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Boosting (machine learning)

In machine learning, boosting is an ensemble meta-algorithm for reducing bias, variance in supervised learning, a family of machine learning algorithms that convert weak learners to strong ones. Boosting is based on the question posed by Kearns and Valiant: "Can a set of weak learners create a single strong learner?" A weak learner is defined to be a classifier, only correlated with the true classification. In contrast, a strong learner is a classifier, arbitrarily well-correlated with the true classification. Robert Schapire's affirmative answer in a 1990 paper to the question of Kearns and Valiant has had significant ramifications in machine learning and statistics, most notably leading to the development of boosting; when first introduced, the hypothesis boosting problem referred to the process of turning a weak learner into a strong learner. "Informally, problem asks whether an efficient learning algorithm that outputs a hypothesis whose performance is only better than random guessing implies the existence of an efficient algorithm that outputs a hypothesis of arbitrary accuracy."

Algorithms that achieve hypothesis boosting became known as "boosting". Freund and Schapire's arcing, as a general technique, is less synonymous with boosting. While boosting is not algorithmically constrained, most boosting algorithms consist of iteratively learning weak classifiers with respect to a distribution and adding them to a final strong classifier; when they are added, they are weighted in some way, related to the weak learners' accuracy. After a weak learner is added, the data weights are readjusted, known as "re-weighting". Misclassified input data gain a higher weight and examples that are classified lose weight. Thus, future weak learners focus more on the examples. There are many boosting algorithms; the original ones, proposed by Robert Schapire and Yoav Freund, were not adaptive and could not take full advantage of the weak learners. Schapire and Freund developed AdaBoost, an adaptive boosting algorithm that won the prestigious Gödel Prize. Only algorithms that are provable boosting algorithms in the approximately correct learning formulation can be called boosting algorithms.

Other algorithms that are similar in spirit to boosting algorithms are sometimes called "leveraging algorithms", although they are sometimes incorrectly called boosting algorithms. The main variation between many boosting algorithms is their method of weighting training data points and hypotheses. AdaBoost is popular and the most significant as it was the first algorithm that could adapt to the weak learners, it is the basis of introductory coverage of boosting in university machine learning courses. There are many more recent algorithms such as LPBoost, TotalBoost, BrownBoost, MadaBoost, LogitBoost, others. Many boosting algorithms fit into the AnyBoost framework, which shows that boosting performs gradient descent in a function space using a convex cost function. Given images containing various known objects in the world, a classifier can be learned from them to automatically classify the objects in future images. Simple classifiers built based on some image feature of the object tend to be weak in categorization performance.

Using boosting methods for object categorization is a way to unify the weak classifiers in a special way to boost the overall ability of categorization. Object categorization is a typical task of computer vision that involves determining whether or not an image contains some specific category of object; the idea is related with recognition and detection. Appearance based object categorization contains feature extraction, learning a classifier, applying the classifier to new examples. There are many ways to represent a category of objects, e.g. from shape analysis, bag of words models, or local descriptors such as SIFT, etc. Examples of supervised classifiers are Naive Bayes classifiers, support vector machines, mixtures of Gaussians, neural networks. However, research has shown that object categories and their locations in images can be discovered in an unsupervised manner as well; the recognition of object categories in images is a challenging problem in computer vision when the number of categories is large.

This is due to high intra class variability and the need for generalization across variations of objects within the same category. Objects within one category may look quite different; the same object may appear unalike under different viewpoint and illumination. Background clutter and partial occlusion add difficulties to recognition as well. Humans are able to recognize thousands of object types, whereas most of the existing object recognition systems are trained to recognize only a few, e.g. human faces, simple objects, etc. Research has been active on dealing with more categories and enabling incremental additions of new categories, although the general problem remains unsolved, several multi-category objects detectors have been developed. One means is by feature boosting. AdaBoost can be used for face detection as an example of binary categorization; the two categories are faces versus background. The general algorithm is as follows: Form a large set of simple features Initialize weights for training images For T rounds Normalize the weights For available features

Laura Boushnak

Laura Boushnak is a Kuwaiti-born Palestinian photographer whose work is focused on women and education reform in the Arab world. For her ongoing documentary project "I Read I Write" she photographed girls and women changing their lives with education in Egypt, Kuwait and Tunisia. Boushnak was born in Kuwait in 1976 to third-generation Palestinian refugee parents, she attended public school there until Palestinian children were not allowed to attend public schools in retaliation for the Palestine Liberation Organization's support for Iraq's 1991 Invasion of Kuwait. She transferred to Fajer al-Sabah School, a private Catholic school. After completing a BA in sociology at the Lebanese University in Beirut in 1997, Boushnak began her photography career covering news for the Associated Press agency in Lebanon, she worked as a photo editor and photographer for the French news agency Agence France-Presse at its Middle East hub in Cyprus and its headquarters in Paris. Her nine-year wire experience included covering hard news in conflicts such as the war in Iraq and the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war.

Her photographs have been published by many international newspapers and magazines, such as: The New York Times, The Guardian, The Washington Post, Le Monde. After covering the 2006 Israeli/Hezbollah war for AFP, she witnessed how many people, including her own family and close relatives, had to flee their homes and seek refuge; when the war was over, Boushnak started the project "Survivor" a story of Mohammed, trying to embrace his new life after losing both legs in a cluster bomb incident. Since 2008 Boushnak has been working as an independent photographer, devoting more time to her long-term projects, one of, a broad, ongoing one, titled "I Read I Write"; the project shows successful and independent women from the Arab region who changed their lives through education while exposing and questioning the barriers they face. These women are seen as a source of inspiration beyond. With this project Boushnak wanted to expand her means of expression by applying a more artistic approach, rather than presenting a socio-political documentation.

She engaged the women by getting them to write on the photograph itself. Her work "I Read I Write: Egypt- Illiteracy series" was acquired by the British Museum in 2012, by private collectors, it has been exhibited at institutions such as: Arp Museum Bahnhof Rolandseck, Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery, MODEM Museum, Sharjah Art Museum and the Contemporary Art Platform, Kuwait. Getty Images awarded Boushnak a special grant for editorial photography in 2014 to continue her "I Read I Write" project. In 2014 Boushnak became a TED Global Fellow and gave a TED talk about her education project, which went online on TED main website Recently, Boushnak gave another TED talk about the human impact of cluster submunition. Boushnak co-founded the first all female photo collective in the Middle East. Official website "Laura Boushnak Pictures". Getty Images

Urusei Yatsura no Theme: Lum no Love Song/Me

Urusei Yatsura no Theme ~Lum no Love Song~/「Mii」 is the fourteenth single released by Japanese artist misono on September 23, 2009. The single was released the same day as her first cover album Cover Album; the single charted well on Oricon. The first track, "Urusei Yatsura no Theme ~Lum no Love Song~", was a cover of Yuko Matsutani's song of the same name; the original song was used as the theme song for the anime Urusei Yatsura in the 1980s. On September 23, 2009, Japanese artist misono released her fourteenth single under the avex label, Urusei Yatsura no Theme ~Lum no Love Song~/「Mii」; the single was released the same day as her first mini and cover album, aptly titled, Cover Album The single peaked in the top 20 on the Oricon Singles Charts, coming in at #18 and remaining on the charts for two consecutive weeks. Urusei Yatsura no Theme ~Lum no Love Song~/「Mii」 was released in two editions: CD and a CD+DVD combo; the CD came with both a-sides, along with their corresponding instrumentals. The DVD contained the music video for "Urusei Yatsura no Theme ~Lum no Love Song~", but omitted the video for the other a-side, "「Mii」".

Instead, the video "misono to Utaou! AniMedley I" was included; the song for the video came from the same-day released album Cover Album. The single's first a-side, "Urusei Yatsura no Theme ~Lum no Love Song~", was a cover of Yuko Matsutani's song "Lum no Love Song," released on October 21, 1981; the original song was used as the theme song to the 1980s anime Urusei Yatsura between 1981 and 1983. While the original composition was created by Izumi Kobayashi, Diamond Head's Susumu Nishikawa reworked and performed the instrumentals to misono's version to give it a more modern vibe. Susumu had worked with misono for several of her songs, including "Lovely♡Cat's Eye," "VS" and "Kodomo no Jijō>Otona no Shijō²." For the other a-side, "「Mii」", misono worked with indie rock band PLECTRUM's guitarist Akira Fujita, who performed the music. Misono had worked with PLECTRUM prior for her single Ninin Sankyaku during her Rock Singles Project; when misono was asked during an interview on Sukkiri!! Why she chose to cover Yuko Matsutani's song "Lum no Love Song," misono had responded how she saw the success her sister, Kumi Koda, received after she covered the 1980s anime theme song, "Cutie Honey."

She said how she hoped her single would sell well if she covered a popular anime theme song.misono would release an alternative version of "「Mii」" on the single's corresponding studio album Me. Despite being an a-side, "「Mii」" did not receive a music video on the single or the corresponding album Me. For "Urusei Yatsura no Theme ~Lum no Love Song~", misono is shown wearing pink slip lingerie while being filmed on a rotating stage. Much like her sister, Kumi Koda's, music video for "Cutie Honey," the music video begins with a television turning on. Other similarities between the videos including a musical rift where misono takes off her lingerie to reveal her bikini; this is not unlike the rift in her sister's video, where Kumi is shown in seductive clothing while she dances on a bar. The video ends with the television showing misono donning several different outfits; the ending leads into the next music video. The video for "misono to Utaou! AniMedley I" beings with the same television from the previous video turning on to show misono wearing the bikini from "Urusei Yatsura no Theme ~Lum no Love Song~".

Throughout the video, misono dons a different outfit for each song in the medley. This includes a black crop top and cat ears for "Cat's Eye" by Anri and glasses for "Wai Wai World" by Ado Mizumori, a sundress for "Candy♥Candy" by Mitsuko Horie, a pinafore / jumper for "Attack No.1" by Kumiko Ōsugi, a vest and headband for "Hajimete no Chuu" by Anshin Papa. Misono Official Urusei Yatsura Site

Mt. Desolation

Mt. Desolation are an English band formed by Tim Rice-Oxley and Jesse Quin, members of the rock band Keane, as a side-project, their self-titled debut album was released on 18 October 2010. The live band consists of Tim Rice-Oxley, Jesse Quin, Jessica Staveley-Taylor, John-William Scott and Phil Renna; the project started during Keane's Perfect Symmetry World Tour in 2009 during a conversation in a bar in Dublin, Ireland. Rice-Oxley and Quin, Keane pianist and bassist had the idea of making a country album, but the duo said they did not think they were going to release it; the album was recorded and released in 2010. Members of Noah & The Whale, The Killers, The Long Winters, The Staves and Mumford & Sons were involved in the album's recording. After their debut show at The Lexington in London in July, the live band toured the UK in September 2010 and the USA & Canada supporting Mumford & Sons in October 2010; the Staves supported. The band launched a Tumblr blog on 6 November 2014, prompting speculation that the band were recording a new album during Keane's hiatus.

This was confirmed by band member Jesse Quin on his Twitter feed. In February 2016 Mt. Desolation announced on Twitter. Over the next two years the band posted several hinting pictures and videos on Instagram and Facebook, concerning their next album. In October 2017 the band played a gig in Battle, East Sussex. On 26 March 2018, the band announced their new album's release date; when the Night Calls was released on 25 May 2018. It was followed by a short tour of the UK in June 2018. Tim Rice-Oxley – composition, piano, bass Jesse Quin – composition, guitar Additional personnelFimbo – drums Jessica Staveley-Taylor – backing vocals, acoustic guitar, piano John-William Scott – bass, guitar Phil Renna – fiddle, keyboards Ronnie Vannucci – guitar, percussion

Uebert Angel

Uebert Angel is the founder of Spirit Embassy, a Pentecostal ministry in the United Kingdom. The church was founded in 2007 as "Spirit Embassy" and in October 2015 it rebranded its name to "Good News Church", retaining "Spirit Embassy" as a term for Angel's overall ministry. Described as "a young charismatic prophet", Angel travels by helicopter to preach the message that God wants his flock to be rich, as rich as he is, he is the founder of The Angel Organisation, the parent company for his other business interests. Angel grew up in Masvingo, Zimbabwe, he moved to Manchester, where he founded the Spirit Embassy ministry in 2007. In October 2015 it re-branded its name to the "Good News Church"; the church ministry attracted numerous followers and there are 70 branches in over 15 different countries in Europe and the US. Angel has launched Miracle TV and Good News TV where he carries out regular speaking engagements and broadcasts programs on behalf of the Good News Church, he is the founder and president of Osborn Institute of Theology, an online Bible school, launched in August 2012.

Angel started his career in 2005 as a businessman when he founded Club Millionaire Limited, providing concierge services in Britain. He entered the real estate business developing residential properties and moved to commercial establishments and building acquisition, as well as buying and selling of properties. In 2006 he made his first property sale, in 2008 he founded Sam Barkeley Construction and the Angel Organisation, the parent company for his business interests, of which he is CEO, he runs other business enterprises under the parent company, including Brits Bank and Atom Mobile. He is the founder of The Millionaire Academy, whose stated purpose is to instruct individuals how to become successful entrepreneurs and run businesses of their own. In 2014, Angel was featured in Forbes Magazine Africa detailing his wealth. Angel and his wife Beverly Angel have both been involved in charity work since the launch of his church in 2007, he helps poor families in Africa and Asia by providing monthly groceries and paying tuition fees of children thorough his "Adopt a Family" scheme.

In November 2015, he founded Uebert Angel Foundation with his wife which helps poor students by providing scholarships, tuition fees for education. He is founder of Free Earth Humanitarian Organisation which works to ensure that underprivileged people have their basic needs for living met. Becoming a Millionaire in Real Estate God's Get Rich Quick Scheme Good News The Greatest Secret God Told Me about Money Prayer Banks God's Medicine Praying for the Impossible How To Hear The Voice of God Supernatural Power of the Believer Official website

1993 McDonald's All-American Boys Game

The 1993 McDonald's All-American Boys Game was an All-star basketball game played on Friday, April 2, 1993 at the Mid-South Coliseum in Memphis, Tennessee. The game's rosters featured the best and most recruited high school boys graduating in 1993; the game was the 16th annual version of the McDonald's All-American Game first played in 1978. The game was telecast live by CBS. Rashard Griffith was selected as a McDonald's All-American but did not play in the game because of the NCAA limit of 2 all-star games: having played in the Roundball Classic and the Illinois-US All-Stars game, he was unable to participate in the McDonald's event; the Mid-South Coliseum was sold out for the event: the top prospects of the teams were big men Rasheed Wallace and Darnell Robinson. The MVP title was awarded to two players, Jacque Vaughn for the West team and Jerry Stackhouse for the East. Vaughn was noted for his pass-first style of play and broke the assist record with 13. Other players who starred were Darnell Robinson, Charles O'Bannon, Jerald Honeycutt, Keith Booth and Dontonio Wingfield who recorded a double-double with 13 points and 13 rebounds.

Rasheed Wallace fouled out after scoring 9 points. Of the 22 players, 10 went on to play at least 1 game in the NBA; the East team was coached by: Head Coach Julius Prezelski of Forest City High School The West team was coached by: Head Coach Charles Ripley of Parkview High School Thursday, April 1: Coca-Cola JamFest Slam Dunk Contest Three-Point Shoot-out Friday, April 2: 16th Annual Boys All-American GameThe Coca-Cola JamFest is a skills-competition evening featuring basketball players who demonstrate their skills in two crowd-entertaining ways. The slam dunk contest was first held in 1987, a 3-point shooting challenge was added in 1989; the 1993 Slam Dunk contest was won by Jerry Stackhouse. The 1993 3-point shoot-out was won by Chris Kingsbury. McDonald's All-American on the web McDonald's All-American all-time rosters McDonald's All-American rosters at Game stats at