Hakea is a genus of about 150 species of plants in the Family Proteaceae and are endemic to Australia. They are shrubs or small trees with leaves that are sometimes flat, otherwise circular in cross section in which case they are sometimes divided; the flowers are arranged in groups in leaf axils and resemble those of other genera Grevillea. Hakeas have woody fruit which distinguishes them from grevilleas which have non-woody fruit which release the seeds as they mature. Hakeas are found in every state of Australia with the highest species diversity being found in the south west of Western Australia. Plants in the genus Hakea are small trees; some species have flat leaves, whilst others have leaves which are needle-like, in which case they are sometimes divided and sometimes have a groove on the lower surface. The flowers are surrounded by bracts when in bud; the flowers are borne on a short stalk called a pedicel. The sepals and petals, jointly called tepals, form a curved tube which sometimes splits open as the flower develops.
The style is curved before its tip is released. When released, the tip of the style is a pollen-presenter; the fruit of hakeas is woody and persists on the plant until burned in a bushfire or until the plant dies. The fruit splits open to release two winged seeds. Many species of hakea are similar to species of Grevillea but are distinguished from them in having persistent, woody fruits. (Those of grevilleas are not persistent and not woody. The upper and lower surfaces of the leaves of hakeas are similar, the ovary and style are glabrous; the genus Hakea was first formally described in 1798 by Heinrich Schrader and Johann Christoph Wendland and the description was published in Sertum Hannoveranum. The genus is named after an 18th-century German patron of botany. Species of hakea are found in all states of Australia. Hakeas are popular ornamental plants in gardens in Australia, in many locations are as common as grevilleas and banksias. Several hybrids and cultivars have been developed, they are best grown in beds of light soil.
Some showy western species, such as Hakea multilineata, H. francisiana and H. bucculenta, require grafting onto hardy stock such as Hakea salicifolia for growing in more humid climates, as they are sensitive to dieback. Many species eastern Australian species, are notable for their hardiness, to the point they have become weedy. Hakea gibbosa, H. sericea, H. drupacea have been weeds in South Africa, Hakea laurina has become naturalized in the eastern states of Australia and is considered an environmental weed, Hakea salicifolia, Hakea gibbosa, Hakea sericea are invasive weeds in New Zealand. The following is a list of Hakea species recognised by the Australian Plant Census, except for Hakea asperma, recognised by the Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria: Barker WR, Barker RM, Haegi L. "Hakea". In Wilson, Annette. Flora of Australia: Volume 17B: Proteaceae 3: Hakea to Dryandra. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. Pp. 1–170. ISBN 0-643-06454-0. Holliday Ivan. Hakeas:a field and garden guide.
Reed New Holland. ISBN 1-877069-14-0. Young, JA. Hakeas of Western Australia: a field and identification guide. ISBN 978-0-9585778-2-3. "Hakea". Flora of Australia Online. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. "Hakea". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife; the Hakea Page: index Association of Societies for Growing Australian Plants
Kwongan is an ecoregion found in south-western Western Australia. The name is a Bibbelmun Aboriginal term of wide geographical use defined by Beard as a'type of country... sandy and is open without timber-sized trees but with a scrubby vegetation. It consists of plains in an Australian sense of open country rather than in a strict sense of flat country.... There are two principal plant formations in the kwongan, scrub heath and broombush thicket... both... are sclerophyll shrublands and possess a certain unity when contrasted with woodland and forest or steppe and succulent steppe communities.' Kwongan has replaced other terms applied by European botanists such as sand-heide or sand heath, giving priority to the language of people who have lived continuously in the southwest for more than 50,000 years. Recent archeological evidence shows occupation of the Kwongan for at least 25,500 years. Thus, kwongan has come again into common usage for the Southwest Australian Floristic Region's shrubland vegetation and associated countryside, equivalent to South Africa's fynbos, California's chaparral, France's maquis and Chile's matorral as seen in these other regions of the world experiencing a Mediterranean climate.
To reflect contemporary orthographies, linguists spell kwongan as'kwongkan', or'quarngqqaan'. As with so many other aspects of the southwest flora, colonial botanist James Drummond was the first to record Bibbelmun usage of the term in an 1839 letter to Kew's Director Sir William Hooker, where'guangan' was described as the Noongar name for'sand, but I mean by it the open sandy desert which commences 80 miles E. N. E. of Fremantle and is known to continue in the same direction for 200 miles... Fresh water is scarce...even in our rainy season. It is undulating country, the hills small and low, the soil on them is strong clay... the valleys between these hills are extensive and sandy, covered thinly with small shrubs.'. An 1839 map of Toodyay Valley Land Grants and Locations has on it the term'Guangan' two miles east of Bejoording townsite, south of Bolgart. Another collector Ludwig Preiss spelt the term as'quangen'. Moore gave the spelling'gongan' for'a sandy district; the easiest road, or usual path, or mountain pass to a place'.
The town of Wongan Hills derives its name from kwongan. Drummond reported the native name of Guangan Catta, which means hills above the kwongan, when he first saw the hills in the distance accompanied by Cabbinger and an unnamed Bibbelmun guide. An article in the Perth Gazette by'Ketoun' reported on'A trip to the Wongan Hills', where on 27 April 1844 his party'...crossed an immense "gwongan", these gwongans are open undulating patches of scrubby country... of a quartz formation.'. The same term with a different spelling was recorded by pastoralist J. P. Brooks for the Israelite Bay-Cape Arid district some 900 km SE of Wongan Hills, he described and defined'quowcken' as the Aboriginal word for sand plain or'open plain without timber' interspersed with small swamps dominated by trees of'yate' and'yauwl'. Approaching from the northeast after traversing the head of the Great Australian Bight, explorer E. J. Eyre in 1840 noted these same'sandy downs, covered with low shrubs or bushes', but was unaware of the local Aboriginal name applied to them.
Jerramungup settler A. A. Hassell recorded the name used by Wilomen people for sand plain as'qwonken', journalist Daisy Bates in 1913 was the first to record the spelling as'kwongan'. Bibbelmun people used the term across many dialects and substantial distances in semi-arid country northeast and southeast of Perth; the first book devoted to kwongan attempted to divorce the application of the term to both sandy countryside and vegetation, as Noongars had used it. Beard and Pate preferred to apply kwongan to vegetation, defining it technically as:'... any community of sclerophyll shrubland in south-western Australia which has a stratum + 1 m tall or less of leptophyllous and nanophyllous shrubs. It may contain either taller shrubs, which may be dominant – so long as the dominants are of genera other than Eucalyptus – or scattered trees of any kind which are not dominant.' Thus, they intended to extend use of the term kwongan to shrublands beyond those on sandy soils, such as coastal heaths on limestone and granite, hill thickets on various rock types.
Conforming to Brooks' definition, scattered trees were included as a component of kwongan provided they did not dominate the heaths and thickets. The countryside on which kwongan vegetation most occurred was termed'sandplain' by Beard and Pate; this clarification, while helpful for strict vegetation science, removed the use of kwongan well beyond its original Noongar meaning of sand or sandy country traversed because of low scrubby vegetation with scattered trees. Such scientific nomenclatural appropriation is controversial today in cross-cultural dialogue. However, a focus on both vegetation and on sandy soils and sand plain will undoubtedly remain important components of kwongan studies, whichever nuance of definition and meaning is favoured. Kwongan is extensive, occupying about a quarter of the Southwest Australian Floristic Region, contains 70% of the 8000+ native plant species known from this global biodiversity hotspot (Beard and Pate 1984
Beelu National Park
Beelu National Park is a national park east of Perth, Western Australia. Lying south of Mundaring, Western Australia, west of the Mundaring Weir Road, it is part of the group of parks known as the Parks of the Darling Range; the park was named Mundaring National Park. Mundaring National Park was established and gazetted in 1995 as part of the Protecting Out Old Growth Forests policy of the State Government; the park was renamed in 2008 as an acknowledgement of the traditional owners of the area. The word Beelu is derived from the Noongar word for stream; the Beelu people were the original peoples of the area whose district was bounded by the Helena and Canning Rivers. The park contains an abundance of native flora including Jarrah, Zamia, Bull Banksia and Grass tree; the park contains toilets, wood barbecues, picnic tables and a variety of hiking and mountain biking trails. An information centre, the Perth Hills National Parks Centre is located within the park and is open between 10.00am and 4.00pm to offer advice and refreshments to visitors.
A lookout is located South Ledge with a view over Lake CY O'Connor. The largest Oak Tree in Western Australia is found in Fred Jacby Park. Two campsites are available to use within the park. Protected areas of Western Australia Mitchell, Samille What's in a name? Parks of the Darling Range Landscope Volume 24 number 2, pp. 40–46
In geology and physical geography, a plateau called a high plain or a tableland, is an area of a highland consisting of flat terrain, raised above the surrounding area with one or more sides with steep slopes. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment as intermontane, piedmont, or continental. Plateaus can be formed by a number of processes, including upwelling of volcanic magma, extrusion of lava, erosion by water and glaciers. Volcanic plateaus are produced by volcanic activity; the Columbia Plateau in the northwestern United States is an example. They may be formed by upwelling of volcanic extrusion of lava; the underlining mechanism in forming plateaus from upwelling starts when magma rises from the mantle, causing the ground to swell upward. In this way, flat areas of rock are uplifted to form a plateau. For plateaus formed by extrusion, the rock is built up from lava spreading outward from cracks and weak areas in the crust.
Plateaus can be formed by the erosional processes of glaciers on mountain ranges, leaving them sitting between the mountain ranges. Water can erode mountains and other landforms down into plateaus. Dissected plateaus are eroded plateaus cut by rivers and broken by deep narrow valleys. Computer modeling studies suggest that high plateaus may be a result from the feedback between tectonic deformation and dry climatic conditions created at the lee side of growing orogens. Plateaus are classified according to their surrounding environment. Intermontane plateaus are the highest in the world, bordered by mountains; the Tibetan Plateau is one such plateau. Lava or volcanic plateaus are the plateau; the magma that comes out through narrow cracks or fissures in the crust spread over large area and solidifies. These layers of lava sheets form volcanic plateaus; the Antrim plateau in Northern Ireland, The Deccan Plateau in India and the Columbia Plateau in the United States are examples of lava plateaus. Piedmont plateaus are bordered on one side by mountains and on the other by a sea.
The Piedmont Plateau of the Eastern United States between the Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Coastal Plain is an example. Continental plateaus are bordered on all sides by oceans, forming away from the mountains. An example of a continental plateau is the Antarctic Polar Plateau in East Antarctica; the largest and highest plateau in the world is the Tibetan Plateau, sometimes metaphorically described as the "Roof of the World", still being formed by the collisions of the Indo-Australian and Eurasian tectonic plates. The Tibetan plateau covers 2,500,000 km2, at about 5,000 m above sea level; the plateau is sufficiently high to reverse the Hadley cell convection cycles and to drive the monsoons of India towards the south. The second-highest plateau is the Deosai Plateau of the Deosai National Park at an average elevation of 4,114 m, it is located in northern Pakistan. Deosai means'the land of giants'; the park protects an area of 3,000 km2. It is known for its rich flora and fauna of the Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe ecoregion.
In spring it is covered by a wide variety of butterflies. The highest point in Deosai is Deosai Lake, or Sheosar Lake from the Shina language meaning "Blind lake" near the Chilim Valley; the lake lies at an elevation of 4,142 m, one of the highest lakes in the world, is 2.3 km long, 1.8 km wide, 40 m deep on average. Some other major plateaus in Asia are: Najd in the Arabian Peninsula elevation 762 to 1,525 m, Armenian Highlands, Iranian plateau, Anatolian Plateau, Mongolian Plateau, the Deccan Plateau. Another large plateau is the icy Antarctic Plateau, sometimes referred to as the Polar Plateau, home to the geographic South Pole and the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, which covers most of East Antarctica where there are no known mountains but rather 3,000 m high of superficial ice and which spreads slowly toward the surrounding coastline through enormous glaciers; this polar ice cap is so massive that the echolocation sound measurements of ice thickness have shown that large parts of the Antarctic "dry land" surface have been pressed below sea level.
Thus, if that same ice cap were removed, the large areas of the frozen white continent would be flooded by the surrounding Antarctic Ocean or Southern Ocean. On the other hand, were the ice cap melts away too the surface of the land beneath it would rebound away through isostasy from the center of the Earth and that same land would rise above sea level. A large plateau in North America is the Colorado Plateau, which covers about 337,000 km2 in Colorado, Utah and New Mexico. In northern Arizona and southern Utah the Colorado Plateau is bisected by the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon. How this came to be is that over 10 million years ago, a river was there, though not on the same cours
Greenmount National Park
Greenmount National Park is a national park in the locality of Greenmount, Western Australia, 22 km east of Perth. It is one of the smaller National Parks along the Darling Scarp and is a component of the Darling Range Regional Park. Due to its proximity to John Forrest National Park, which used to be known as Greenmount National Park until 1928, relationship to subsequent reserves to the south it is a vital scarp wildlife corridor. Bus tours were available from Perth in 1933 with Hill's Bus Tours offering passengers a tour around the park on Sundays in September. Beam Transport Ltd. offered a similar service through the Park to Mundaring Weir in 1937. As a feature adjacent to the Helena River Valley it has significance in aboriginal folklore, featured early on in early European settler's diaries. Mountain Quarry, Western Australia is one of several blue stone quarries located within the park, popular with rock climbers and walkers. Vehicle access to the quarry site is restricted however a car-park and picnic facilities including toilets are within walking distance of the main site, accessible on foot.
There are several panels containing historical information about the site spread around as part of the popular Railway Reserves Heritage Trail which runs close to the quarry. The Boya/Koongamia leg of the Railway Reserves Heritage Trail known as the "Bridle Trail", curves around the south-western edge of the park, crossing through the Mountain Quarry car-park and picnic area. In the early 2000s significant bushfire damage occurred on the southern slopes of this park. Large fire-breaks dissect the park serving as popular walking routes among locals; the western and northern slopes, visible from Great Eastern Highway have extensive Watsonia infestations. In late 2005, the Government Authority in charge of the national park was taking steps to prevent vehicular access along the top of the ridge to the lookout due to non stop vandalism and issues with residents adjacent to the park; the park is situated along the side of Greenmount Hill and has majestic views over the Swan Coastal Plain below and Perth City below.
The dominant vegetation in the park is eucalypts such as Marri and Wandoo along with an array of wild flowers and heathland along the northern slopes. The hill contain several breakaways and rocky outcrops. Protected areas of Western Australia Western Australia. Dept. of Conservation and Land Management. A recreational development plan for-- Kalamunda National Park, Lesmurdie Falls National Park, Gooseberry Hill National Park, Greenmount National Park Como, W. A.: Conservation and Land Management, 1989
Greater Beedelup National Park
Greater Beedelup National Park is a national park in Western Australia, 277 km south of Perth. It is situated on the Vasse Highway some 10 km west of Pemberton; the park is lush and damp due to an abundance of water. Gazetted in 1910, the park was declared an A Class Reserve in 1915; the Pemberton National Parks Board has been responsible for management of the park since 1957. Controlled burns occur within the park and some clear felling operations have been conducted in selected areas that used to be State Forests but have been regenerated since; the park is karri forest, with mixed areas of jarrah and marri. The loamy soil supports large colonies of moss and plants such as the swamp peppermint, karri hazel, myrtle wattle and lemonscented Darwinia all of which thrive in the damp conditions; some of the forest is an excellent example of uncut old-growth forest. Some of the upland areas are sandy and support communities of heath vegetation. Other plants of interest in the area include Crowea dentata, Crowea augustifolia and Choretrum lateriflorum.
Some rare fauna are thought to inhabit the area including the Woylie and the Tammar. Its major attraction is the Beedelup Falls, which are in full flow during spring. A suspension bridge, built in 1995, offers passage across Beedelup Brook and good views of the falls. Another feature of the park is the walk through karri tree, a 400-year-old tree with a large man-made hole cut through at the base large enough for a person to stand in; the park is named after Beedelup brook, named in 1875. It is thought the name Beedelup is derived from the Noongar word Beejalup meaning place of rest or place of sleep. An admission fee applies for this camping is not permitted. A signed walking trail around Beedelup falls, a rest area, picnic area and toilets are available for use by visitors. Protected areas of Western Australia
Melaleuca is a genus of nearly 300 species of plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae known as paperbarks, honey-myrtles or tea-trees. They range in size from small shrubs that grow to more than 1 m high, to trees up to 35 m, their flowers occur in groups, forming a “head” or “spike” resembling a brush used for cleaning bottles, containing up to 80 individual flowers. They are superficially like Banksia species, which have their flowers in a spike, but the structures of individual flowers in the two genera are different. Second only to members of the family Proteaceae, melaleucas are an important food source for nectarivorous insects and mammals. Many are popular garden plants, either as dense screens. Most melaleucas are endemic to Australia, with a few occurring in Malesia. Seven are endemic to New Caledonia, one is found only on Lord Howe Island. Melaleucas are found in a wide variety of habitats. Many are adapted for life in swamps and boggy places, while others thrive in the poorest of sandy soils or on the edge of saltpans.
Some have a wide distribution and are common, whilst others are rare and endangered. Land clearing, exotic myrtle rust, draining and clearing of swamps threaten many species. Melaleucas range in size from small shrubs such as M. aspalathoides and M. concinna which grow to more than 1 m high, to trees like M. cajuputi and M. quinquenervia, which can reach 35 m. Many, like M. lineariifolia, are known as paperbarks and have bark that can be peeled in thin sheets, whilst about 20% of the genus, including M. bracteata, have hard, rough bark and another 20% have fibrous bark. Every species in the genus is an evergreen, the leaves vary in size from minute and scale-like to 270 mm long. Most have distinct oil glands dotted in the leaves, making the leaves aromatic when crushed. Melaleuca flowers are arranged in spikes or heads. Within the head or spike, the flowers are in groups of two or three, each flower or group having a papery bract at its base. Five sepals occur, although these are sometimes fused into a ring of tissue and five petals which are small, not showy, fall off as the flower opens or soon after.
The stamens vary in colour, from white to cream or yellow, red, or mauve with their yellow tips contrasting with their "stalks". The fruit are woody, cup-shaped, barrel-shaped, or spherical capsules arranged in clusters along the stems; the seeds are sometimes retained in the fruit for many years, only opening when the plant, or part of it, dies or is heated in a bushfire. In tropical areas, seeds are released annually in the wet season; the first known description of a Melaleuca species was written by Rumphius in 1741, in Herbarium amboinense before the present system of naming plants was written. The plant he called; the name Melaleuca was first used by Linnaeus in 1767. Many species known as Metrosideros were placed in Melaleuca. In Australia, Melaleuca is the third most diverse plant genus with up to 300 species; the genus Callistemon was raised by Robert Brown, who noted its similarity to Melaleuca, distinguishing it only on the basis of whether the stamens are free of each other, or joined in bundles.
Botanists in the past, including Ferdinand von Mueller and Lyndley Craven have proposed uniting the two genera but the matter is not decided. Evidence from DNA studies suggests that either Callistemon and some other genera be incorporated into Melaleuca or that at least 10 new genera be created from the present genus. In 2014, Lyndley Craven and others proposed, on the basis of DNA evidence, that species in the genera Beaufortia, Conothamnus, Lamarchea, Petraeomyrtus and Regelia be transferred to Melaleuca; the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families maintained by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew lists Calothamnus and the other genera as synonyms of the accepted genus Melaleuca. The move has not been adopted by all Australian herbaria with some taxonomists, including Alex George opposing the move; the name Melaleuca is derived from the Ancient Greek μέλας meaning “dark" or "black” and λευκός meaning “white” because one of the first specimens described had fire-blackened white bark. The common name "tea-tree" has been applied to species in the genera Leptospermum, Melaleuca and Baeckea because the sailors on the Endeavour used the leaves of a shrub from one of these groups as a replacement for tea Camellia sinensis during Captain James Cook's 1770 voyage to Australia.
Most melaleucas occur only on the Australian mainland. Eight occur in Tasmania. One is endemic to Lord Howe Island and seven are endemic to Grande Terre, the main island of New Caledonia. A few tropical species occur in Papua New Guinea, the distribution of one subspecies, Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. Cumingiana extends as far north as Myanmar and Vietnam; the southwest of Western Australia has the greatest density of species, in the tropical north of the continent, species such as M. argentea and M. leucadendra are the dominant species over large areas. Melaleucas grow in a range of soil types and many tolerate occasional or permanent waterlogging; some species the South Australian swamp paperbark, M. halmaturorum, thrive in saline soils where few other species survive. Many