IUCN Ia - Strict Nature Reserve Everglades National Park, United States: IUCN Ib - Wilderness Area Victoria Falls National Park, Zimbabwe: IUCN III - National Monument Vitosha National Park, Bulgaria: IUCN IV - Habitat Management Area New Forest National Park, United Kingdom: IUCN V - Protected Landscape Etniko Ygrotopiko Parko Delta Evrou, Greece: IUCN VI - Managed Resource Protected AreaWhile national parks are understood to be administered by national governments, in Australia national parks are run by state governments and predate the Federation of Australia.
In Canada, there are both national parks operated by the federal government and provincial or territorial parks operated by the provincial and territorial governments, although nearly all are still national parks by the IUCN definition. In many countries, including Indonesia, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, national parks do not adhere to the IUCN definition, while some areas which adhere to the IUCN definition are not designated as national parks. In 1810, the English poet William Wordsworth described the Lake District as a sort of national property, in which every man has a right and interest who has an eye to perceive and a heart to enjoy; the painter George Catlin, in his travels through the American West, wrote during the 1830s that the Native Americans in the United States might be preserved...in a magnificent park... A nation's Park, containing man and beast, in all the wild and freshness of their nature's beauty! The first effort by the U. S. Federal government to set aside such protected lands was on 20 April 1832, when President Andrew Jackson signed legislation that the 22nd United States Congress had enacted to set aside four sections of land around what is now Hot Springs, Arkansas, to protect the natural, thermal springs and adjoining mountainsides for the futur
Ben Halls Gap National Park
Ben Halls Gap National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 251 km north of Sydney. Protected areas of New South Wales
High Conservation Value Old Growth forest
The High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is a heritage-listed forest located across twelve local government areas in the Northern Rivers, Mid North Coast, New England regions of New South Wales, Australia. The conservation area is known as Old Growth Forest. Broadly speaking, the conservation area forms part of the much larger Gondwana Rainforests, a UNESCO World Heritage site totalling more than 366,000 hectares; the conservation area is owned by the NSW Department of Primary Industries and the NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, both agencies of the Government of New South Wales. The conservation area was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 22 December 2000; the heritage area comprises all those parts, pieces or parcels of land containing HCVOG forest within national parks and nature reserves and state forests in the Upper North East Region as described below: depicted in the Geographic Information System theme in ESRI grid format called "hcovog1_prtctd" in the sub-directory called "Protected_HCVOG" on the CD-ROM, lodged with Department of Urban Affairs and Planning and having the volume label "991221_1516".
The Upper North East Region is the area as described in section 1.4 of the Forest Agreement for the Upper North East Region, New South Wales Government, 5 March 1999. The heritage-listed conservation area is contained within the Armidale Region, Byron, Clarence Valley, Coffs Harbour, Glen Innes Severn, Lismore, Mid-Coast, Richmond Valley and Tweed local government areas. National parksThe following twenty-four national parks form part of the heritage-listed conservation forest area:Bald Rock National Park, Barool National Park, Basket Swamp National Park, Boonoo Boonoo National Park, Border Ranges National Park, Bundjalung National Park, Butterleaf National Park, Capoompeta National Park, Chaelundi National Park, Guy Fawkes River National Park, Gibraltar Range National Park, Indwarra National Park, Maryland National Park, Mebbin National Park, Mount Jerusalem National Park, Mount Nothofagus National Park, Nightcap National Park, Nymboi-Binderay National Park, Nymboida National Park, Richmond Range National Park, Warra National Park, Washpool National Park, Wollumbin National Park, Yuraygir National Park.
Nature reservesThe following nineteen nature reserves form part of the heritage-listed conservation forest area:Burnt Down Scrub Nature Reserve, Chambigne Nature Reserve, Cudgen Nature Reserve, Limpinwood Nature Reserve, Moore Park Nature Reserve, Mount Hyland Nature Reserve, Mucklewee Mountain Nature Reserve, Tabbiemoble Swamp Nature Reserve, Toonumber Nature Reserve, Woodford Island Nature Reserve, Captains Creek Nature Reserve, Couchy Creek Nature Reserve, Demon Nature Reserve, Mann River Nature Reserve, Morro Creek Nature Reserve, Mount-Neville Nature Reserve, Sherwood Nature Reserve, Tallawudjah Nature Reserve, Uralba Nature Reserve. As at 22 September 2017, High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is ecologically mature eucalypt forest showing few signs of human disturbance; the upper canopy trees are no longer growing in height or spreading their crowns and show signs of old age. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest represents the best examples remaining of such forests. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 22 December 2000 having satisfied the following criteria.
The place is important in demonstrating the course, or pattern, of cultural or natural history in New South Wales. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is important for its potential to demonstrate the history of their use and exploitation, as well as key sites demonstrating evidence of Aboriginal occupation over a long time period; the place is important in demonstrating aesthetic characteristics and/or a high degree of creative or technical achievement in New South Wales. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest are by the nature of their tall trees areas of high aesthetic values which are valued and sought after by the community; the place has potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of the cultural or natural history of New South Wales. High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is important for its potential to contribute to our understanding of the life cycle of eucalypt forests; the place possesses uncommon, rare or endangered aspects of the cultural or natural history of New South Wales.
High Conservation Value Old Growth forest is a forest type, now rare or uncommon at a regional and statewide basis. They provide a valuable habitat for a wide range of native animal species including a number of rare and endangered species. Gondwana Rainforests Protected areas of New South Wales Forests of Australia List of World Heritage Sites in Australia Rainforest Way "NSW Government Gazette No 103, Page 5612 of 22 September 2017". 2017. National Parks. "Visitor Information for part of High Conservation Value Old Growth Forest". NSW Government. Forest Agreement for the Upper North East Region; this Wikipedia article was based on High Conservation Value Old Growth forest, entry number 01487 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register publ
The Riverina is an agricultural region of South-Western New South Wales, Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of flat plains, warm to hot climate and an ample supply of water for irrigation; this combination has allowed the Riverina to develop into one of the most productive and agriculturally diverse areas of Australia. Bordered on the south by the state of Victoria and on the east by the Great Dividing Range, the Riverina covers those areas of New South Wales in the Murray and Murrumbidgee drainage zones to their confluence in the west. Home to Aboriginal groups for over 40,000 years, the Riverina was colonised by Europeans in the mid-19th century as a pastoral region providing beef and wool to markets in Australia and beyond. In the 20th century, the development of major irrigation areas in the Murray and Murrumbidgee valleys has led to the introduction of crops such as rice and wine grapes; the Riverina has strong cultural ties to Victoria, the region was the source of much of the impetus behind the federation of Australian colonies.
Major population and service centres in the Riverina include the cities of Wagga Wagga and Griffith. Wagga Wagga is home to a campus of Charles Sturt University, the only local provider of higher education for the region. Wagga Wagga is home to two major Australian Defence Force establishments; the delineation of the Riverina region by government agencies and other bodies varies, but in common usage it comprises the agricultural and pastoral areas of New South Wales, west of the Great Dividing Range and in the drainage basin of the snow-fed Murray and Murrumbidgee Rivers. The northern boundary beyond the Riverina is determined by the Lachlan River catchment area and is referred to as the Central West. Along the Murray to the south, the Riverina borders the state of Victoria. West of the confluence of the Murray and Murrumbidgee is the beginning of the more arid Far West region. In general, the Riverina is an alluvial plain formed by deposition carried from the Great Dividing Range by streams between 30,000 and 15,000 years ago.
The terrain includes rolling hills to the east but becomes flatter to the west with most of that plain reaching less than 200 metres above sea level. The western Riverina consists of featureless saltbush plain; the geology of the Riverina comprises sedimentary basins. The western Riverina is presumed to be a continuation of the Ballarat and Bendigo geological zone while eastern sections are underlain by western portions of the Lachlan Fold Belt. There is potential for the Riverina to host several mineral deposit types including coal, coal seam methane, orogenic gold, Cobar style polymetallic systems, heavy mineral sands and diamonds in these fold belt rocks and basins. Riverina soils are sandy along the river channels, with more saline grey and brown clays found on flooded areas on the perimeter of the floodplain; as the Murrumbidgee passes downstream, the water and soil become more saline. The Riverina is drained by the large Murray-Darling Basin. Rivers and streams in the Riverina flow east to west.
As well as the Murray and Lachlan, other streams include Billabong Creek and the Edward River, an anabranch of the Murray. Much of the water carried by these streams is diverted. In 2001–2002, 52% of the Murray and Murrumbidgee water runoff was diverted, 77% of, used for irrigation.https://drive.google.com/open?id=16zHR6KKmMf-Tqz7cc67nvksEs_HZBL1S The Bureau of Meteorology classify the Riverina in the Hot Dry Zone climatic zone. Places in this zone can be hot in the summer months while in the winter, nights can be cold with cool to mild days. Mean daily maximum temperatures in the Riverina range from 31.0 °C in January and 12.4 °C in July in Wagga Wagga to 33.2 °C in January and 14.8 °C in July in Hillston. Rainfall levels in the Riverina are low with the median annual rainfall over most of the region between 250–500 millimetres, rising to between 500–800 mm on the eastern fringe. Rain falls in the winter in the southern Riverina and around Hay while in the north rainfall patterns are consistent throughout the year.
Corowa, in the south eastern Riverina has an average rainfall of 539.4 millimetres per year while mean annual rainfall at Hay is 367.2 millimetres. Drought in 2006 has seen the lowest recorded rainfall in towns such as Lockhart and Narrandera. One method of classification of boundaries for the Riverina is the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia that defines the bioregion as an area comprising 9,704,469 hectares, with biogeographic subregions covering each of the Lachlan, Murray Fans, Victorian Riverina, Robinvale Plains, Murray Scroll Belt; the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service has divided New South Wales into 17 distinct bioregions. Bioregions are quite large areas of land that capture a geophysical pattern, linked to fauna and flora ecosystems; the Riverina bioregion is an area of land that comprises part of the larger Riverina area but extends into Victoria. It has been defined by the New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service as extending from Ivanhoe in the Murray Darling Depression Bioregion south to Bendigo, from Narrandera in the east to Balranald in the west.
74.03 % of the bioregion is in the remainder in Victoria. In another mapping the World Wildlife Fund has made this area part of the larger Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion that covers the western plains of New South Wales. River channels in the region support River Red Gum (Eucalyp
Mount Lindesay Highway
The Mount Lindesay Highway is an Australian national highway located in Queensland known as National Route 13. The highway runs southwest from Brisbane, where it leaves Ipswich Road in the suburb of Moorooka, to the Queensland – New South Wales border and is 116 kilometres in length. For most of its length it is aligned with the Sydney–Brisbane rail corridor. At its southern end these transport routes take different passes over the Scenic Rim into the Northern Rivers region; until 1954, the route was part of the New England Highway between Brisbane. However, the opening of the road from Tenterfield to Wallangarra created a better road for the New England Highway and this route was renamed the Mount Lindesay Highway; until 1977, the Mount Lindesay Highway as a named road extended beyond the Queensland – New South Wales border to Tenterfield but the New South Wales section of the road, which still includes some unpaved portions, was decommissioned as a highway by the New South Wales Government due to low traffic volumes.
8 kilometres south of the Queensland – New South Wales border the decommissioned part of the Mount Lindesay Highway intersects the northern end of the Summerland Way, known as New South Wales route B91, which runs south to Casino and on to Grafton. South of Rathdowney the highway becomes winding as it climbs the McPherson Range; however it is a scenic road, connects to the northern end of the Lions Road, a scenic drive between Innisplain and the Summerland Way just south of Roseberry, passing Mount Chinghee National Park, Mount Barney National Park and Border Ranges National Park on the way. The highway is named after Mount Lindesay, the residue of a solidified magma core, part of the Mount Warning volcanic area and is situated in the western extreme of Border Ranges National Park; until the 1950s it formed part of the main traffic route between Sydney. The coastal route was not favoured due to the large number of ferry crossings of the wide coastal rivers, the frequency and severity of flooding of these rivers and the consequent poor state of much of the road for extended periods, its steep, winding nature as it crossed the intermediate hills between each river valley.
In the mid-1950s a sealed road was constructed west from Boonah through Cunninghams Gap to Warwick, this supplanted the Mount Lindesay Highway as the main Brisbane – Sydney traffic route as far south as Tenterfield. This in turn has since the 1980s been supplanted by the Pacific Highway as the major Brisbane – Sydney route, as a result of extensive upgrading and deviations of the Pacific Highway. Between 2007 and 2009 4.5 kilometres of the highway in the Logan City local government area was upgraded. As well as providing dual carriageways, the work included building service roads so that local traffic does not have to travel on the main carriageways, thereby reducing congestion. From north to south, the following towns and localities are either bounded by or passed through by the Mount Lindesday Highway: Highways in Australia List of highways in Queensland Mt Lindesay Highway, ozroads
Boonoo Boonoo River
Boonoo Boonoo River, a watercourse of the Clarence River catchment, is located in the Northern Tablelands district of New South Wales, Australia. Boonoo Boonoo River rises on the slopes of the Great Dividing Range, near Boonoo Boonoo and Mount Lindesay Highway, flows northeast, joined by seven minor tributaries before reaching its confluence with the Maryland River, east of Rivertree; the river descends 706 metres over its 44 kilometres course. The name Boonoo Boonoo is derived from the Aboriginal phrase meaning "poor country with no animals to provide food". Rivers of New South Wales