A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd, is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor or a centrifugal compressor. Because ramjets cannot produce thrust at zero airspeed, they cannot move an aircraft from a standstill. A ramjet-powered vehicle, requires an assisted take-off like a rocket assist to accelerate it to a speed where it begins to produce thrust. Ramjets work most efficiently at supersonic speeds around Mach 3; this type of engine can operate up to speeds of Mach 6. Ramjets can be useful in applications requiring a small and simple mechanism for high-speed use, such as missiles. Weapon designers are looking to use ramjet technology in artillery shells to give added range, they have been used though not efficiently, as tip jets on the end of helicopter rotors. Ramjets differ from pulsejets; as speed increases, the efficiency of a ramjet starts to drop as the air temperature in the inlet increases due to compression.
As the inlet temperature gets closer to the exhaust temperature, less energy can be extracted in the form of thrust. To produce a usable amount of thrust at yet higher speeds, the ramjet must be modified so that the incoming air is not compressed nearly as much; this means that the air flowing through the combustion chamber is still moving fast, in fact it will be supersonic—hence the name supersonic-combustion ramjet, or scramjet. L'Autre Monde: ou les États et Empires de la Lune was the first of three satirical novels written by Cyrano de Bergerac, that are considered among the first science fiction stories. Arthur C Clarke credited this book with inventing the ramjet, being the first example of a rocket-powered space flight; the ramjet was conceived in 1913 by French inventor René Lorin, granted a patent for his device. Attempts to build a prototype failed due to inadequate materials. In 1915, Hungarian inventor Albert Fonó devised a solution for increasing the range of artillery, comprising a gun-launched projectile, to be united with a ramjet propulsion unit, thus giving a long range from low muzzle velocities, allowing heavy shells to be fired from lightweight guns.
Fonó submitted his invention to the Austro-Hungarian Army. After World War I, Fonó returned to the subject of jet propulsion, in May 1928 describing an "air-jet engine" which he described as being suitable for high-altitude supersonic aircraft, in a German patent application. In an additional patent application, he adapted the engine for subsonic speed; the patent was granted in 1932 after four years of examination. In the Soviet Union, a theory of supersonic ramjet engines was presented in 1928 by Boris Stechkin. Yuri Pobedonostsev, chief of GIRD's 3rd Brigade, carried out a great deal of research into ramjet engines; the first engine, the GIRD-04, was designed by I. A. Merkulov and tested in April 1933. To simulate supersonic flight, it was fed by air compressed to 20,000 kilopascals, was fueled with hydrogen; the GIRD-08 phosphorus-fueled ramjet was tested by firing it from an artillery cannon. These shells may have been the first jet-powered projectiles to break the speed of sound. In 1939, Merkulov did further ramjet tests using a two-stage rocket, the R-3.
That August, he developed the first ramjet engine for use as an auxiliary motor of an aircraft, the DM-1. The world's first ramjet-powered airplane flight took place in December 1940, using two DM-2 engines on a modified Polikarpov I-15. Merkulov designed a ramjet fighter "Samolet D" in 1941, never completed. Two of his DM-4 engines were installed on the Yak-7 PVRD fighter, during World War II. In 1940, the Kostikov-302 experimental plane was designed, powered by a liquid fuel rocket for take-off and ramjet engines for flight; that project was cancelled in 1944. In 1947, Mstislav Keldysh proposed a long-range antipodal bomber, similar to the Sänger-Bredt bomber, but powered by ramjet instead of rocket. In 1954, NPO Lavochkin and the Keldysh Institute began development of a Mach 3 ramjet-powered cruise missile, Burya; this project competed with the R-7 ICBM being developed by Sergei Korolev, was cancelled in 1957. On March 1, 2018 President Vladimir Putin announced Russia had developed a nuclear powered ramjet cruise missile capable of extended long range flight.
In 1936, Hellmuth Walter constructed a test engine powered by natural gas. Theoretical work was carried out at BMW and Junkers, as well as DFL. In 1941, Eugen Sänger of DFL proposed a ramjet engine with a high combustion chamber temperature, he constructed large ramjet pipes with 500 millimetres and 1,000 millimetres diameter and carried out combustion tests on lorries and on a special test rig on a Dornier Do 17Z at flight speeds of up to 200 metres per second. With petrol becoming scarce in Germany due to wartime conditions, tests were carried out with blocks of pressed coal dust as a fuel, which were not successful due to slow combustion; the US Navy developed a series of air-to-air missiles under the name of "Gorgon" using different propulsion mechanisms, including ramjet propulsion. The ramjet Gorgon IVs, made by Glenn Martin, were tested in 1948 and 1949 at Naval Air Station Point Mugu; the ramjet engine itself was designed at the University of Southe
Falcon 9 booster B1021
Falcon 9 booster B1021 is a first-stage reusable rocket booster for the Falcon 9 orbital launch vehicle manufactured by SpaceX. B1021 became the first rocket to land vertically on a ship at sea and is the first orbital-class first-stage booster to have been reflown in the history of rocketry; this Falcon 9 booster was first launched on 8 April 2016 for Falcon 9 flight 23 carrying a Dragon spacecraft on the CRS-8 mission to the International Space Station and landed vertically on an autonomous spaceport drone ship. After recovery and refurbishing, it was launched again on 30 March 2017 for the SES-10 mission and recovered a second time; this event marks a milestone in SpaceX's drive to reduce launch costs. Following the second flight, SpaceX stated that they plan to retire this booster and donate it to Cape Canaveral for public display. List of Falcon 9 first-stage boosters B1019 B1023 B1029 B1046 B1047 B1048 B1050 Grasshopper Blue Origin New Shepard McDonnell Douglas DC-X SpaceX - Booster 1021 - Historic 04-08-2017 on YouTube by USLaunchReport.com
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters were the first solid-propellant rocket to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight. After burnout, they were jettisoned and parachuted into the Atlantic Ocean where they were recovered, examined and reused; the SRBs were the most powerful solid rocket motors flown. Each provided a maximum 13,800 kN thrust double the most powerful single-combustion chamber liquid-propellant rocket engine flown, the Rocketdyne F-1. With a combined mass of about 1,180,000 kg, they comprised over half the mass of the Shuttle stack at liftoff; the motor segments of the SRBs were manufactured by Thiokol of Brigham City, purchased by ATK. The prime contractor for most other components of the SRBs, as well as for the integration of all the components and retrieval of the spent SRBs, was USBI, a subsidiary of Pratt and Whitney; this contract was subsequently transitioned to United Space Alliance, a limited liability company joint venture of Boeing and Lockheed Martin.
Out of 270 SRBs launched over the Shuttle program, all but four were recovered – those from STS-4 and STS-51-L. Over 5,000 parts were refurbished for reuse after each flight; the final set of SRBs that launched STS-135 included parts that flew on 59 previous missions, including STS-1. Recovery allowed post-flight examination of the boosters, identification of anomalies, incremental design improvements; the two reusable SRBs provided the main thrust to lift the shuttle off the launch pad and up to an altitude of about 150,000 ft. While on the pad, the two SRBs carried the entire weight of the external tank and orbiter and transmitted the weight load through their structure to the mobile launch platform; each booster had a liftoff thrust of 2,800,000 pounds-force at sea level, increasing shortly after liftoff to about 3,100,000 lbf. They were ignited after the three Space Shuttle. Seventy-five seconds after SRB separation, SRB apogee occurred at an altitude of 220,000 ft; the SRBs helped take the Space Shuttle to an altitude of 28 miles and a speed of 3,094 miles per hour along with the main engines.
The SRBs committed the shuttle to liftoff and ascent flight, without the possibility of launch or liftoff/ascent abort, until both motors had and fulfilled their functions, consumed their propellants, were producing zero net reaction thrust and had been jettisoned by explosive jettisoning bolts from the remainder of the vehicle launch "stack". Only could any conceivable set of launch or post-liftoff abort procedures be contemplated. In addition, failure of an individual SRB's thrust output or ability to adhere to the designed performance profile was not survivable; the SRBs were the largest solid-propellant motors flown and the first of such large rockets designed for reuse. Each is 12.17 ft in diameter. Each SRB weighed 1,300,000 lb at launch; the two SRBs constituted about 69% of the total lift-off mass. The primary propellants were ammonium perchlorate and atomized aluminum powder, the total propellant for each solid rocket motor weighed 1,100,000 lb; the inert weight of each SRB was 200,000 pounds.
Primary elements of each booster were the motor, separation systems, operational flight instrumentation, recovery avionics, deceleration system, thrust vector control system, range safety destruct system. While the terms "solid rocket motor" and "solid rocket booster" are used interchangeably, in technical use they have specific meanings; the term "solid rocket motor" applied to the propellant, case and nozzle. "Solid rocket booster" applied to the entire rocket assembly, which included the rocket motor as well as the recovery parachutes, electronic instrumentation, separation rockets, range safety destruct system, thrust vector control. Each booster was attached to the external tank at the SRB's aft frame by two lateral sway braces and a diagonal attachment; the forward end of each SRB was attached to the external tank at the forward end of the SRB's forward skirt. On the launch pad, each booster was attached to the mobile launcher platform at the aft skirt by four frangible nuts that were severed at lift-off.
The boosters were composed of seven individually manufactured steel segments. These were assembled in pairs by the manufacturer, shipped to Kennedy Space Center by rail for final assembly; the segments were fixed together using circumferential tang and clevis pin fastening, sealed with O-rings and heat-resistant putty. Each solid rocket booster had four hold-down posts that fit into corresponding support posts on the mobile launcher platform. Hold-down bolts held the SRB and launcher platform posts together; each bolt had a nut at the top one being a frangible nut. The top nut contained two NASA standard detonators, which were ignited at solid rocket motor ignition commands; when the two NSDs were ignited at each hold down, t
Vertical takeoff, vertical landing is a form of takeoff and landing for rockets. Multiple VTVL craft have flown. VTVL technologies were developed with small rockets after 2000, in part due to incentive prize competitions like the Lunar Lander Challenge. Successful small VTVL rockets were developed by Masten Space Systems, Armadillo Aerospace, others. By the early 2010s, VTVL was under intense development as a technology for reusable rockets large enough to transport people, with two companies, Blue Origin and SpaceX, both having demonstrated recovery of launch vehicles after return to the launch site operations, with Blue Origin's New Shepard booster rocket making the first successful vertical landing on November 23, 2015 following a test flight that reached outer space, SpaceX's Falcon 9 flight 20 marking the first landing of a commercial orbital booster a month on December 22, 2015. VTVL rockets are not to be confused with aircraft which take off and land vertically which use the air for support and propulsion, such as helicopters and jump jets which are VTOL aircraft.
1961 Bell Rocket Belt, personal VTVL rocket belt demonstrated. VTVL rocket concepts were studied by Philip Bono of Douglas Aircraft Co. in the 1960s. Apollo Lunar Module was a 1960s two-stage VTVL vehicle for landing and taking off from the moon; the Soviet Union did some development work on, but never flew, a vertically-landing manned capsule called Zarya in the late 1980s. The McDonnell Douglas DC-X was an unmanned prototype VTVL launch vehicle that flew several test flights in the 1990s. In June 1996, the vehicle set an altitude record of 3,140 metres, before making a vertical landing. Rotary Rocket tested a vertical landing system for their Roton design, based around a rocket tipped helicopter system in 1999, but were unable to raise funds to build a full vehicle. During 2006-2009, Armadillo Aerospace's Scorpius / Super Mod, Masten Space Systems' Xombie and Unreasonable Rocket's Blue Ball flying VTVL rockets competed in the Northrop Grumman / NASA Lunar Lander Challenge. Follow-on VTVL designs including Masten's Xaero and Armadillo's Stig were aimed at higher-speed flight to higher suborbital altitudes.
SpaceX announced plans in 2010 to install deployable landing gear on the Dragon spacecraft and use the vehicle's thrusters to perform a land-based landing. In 2010, three VTVL craft were proffered to NASA in response to NASA's suborbital reusable launch vehicle solicitation under NASA's Flight Operations Program: the Blue Origin New Shepard, the Masten Xaero, the Armadillo Super Mod. Morpheus is a 2010s NASA project developing a vertical test bed that demonstrates new green propellant propulsion systems and autonomous landing and hazard detection technology. Mighty Eagle is an early 2010s Robotic Prototype Lander, being developed by NASA as of August 2012. SpaceX announced in September 2011 that they would attempt to develop powered descent and recovery of both Falcon 9 stages, with a VTVL Dragon capsule as well. SpaceX's Grasshopper was a VTVL first-stage booster test vehicle developed to validate various low-altitude, low-velocity engineering aspects of its large-vehicle reusable rocket technology.
The test vehicle made eight successful test flights in 2012–2013. Grasshopper v1.0 made its eighth, final, test flight on October 7, 2013, flying to an altitude of 744 metres before making its eighth successful VTVL landing. SpaceX's Falcon 9 Reusable Development Vehicle was 50 feet longer than Grasshopper, is built on their full-size Falcon 9 v1.1 booster tank, with flight-design landing legs and gaseous nitrogen thrusters to control the booster attitude. F9R Dev1 made its first test flight in April 2014, to an altitude of 250 meters before making a nominal vertical landing. 2013: SpaceX's DragonFly is a prototype low-altitude rocket-powered test article for a propulsively-landed version of their Dragon space capsule. The DragonFly is a suborbital reusable launch vehicle, intended for low-altitude flight testing expected to start in 2014 and run through at least 2015. On November 23, 2015, Blue Origin's New Shepard booster rocket made the first successful vertical landing following an unmanned suborbital test flight that reached space.
On December 21, 2015, SpaceX's 20th Falcon 9 first stage made a successful landing after boosting 11 commercial satellites to low earth orbit on Falcon 9 Flight 20. On April 8, 2016, SpaceX's Falcon 9 made the first successful landing on their Autonomous spaceport drone ship as part of the SpaceX CRS-8 cargo resupply mission to the International Space Station. In January 2018 Chinese private space company LinkSpace have tested its reusable experimental orbital rocket with a successful vertical takeoff, vertical landing On February 06, 2018 SpaceX landed two of their first stage boosters during their demonstration flight of the Falcon Heavy. In 2018, ISRO revealed details about the ADMIRE test vehicle for which a test and landing site was being developed; the vehicle will have supersonic retro propulsion, special retractable landing legs which will act as steerable grid fins & will be guided by integrated navigation system that will have a laser altimeter and a NavIC receiver. Low-altitude VTVL testing of a large 9-meter -diameter Starship test flight rocket is planned to occur at the SpaceX South Texas Launch Site near Brownsville, Texas in 2019.
The technology required to achieve retropropulsive landings—the vertical landing or "VL" addition to the standard vertical takeoff technology of the early decades of human spaceflight—has several parts. First, thrust must be greater than weight, second the thrust is requir
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963. An early highlight of the Space Race, its goal was to put a man into Earth orbit and return him safely, ideally before the Soviet Union. Taken over from the US Air Force by the newly created civilian space agency NASA, it conducted twenty unmanned developmental flights, six successful flights by astronauts; the program, which took its name from Roman mythology, cost $2.2 billion adjusted for inflation. The astronauts were collectively known as the "Mercury Seven", each spacecraft was given a name ending with a "7" by its pilot; the Space Race began with the 1957 launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik 1. This came as a shock to the American public, led to the creation of NASA to expedite existing US space exploration efforts, place most of them under civilian control. After the successful launch of the Explorer 1 satellite in 1958, manned spaceflight became the next goal; the Soviet Union put the first human, cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, into a single orbit aboard Vostok 1 on April 12, 1961.
Shortly after this, on May 5, the US launched its first astronaut, Alan Shepard, on a suborbital flight. Soviet Gherman Titov followed with a day-long orbital flight in August 1961; the US reached its orbital goal on February 20, 1962, when John Glenn made three orbits around the Earth. When Mercury ended in May 1963, both nations had sent six people into space, but the Soviets led the US in total time spent in space; the Mercury space capsule was produced by McDonnell Aircraft, carried supplies of water and oxygen for about one day in a pressurized cabin. Mercury flights were launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, on launch vehicles modified from the Redstone and Atlas D missiles; the capsule was fitted with a launch escape rocket to carry it safely away from the launch vehicle in case of a failure. The flight was designed to be controlled from the ground via the Manned Space Flight Network, a system of tracking and communications stations. Small retrorockets were used to bring the spacecraft out of its orbit, after which an ablative heat shield protected it from the heat of atmospheric reentry.
A parachute slowed the craft for a water landing. Both astronaut and capsule were recovered by helicopters deployed from a US Navy ship; the Mercury project gained popularity, its missions were followed by millions on radio and TV around the world. Its success laid the groundwork for Project Gemini, which carried two astronauts in each capsule and perfected space docking maneuvers essential for manned lunar landings in the subsequent Apollo program announced a few weeks after the first manned Mercury flight. Project Mercury was approved on October 7, 1958 and publicly announced on December 17. Called Project Astronaut, President Dwight Eisenhower felt that gave too much attention to the pilot. Instead, the name Mercury was chosen from classical mythology, which had lent names to rockets like the Greek Atlas and Roman Jupiter for the SM-65 and PGM-19 missiles, it absorbed military projects with the same aim, such as the Air Force Man in Space Soonest. Following the end of World War II, a nuclear arms race evolved between the Soviet Union.
Since the USSR did not have bases in the western hemisphere from which to deploy bomber planes, Joseph Stalin decided to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles, which drove a missile race. The rocket technology in turn enabled both sides to develop Earth-orbiting satellites for communications, gathering weather data and intelligence. Americans were shocked when the Soviet Union placed the first satellite into orbit in October 1957, leading to a growing fear that the US was falling into a "missile gap". A month the Soviets launched Sputnik 2, carrying a dog into orbit. Though the animal was not recovered alive, it was obvious. Unable to disclose details of military space projects, President Eisenhower ordered the creation of a civilian space agency in charge of civilian and scientific space exploration. Based on the federal research agency National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, it was named the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, it achieved its first goal, an American satellite in space, in 1958.
The next goal was to put a man there. The limit of space was defined at the time as a minimum altitude of 62 mi, the only way to reach it was by using rocket-powered boosters; this created risks for the pilot, including explosion, high g-forces and vibrations during lift off through a dense atmosphere, temperatures of more than 10,000 °F from air compression during reentry. In space, pilots would require pressurized chambers or space suits to supply fresh air. While there, they would experience weightlessness, which could cause disorientation. Further potential risks included radiation and micrometeoroid strikes, both of which would be absorbed in the atmosphere. All seemed possible to overcome: experience from satellites suggested micrometeoroid risk was negligible, experiments in the early 1950s with simulated weightlessness, high g-forces on humans, sending animals to the limit of space, all suggested potential problems could be overcome by known technologies. Reentry was studied using the nuclear warheads of ballistic missiles, which demonstrated a blunt, forward-facing heat shield could solve the problem of heating.
T. Keith Glennan had been appointed the first Administrator of NASA, with Hugh L. Dryden as his Deputy, at the creation of the agency on October 1, 1958. Glennan would report to the preside
A Graphite-Epoxy Motor is a solid-fuel rocket motor produced by Northrop Grumman with an epoxy composite casing. GEM boosters have been used on the Delta II, Delta III, Delta IV, are planned for future use on the Atlas V, Orbital ATK’s proposed Omega. GEM-40 The GEM-40 is a 40-inch-diameter SRM used on Delta II beginning in 1990; the use of composite materials allowed for booster casings lighter than the steel casings of the Castor 4 SRMs they replaced. The first flight of a GEM-40 occurred in 1990 on a Delta II 7925. Delta II vehicles can use four, or nine GEM-40s; when using three or four boosters, all GEM-40s ignite on the ground, while on Delta IIs using nine boosters six are ignited on the ground, the remaining three are ignited in the air when the first six burn out. GEM-46 The GEM-46 was a lengthened 46-inch-diameter solid motor developed for Delta III; this solid motor variant included thrust vector control to help steer the vehicle. After the discontinuation of the Delta III, GEM-46 motors were used on the Delta II to create the Delta II Heavy, which could only be launched from a modified pad at Cape Canaveral.
Both Delta III and Delta II-Heavy used nine GEM-46s, with six ignited on the ground and three air-lit. GEM-60 The GEM-60 is a 60-inch-diameter solid motor used on the Delta IV family of launch vehicles; these motors are available with and without TVC. A Delta IV can use two or four GEM-60s, is classified as a Delta IV Medium+ launch vehicle. GEM-63 The GEM-63 is being developed as a drop-in replacement for the Aerojet Rocketdyne AJ-60A booster used on the Atlas V; the Atlas V will begin flying with the GEM-63 in 2019. An extended GEM-63, the GEM-63XL, is planned for use on the Vulcan launch vehicle in 2020. ULA CEO Tory Bruno stated that the reason for choosing the GEM-63 for the Atlas V and Vulcan is because it offers higher performance and half the cost of the AJ-60A boosters being used on the Atlas V. On August 5, 1995, an air-lit GEM-40 failed to separate from a Delta II 7925 carrying Koreasat I; the excess mass of the booster resulted in the satellite reaching a lower than intended transfer orbit, which it was able to compensate for using on-board propellant.
On January 17, 1997, a Delta II exploded due to a catastrophic failure in a GEM-40. The failure triggered. An Air Force investigation determined that the motor's casing had been damaged prior to launch, resulting in the casing splitting open soon after ignition. Solid rocket Spacecraft propulsion Delta rocket Composite overwrapped pressure vessel