IMac is a family of all-in-one Macintosh desktop computers designed and built by Apple Inc. It has been the primary part of Apple's consumer desktop offerings since its debut in August 1998, has evolved through seven distinct forms. In its original form, iMac G3 had a gumdrop or egg-shaped look, with a CRT monitor enclosed by a colored, translucent plastic case, refreshed early on with a sleeker design notable for its slot-loaded optical drive; the second major revision, iMac G4, moved the design to a hemispherical base containing all the main components and an LCD monitor on a moving arm attached to it. The third and fourth major revisions, iMac G5 and the Intel iMac placed all the components behind the display, creating a slim unified design that tilts only up and down on a simple metal base; the fifth major revision shared the same form as the previous model, but was thinner and used anodized aluminum and a glass panel over the entire front. The sixth major revision uses a different display unit, omits the SuperDrive, uses different production techniques from the older unibody versions.
This allows it to be thinner with an edge thickness of 5.9 mm. It includes a dual microphone setup, includes solid-state drive or hard disk storage, or an Apple Fusion Drive, a hybrid of solid state and hard disk drives; this version of iMac was announced in October 2012, with the 21.5-inch version released in November and the 27-inch version in December. In October 2014, the seventh major revision of the 27-inch iMac was announced, whose main feature is a "Retina 5K" display at a resolution of 5120 × 2880 pixels; the new model includes a new processor, graphics chip, IO, along with several new storage options. The seventh major revision of the 21.5-inch iMac was announced in October 2015. Its main feature is a "Retina 4K" display at a resolution of 4096 × 2304 pixels, it has the same new processor, graphics chip, I/O as the 27-inch iMac, along with several new storage options. On June 5, 2017, Apple announced a workstation-class version of the iMac, called the "iMac Pro"; the iMac Pro shares the design and screen of the 5K iMac, but is colored in Space Gray rather than silver.
It comes with standard SSD storage. Apple began shipping the iMac Pro in December 2017; the announcement of iMac in 1998 was a source of controversy and anticipation among commentators, Mac fans, detractors. Opinions were divided over Apple's drastic changes to the Macintosh hardware. At the time, Apple had suffered a series of setbacks as consumers opted for Wintel machines instead of Apple's Performa models. Many in the industry thought that "beleaguered" Apple would soon be forced to start selling computers with a custom interface built on top of one or more potential operating system bases, such as Taligent, Solaris, or Windows 98. Part of Apple's effort to maintain the Mac platform was trying to improve its retail strategy; as these stores developed, they became a detriment to Apple sales, as CompUSA employees were unfamiliar with the Macintosh and directed customers to Wintel boxes instead. The designer behind iMac's case was Jonathan Ive. Ken Segall was an employee at an L. A. ad agency handling Apple's account who came up with the name "iMac" and pitched it to Steve Jobs.
Jobs wanted the product to be called "MacMan", but warmed to Segall's suggestion. Segall says that the "i" stands for "Internet", but represents the product as a personal and revolutionary device. Apple adopted the'i' prefix across its consumer hardware and software lines, such as iPod, iBook, iPhone, iPad and various pieces of software such as the iLife suite and iWork and the company's media player/store, iTunes. Attention was given to the out-of-box experience: the user needed to go through only two steps to set up and connect to the Internet. "There's no step 3!" was the catch-phrase in a popular iMac commercial narrated by actor Jeff Goldblum. Another commercial, dubbed "Simplicity Shootout", pitted seven-year-old Johann Thomas and his border collie Brodie, with an iMac, against Adam Taggart, a Stanford University MBA student, with an HP Pavilion 8250, in a race to set up their computers. Johann and Brodie finished in 8 minutes and 15 seconds, whereas Adam was still working on it by the end of the commercial.
By 2005, it had become more and more apparent that IBM's development for the desktop implementation of PowerPC was grinding to a halt. Apple announced at the Worldwide Developers Conference that it would be switching the Macintosh to the x86 architecture and Intel's line of Core processors; the first Intel-equipped Macs were unveiled on January 10, 2006: the Intel iMac and the introductory MacBook Pro. Within nine months, Apple had smoothly transitioned the entire Macintosh line to Intel. One of the touted side benefits of this switch was the ability to run Windows on Mac hardware. On July 27, 2010, Apple updated its line of iMacs to feature the new Intel Core "i-series" processors across the line; the 21.5" models now feature the Core i3 processor, but these are upgradable to the Core i5. The high end 27" features a Quad-Core i5 processor, upgradable to a Quad-Core i7. On this date Apple announced its new "Apple Magic Trackpad" peripheral, a trackpad similar to that of MacBook Pro for use with iMac or any other Apple computer.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
The Command key historically known as the Apple key, clover key, open-Apple key, splat key, pretzel key, or propeller key, is a modifier key present on Apple keyboards. The Command key's purpose is to allow the user to enter keyboard commands in applications and in the system. An "extended" Macintosh keyboard—the most common type—has two command keys, one on each side of the space bar; the "⌘" symbol was chosen by Susan Kare after Steve Jobs decided that the use of the Apple logo in the menu system would be an over-use of the logo. Apple's adaptation of the symbol—encoded in Unicode at U+2318 ⌘ —was derived in part from its use in Nordic countries as an indicator of cultural locations and places of interest; the symbol is known by various other names, including "Saint John's Arms" and "Bowen knot". Apple's computers up through the 1979 Apple II Plus did not have a command key; the first model on which it appeared was the 1980 Apple III, where there are two monochrome Apple keys, both to the left of the space bar on the lowest row of the keyboard.
Two other early Apple computers, the 1982 Apple IIe and the 1984 Apple IIc had two such keys, one to the left and one to the right of the space bar. This allowed for flexible combinations of a modifier key and base key with just a few extra wires and no ROM changes, since the Apple II could only register one key press at a time. In all these cases, the left Apple key had an outlined "open" Apple logo, the one on the right had an opaque, "closed" or "solid" Apple logo key; the Apple Lisa had only the closed Apple logo. When the Macintosh was introduced in 1984, the keyboard had a single command key with a Looped square symbol, because Steve Jobs said that showing the Apple logo throughout the menus as a keyboard shortcut was "taking in vain". Thus, the ⌘ symbol appears in the Macintosh menus as the primary modifier key symbol; the original Macintosh had an Option key, used for entering extended characters. In 1986, the Apple IIGS was introduced. Like the newer Macintosh computers to come, such as the Macintosh SE, it used the Apple Desktop Bus for its keyboard and mouse.
However, it was still an Apple II. Apple changed the keys on the IIGS's keyboard to Command and Option, as on Mac keyboards, but added an open-Apple to the Command key, for consistency with applications for previous Apple II generations; because any ADB keyboard could be used with the IIGS, all of Apple's ADB keyboards—even those intended for the Mac—also required the open-Apple, it stuck for more than twenty years, causing confusion long after the Apple II series went out of production. The Apple symbol was removed in the keyboard's 2007 redesign, making room for the key's name to appear—the word "command" is now printed on the key. On the keyboard of the NeXT Computer that key was marked Command in green; the menus were not marked with a symbol denoting the command key. Besides being used as a modifier key for keyboard shortcuts it was used to alter the function of some keys. Command + ⇧ Shift toggles alpha lock, Command + Return sends Command + Volume-down toggles Mute; the functions were printed in green on the front side of the modified keys.
This was done on the Z, X, C and V keys. Command-Alternate-* triggers a non-catchable hardware reset thereby hard rebooting the computer. On the NeXT ADB keyboard, the Command keys were replaced by keys labeled Help and the Command key morphed into a wide Command bar in front of the space bar; the purpose of the Command key is to allow the user to enter keyboard commands in applications and in the system. The Macintosh Human Interface Guidelines have always recommended that developers use the Command key for this purpose. A small set of keyboard commands are standard across nearly all applications, many other commands are standardized. If an application needs more shortcuts than can be obtained with the twenty-six letters of the Latin alphabet, double modifiers such as Command+Option are used. One advantage of this scheme, as contrasted with the Microsoft Windows mixed use of the Control and Alt keys, is that the Control key is available for its original purpose: entering control characters in terminal applications.
The Macintosh keyboard's other unusual modifier key, the Option key, serves as a modifier both for entering keyboard shortcuts and for typing text—it is used to enter foreign characters, typographical symbols, other special characters. The ⌘ symbol came into the Macintosh project at a late stage; the development team went for their old Apple key, but Steve Jobs found it frustrating when "apples" filled up the Mac's menus next to the key commands, because he felt that this was an over-use of the company logo. He opted for a different key symbol. With only a few days left before deadline, the team's bitmap artist Susan Kare started researching for the Apple logo's successor, she was browsing through a symbol dictionary when she came across the
The Apple–Intel architecture, or Mactel, is an unofficial name used for Apple Macintosh personal computers developed and manufactured by Apple Inc. that use Intel x86 processors, rather than the PowerPC and Motorola 68000 series processors used in their predecessors. With the change in architecture, a change in firmware became necessary. With the change in processor architecture to x86, Macs gained the ability to boot into x86-native operating systems, while Intel VT-x brought near-native virtualization with Mac OS X as the host OS. Apple–Intel architecture is an unofficial name used for Apple Macintosh personal computers developed and manufactured by Apple Inc. that use Intel x86 processors. As the name implies, it refers to changes in the architecture from the earlier PowerPC, Apple 68k, other preceding processors. Apple uses a subset of the standard PC architecture, which provides support for Mac OS X and support for other operating systems. Hardware and firmware components that must be supported to run an operating system on Apple-Intel hardware include the Extensible Firmware Interface.
With the change in architecture, a change in firmware became necessary. Extensible Firmware Interface is the firmware-based replacement for the PC BIOS from Intel. Designed by Intel, it was chosen by Apple to replace Open Firmware, used on PowerPC architectures. Since many operating systems, such as Windows XP and many versions of Windows Vista, are incompatible with EFI, Apple has released a firmware upgrade with a compatibility support module that provides a subset of traditional BIOS support with their Boot Camp product. GUID Partition Table is a standard for the layout of the partition table on a physical hard disk, it is a part of the Extensible Firmware Interface standard proposed by Intel as a substitute for the earlier PC BIOS. The GPT replaces the Master Boot Record used with BIOS. Intel Macs can boot in two ways: directly in a "legacy" BIOS compatibility mode. For multibooting, holding down "Option" gives a choice of bootable devices, while the rEFInd bootloader is used for added configurability.
Standard Live USBs cannot be used on Intel Macs. Many operating systems, such as earlier versions of Windows and Linux, can only be booted in BIOS mode, or are more booted or perform better when booted in BIOS mode, thus USB booting on Intel-based Macs was for a time limited to Mac OS X, which can be booted via EFI. On April 5, 2006, Apple made available for download a public beta version of Boot Camp, a collection of technologies which allows users of Intel-based Macs to boot Windows XP Service Pack 2; the first non-beta version of Boot Camp is included in Mac OS X v10.5, "Leopard." Before the introduction of Boot Camp, which provides most hardware drivers for Windows XP, drivers for XP were difficult to find. Linux can be booted with Boot Camp. Intel-based Mac computers use similar hardware to PCs from other manufacturers which ship with Microsoft Windows or Linux operating systems. In particular, CPUs, chipsets and GPUs are compatible. However, Apple computers include some custom hardware and design choices not found in competing systems: System Management Controller is a custom Apple chip that controls various functions of the computer related to power management, including handling the power button, management of battery and thermal sensors, among others.
It plays a part in the protection scheme deployed to restrict booting macOS to Apple hardware. Laptop input devices. Early MacBook and MacBook Pro computers used an internal variant of USB as a keyboard and trackpad interconnect. Since the 2013 revision of MacBook Air, Apple started to use a custom Serial Peripheral Interface controller instead; the 2016 MacBook Pro additionally uses a custom internal USB device dubbed "iBridge" as an interface to the Touch Bar and Touch ID components, as well as the FaceTime Camera. PC laptops use internal variant of the legacy PS/2 keyboard interconnect. PS/2 used to be the standard for PC laptop pointing devices, although a variety of other interfaces, including USB, SMBus and I2C, may be used. Additional custom hardware may include a GMUX chip that controls GPU switching, non-compliant implementations of NVMe solid-state storage and non-standard configurations of HD Audio subsystem. Keyboard layout has significant differences between IBM PC keyboards. While PC keyboards can be used in macOS, as well as Mac keyboards in Microsoft Windows, some functional differences occur.
For example, the Alt and ⌥ Option keys function equivalently. There are keys exclusive for each platform, some of which may require software remapping to achieve the desired function. Compact and laptop keyboards from Apple lack some keys considered essential on PCs, such as the forward Delete key, although some of them are accessible through the Fn key. Boot process. All Intel-based Macs have been using some version of EFI as the boot firmware. At the time the platform debuted in 2006, it was in a stark contrast to PCs, which universally employed legacy BIOS, Apple's implementation of EFI did not implement the Compatibility Support Modul
PowerPC is a reduced instruction set computing instruction set architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. PowerPC, as an evolving instruction set, has since 2006 been named Power ISA, while the old name lives on as a trademark for some implementations of Power Architecture-based processors. PowerPC was the cornerstone of AIM's PReP and Common Hardware Reference Platform initiatives in the 1990s. Intended for personal computers, the architecture is well known for being used by Apple's Power Macintosh, PowerBook, iMac, iBook, Xserve lines from 1994 until 2006, when Apple migrated to Intel's x86, it has since become a niche in personal computers, but remains popular for embedded and high-performance processors. Its use in 7th generation of video game consoles and embedded applications provided an array of uses. In addition, PowerPC CPUs are still used in third party AmigaOS 4 personal computers. PowerPC is based on IBM's earlier POWER instruction set architecture, retains a high level of compatibility with it.
The history of RISC began with IBM's 801 research project, on which John Cocke was the lead developer, where he developed the concepts of RISC in 1975–78. 801-based microprocessors were used in a number of IBM embedded products becoming the 16-register IBM ROMP processor used in the IBM RT PC. The RT PC was a rapid design implementing the RISC architecture. Between the years of 1982–1984, IBM started a project to build the fastest microprocessor on the market; the result is the POWER instruction set architecture, introduced with the RISC System/6000 in early 1990. The original POWER microprocessor, one of the first superscalar RISC implementations, is a high performance, multi-chip design. IBM soon realized that a single-chip microprocessor was needed in order to scale its RS/6000 line from lower-end to high-end machines. Work began on a one-chip POWER microprocessor, designated the RSC. In early 1991, IBM realized its design could become a high-volume microprocessor used across the industry. Apple had realized the limitations and risks of its dependency upon a single CPU vendor at a time when Motorola was falling behind on delivering the 68040 CPU.
Furthermore, Apple had conducted its own research and made an experimental quad-core CPU design called Aquarius, which convinced the company's technology leadership that the future of computing was in the RISC methodology. IBM approached Apple with the goal of collaborating on the development of a family of single-chip microprocessors based on the POWER architecture. Soon after, being one of Motorola's largest customers of desktop-class microprocessors, asked Motorola to join the discussions due to their long relationship, Motorola having had more extensive experience with manufacturing high-volume microprocessors than IBM, to form a second source for the microprocessors; this three-way collaboration between Apple, IBM, Motorola became known as the AIM alliance. In 1991, the PowerPC was just one facet of a larger alliance among these three companies. At the time, most of the personal computer industry was shipping systems based on the Intel 80386 and 80486 chips, which have a complex instruction set computer architecture, development of the Pentium processor was well underway.
The PowerPC chip was one of several joint ventures involving the three alliance members, in their efforts to counter the growing Microsoft-Intel dominance of personal computing. For Motorola, POWER looked like an unbelievable deal, it allowed the company to sell a tested and powerful RISC CPU for little design cash on its own part. It maintained ties with an important customer and seemed to offer the possibility of adding IBM too, which might buy smaller versions from Motorola instead of making its own. At this point Motorola had its own RISC design in the form of the 88000, doing poorly in the market. Motorola was doing well with its 68000 family and the majority of the funding was focused on this; the 88000 effort was somewhat starved for resources. The 88000 was in production, however; the 88000 had achieved a number of embedded design wins in telecom applications. If the new POWER one-chip version could be made bus-compatible at a hardware level with the 88000, that would allow both Apple and Motorola to bring machines to market far faster since they would not have to redesign their board architecture.
The result of these various requirements is the PowerPC specification. The differences between the earlier POWER instruction set and that of PowerPC is outlined in Appendix E of the manual for PowerPC ISA v.2.02. Since 1991, IBM had a long-standing desire for a unifying operating system that would host all existing operating systems as personalities upon one microkernel. From 1991 to 1995, the company designed and aggressively evangelized what would become Workplace OS targeting PowerPC; when the first PowerPC products reached the market, they were met with enthusiasm. In addition to Apple, both IBM and the Motorola Computer Group offered systems built around the processors. Microsoft released Windows NT 3.51 for the architecture, used in Motorola's
The classic Macintosh startup sequence included the startup chime, Happy Mac, Sad Mac, Chimes of Death. These had all been done away with over time, the release of the 2016 MacBook Pro eliminated the final remaining startup feature: the startup chime, in favor of a more discrete sequence with a black background and no audible indicators, despite its use as a security feature that provided a user-friendly, audible verification that a computer's NVRAM configuration is authentic. Apple added the startup chime back for the release of the 2017 MacBook Air; the Macintosh startup chime is a single chord known as "the startup sound." The sound used differs depending on the ROM, which varies depending on model type. This short sound is played; the sound indicates that diagnostic tests run at startup have found no hardware or fundamental software problems. Mark Lentczner created the code for the arpeggiated chord used on the Macintosh II. Variations of this sound were used until Jim Reekes created the startup chime used for the Quadra 700 through the Quadra 800.
Reekes said, "The startup sound was done in my home studio on a Korg Wavestation EX. It's a C major chord, played with both hands stretched out as wide as possible." He created the sound as he was annoyed with the tri-tone startup chimes as he felt they were too associated with the death chimes and the computer crashes. He recalls that Apple did not give him permission to change the sound but that he secretly snuck the sound into the computers with the help of engineers who were in charge of the ROM chips; when Apple found out about this, he refused to change it, using various claims in order to keep the new sound intact. He was the creator of the iconic "bong" startup chime used in most Macintoshes since the Quadra 840AV. A lower-pitched version of this chime was used on all PCI-based Power Macs until the iMac G3; the Macintosh LC, LC II, Macintosh Classic II do not use the Reekes chime, instead using an F major chord that just produces a "ding" sound. The first generation of Power Macintosh computers do not use the Reekes chime, instead using a chord strummed on a Yamaha 12-string acoustic guitar by jazz guitarist Stanley Jordan.
Further, the Power Macintosh 5200–6300 computers use a unique chime, used for the television commercials for the Power Macintosh and PowerBook series from 1995 until 1998, the 20th Anniversary Macintosh uses another unique sound. For models built prior to the introduction of the Power Macintosh in 1994, a Sad Mac icon, an error code, distinctive sounds, are displayed on failure of initial self-diagnostic tests; this phenomenon is referred to as the "Chimes of Death". The chime for all Mac computers from 1998-2016 is the same chime used first in the iMac G3; the chord is a F-sharp major chord, was produced by pitch-shifting the 840AV's sound. The Mac startup chime is now a registered trademark in the United States, is featured in the 2008 film WALL-E when the titular robot character is recharged by solar panels as well as in the 2007 Brad Paisley song "Online"."As of 2016, Apple has removed the startup chime starting with the late 2016 MacBook Pro. Apple has since updated its support documentation to reflect this change, removing references to the startup chime from the NVRAM reset instructions for this model.
A Happy Mac is the normal bootup icon of an Apple Macintosh computer running older versions of the Mac operating system. It was designed by Susan Kare in the 1980s, drawing inspiration from the design of the Compact Macintosh series and from the Batman character Two-Face; the icon remained unchanged until the introduction of New World ROM Macs, when it was updated to 8-bit color. The Happy Mac indicates that booting has begun, whereas a Sad Mac indicates a hardware problem; when a Macintosh boots into Mac OS 9 or lower, the system will play its startup chime, the screen will turn gray, the Happy Mac icon will appear, followed by the Mac OS splash screen, which underwent several stylistic changes. Mac OS versions 8.6 and also includes the version number in this splash screen. On early Macs that had no internal hard drive, the computer boots up to a point where it needs to load the operating system from a floppy disk; until the user inserts the correct disk, the Mac displays a floppy icon with a blinking question mark.
In Macs, a folder icon with a question mark that changes to the Finder icon is shown if a System Folder or boot loader file cannot be found on the startup disk. With the introduction of Mac OS X, in addition to the blinking system folder icon, a prohibition icon was added to show an incorrect OS version found; the bomb screen was replaced with a kernel panic, colored white but was changed to black in version 10.3. With Mac OS X 10.1, a new Happy Mac was included. This is the last version that had a Happy Mac icon; the Face ID logo for the iPhone X was based off the Happy Mac. A Sad Mac is a symbol used by older-generation Apple Macintosh computers, starting with the original 128K Macintosh and ending with the last NuBus-based Power Macintosh models, to indicate a severe hardware or softwar