Second Schleswig War
The Second Schleswig War was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question of the nineteenth century. The war began on 1 February 1864. Denmark fought the Kingdom of the Austrian Empire. Like the First Schleswig War, it was fought for control of the duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg, due to the succession disputes concerning them when the Danish king died without an heir acceptable to the German Confederation. Controversy arose due to the passing of the November Constitution, which integrated the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom in violation of the London Protocol. Reasons for the war were the ethnic controversy in Schleswig and the co-existence of conflicting political systems within the Danish unitary state; the war ended on 30 October 1864, with the Treaty of Vienna and Denmark's cession of the Duchies of Schleswig and Saxe-Lauenburg to Prussia and Austria. The secessionist movement of the large German majority in Holstein and southern Schleswig was suppressed in the First Schleswig War, but the movement continued throughout the 1850s and 1860s, as Denmark attempted to integrate the Duchy of Schleswig into the Danish kingdom while proponents of German unification expressed the wish to include the Danish-ruled duchies of Holstein and Schleswig in a Greater Germany.
Holstein was a part of the German Confederation and before 1806 a German fief and ethnically German, but Schleswig was a Danish fief and was linguistically mixed between German and Danish and North Frisian, which for the German part, was due to immigration over the centuries. Before the middle ages, the people of Schleswig spoke Danish and Frisian, as late as the 18th century many rural areas of southern Schleswig still spoke Danish. In the 19th century the northern and middle parts of Schleswig spoke Danish, but the language in the southern half had shifted to German. German culture was dominant among nobility. For centuries, while the rule of the king was absolute, these conditions had created few tensions; when egalitarian ideas spread and nationalist currents emerged about 1820, identification was mixed between Danish and German. Furthermore, there was a grievance about tolls charged by Denmark on shipping passing through the Danish Straits between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. To avoid that expense, Prussia planned to construct the Kiel Canal, which could not be built while Denmark ruled Holstein.
Much of the dispute focused on the heir of King Frederick VII of Denmark. The Germans of Holstein and Schleswig supported the House of Augustenburg, a cadet branch of the Danish royal family but the average Dane considered them too German and preferred the rival Glücksburg branch with Prince Christian of Glücksburg as the new sovereign. Prince Christian had served on the Danish side in the First Schleswig War. At the time, the king of Denmark was duke of the duchies of Holstein and Schleswig. In 1848, Denmark had received its first free constitution and at the same time had fought a civil war with the Germans of Schleswig-Holstein, in which Prussia had intervened; the peace treaty stipulated that the duchy of Schleswig should be treated the same as the duchy of Holstein in its relations with the Kingdom of Denmark. During the revisions of the 1848 constitution in the late 1850s and early 1860s, Holstein refused to acknowledge the revision, creating a crisis in which the parliament in Copenhagen ratified the revision but Holstein did not.
That was a clear breach of the 1851 peace treaty and gave Prussia and the German union a casus belli against Denmark. The German situation was more favorable than it had been fifteen years before, when Prussia had to give in due to the risk of military intervention by Britain and Russia on behalf of Denmark. France had colonial problems, not least with Britain. Otto von Bismarck had neutralized Russia politically and succeeded in obtaining cooperation from Austria which underlined its great power status within the German union. To understand the Danish resolve in this question one must understand that the Danes regarded Schleswig as an ancient core region of Denmark; the southern part of Schleswig contains the ruins of the old Danish viking "capital" Hedeby and the Danevirke fortification. Before the Danes took possession of the area, around 300 AD, Schleswig was the home of the Angles, of which many migrated to Britain, where they formed the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Thus, to suggest that the region did not belong to Denmark was seen as a great provocation to the Danes' ancestral claim to Schleswig.
The adoption of the Constitution of Denmark in 1849 complicated matters further, as many Danes wished for the new democratic constitution to apply to all Danes, including those in Schleswig. The constitutions of Holstein and Schleswig were dominated by the Estates system, giving more power to the most affluent members of society, with the result that both Schleswig and Holstein were politically dominated by a predominantly German class of landowners, thus two systems of government co-existed within the same state: democracy in Denmark, absolutism in Schleswig and Holstein. The three units were
City Campus (University of Copenhagen)
The City Campus is one of the University of Copenhagen's four campuses in Copenhagen, Denmark. It is home to the Faculty of Social Sciences and parts of the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences and the Faculty of Science; the main campus area, the Center for Health and Society, is situated on Øster Farimagsgade, across the street from the University's Botanical Garden, part of the campus area. The City Campus comprises a building on Øster Voldgade and the university headquarters on Frue Plads. In all, the City Campus occupies five sites: Center for Health and Society Copenhagen Botanical Garden Geocentre Copenhagen, located on Øster Voldgade, it houses the Department of Geography and Geology and the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. The University Quadrangle, located on Frue Plads and used for administration and representation. Købmagergade 44-46, home to the Faculty of Theology; the faculty will move to the university's South Campus in the Winter of 2016-2017. The Center for Health and Society is located in the former Copenhagen Municipal Hospital.
As of January 2016, the Centre houses the entire Faculty of Social Sciences, most of the Department of Public Health and the Copenhagen School of Global Health. The Copenhagen Municipal Hospital was one of the first buildings to be constructed on the glacis outside of the North Rampart when the fortifications were decommissioned, it was the first major project to be designed by Copenhagen's new city architect, Christian Hansen, who had returned to Denmark from Greece. Construction began in 1859 and the hospital was inaugurated on 19 September 1863. Christian Hansen's original hospital building consisted of two three-story main wings joined together by two connectors. In 1954, the complex was expanded by city architect Frederik Christian Lund in a style similar to that of the original buildings; the Copenhagen Municipal Hospital closed on 1 May 1999. The buildings were taken over by University of Copenhagen. In 2005, the university established the Center for Health and Society in the former Copenhagen Municipal Hospital.
A new building designed by Erik Møller Arkitekter was completed on the corner of Øster Farimagsgade and Gammeltoftsgade in 2013. It contains auditoriums for the University as well as a daycare for children of university faculty; the University of Copenhagen Botanical Garden covers an area of 10 hectares and is noted for its extensive complex of historical glasshouses. The garden is part of the Natural History Museum of Denmark, itself part of the University of Copenhagen's Faculty of Science, it serves both research and recreational purposes. The Botanical Garden had been located at Charlottenborg Palace, was relocated to its new site in 1870. Official website Local plan for the hospital site
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
Store Kannikestræde is a street in the Old Town of Copenhagen, connecting Frue Plads to Købmagergade. Its history is associated with the University of Copenhagen and some of Copenhagen's oldest halls of residence are located in the street, it has been pedestrianized since 1973. Lille Kannikestræde is a short side street which extends from the south side of Store Kannikestræde, connecting it to Skindergade. Kannik is derived from canonicus; the street takes its name after the eight canons associated with Church of Our Lady. After the Reformation, University of Copenhagen took over the Roskilde bishops' premises north of the church; the houses in Store Kannikestræde were used as residences for professors at the University. Ole Worm who lived with his family on the corner of Store Kannikestræde and Fiolstræde established a museum of curiosities in his home. In the early 18th century the University had a total of 11 residences for professors in the street, they were all destroyed along with the other houses in the street in the Copenhagen Fire of 1728.
Five of them were rebuilt in 1735. The houses were all designed by professor in mathematics, they were of considerable size and each contained a single residence, demonstrating the high social status of the professors at the time. The street was pedestrianized on 23 May 1973 along with Rosengården. Three of the oldest halls of residence in Copenhagen are located in the street. Regensen was founded by Christian IV, although only the two lower floors of the section to the east of the gate in Store Kannikestræde date from the original building of 1623; the section west of the gate was destroyed in the fire of 1728 but rebuilt in 1749. The third floor was added in 1777. Elers Kollegium was built in 1705 to a design by royal building master Johan Conrad Ernst, its interior was destroyed by the fire in 1728 but restored by Johan Cornelius Krieger in 1730. Borchs Kollegium was destroyed by fire both in 1728 and 1807; the current building was completed in 1825 to a design by Peder Malling who designed the University's main building on Frue Plads.
Professorgården was built in 1753 as residences for professors. Admiral Gjeddes Gård on the other side of the street was built in the 1730s and is now used as an event venue. Other listed buildings in the street include No. 6, No. 8, No. 11, No. 13 and No. 15. Completed in 1920 to design by Arthur Wittmaack and Vilhelm Hvalsøe, the building at No. 19 is the former headquarters of Danish YWCA. The limestone frieze with Biblical motifs was created by the sculptor Axel Poulsen. Krigsråd Mørks Minde, located around the corner at Lille Kannikestræde 4, was built in 1831 bu Aagaard and was in 1865 converted into charitable housing foundation by 1865 af Emilie Mørk in memory of her husband; the low complex on the other side of the street at Lille Kannikestræde 1–3 is listed. It consists of a two-storey building from 1862 and a one-storey building from 1865 facing the street and a building from 1814 in the courtyard on the rear; the fashion brand Armoire Officielle has a store at No. 3. On the façade of No. 19 is a plaque commemorating Ernst Henrich Berling, founder of Berlingske, whose printing business was founded at the site in 1734.
Above the main entrance of No. 15 is a gilded relief, portraying Peter Faber, who lived in the building from 1845. Krystalgade Store Kannikestræde at indenforvoldene.dk Lille Kannikestræde at indenforvoldene.dk
Battle of Copenhagen (1807)
The Second Battle of Copenhagen was a British bombardment of the Danish capital, Copenhagen in order to capture or destroy the Dano-Norwegian fleet, during the Napoleonic Wars. The incident led to the outbreak of the Anglo-Russian War of 1807, which ended with the Treaty of Örebro in 1812. Britain's first response to Napoleon's Continental system was to launch a major naval attack on the weakest link in Napoleon's coalition, Denmark. Although ostensibly neutral, Denmark was under heavy French and Russian pressure to pledge its fleet to Napoleon. In September 1807, the Royal Navy bombarded Copenhagen, seizing the Danish fleet, assured use of the sea lanes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea for the British merchant fleet. A consequence of the attack was that Denmark did join the war on the side of France, but without a fleet it had little to offer; the attack gave rise to the term to Copenhagenize. Despite the defeat and loss of many ships in the first Battle of Copenhagen in 1801, Denmark-Norway, possessing Jutland, Greenland, Schleswig-Holstein and several smaller territories, still maintained a considerable navy.
The majority of the Danish army, under the Crown Prince, was at this time defending the southern border against possible attack from the French. There was concern in Britain that Napoleon might try to force Denmark to close the Baltic Sea to British ships by marching French troops into Zealand; the British believed that access to the Baltic was "vitally important to Britain" for trade as well as a major source of necessary raw materials for building and maintaining warships, that it gave the Royal Navy access to help Britain's allies Sweden and Russia against France. The British thought that after Prussia had been defeated in December 1806, Denmark's independence looked under threat from France. George Canning's predecessor as Foreign Secretary, Lord Howick, had tried unsuccessfully to persuade Denmark into a secret alliance with Britain and Sweden. On 21 January 1807, Lord Hawkesbury told the House of Lords that he had received information from someone on the Continent "that there were secret engagements in the Treaty of Tilsit to employ the navies of Denmark and Portugal against this country".
He refused to publish the source. The reports of French diplomats and merchants in northern Europe made the British government uneasy, by mid-July the British believed that the French intended to invade Holstein in order to use Denmark against Britain; some reports suggested. The Cabinet decided to act, on 14 July Lord Mulgrave obtained from the King permission to send a naval force of 21 to 22 ships to the Kattegat for surveillance of the Danish navy in order to pursue "prompt and vigorous operations" if that seemed necessary; the Cabinet decided on 18 July to send Francis Jackson on a secret mission to Copenhagen to persuade Denmark to give its fleet to Britain. That same day, the Admiralty issued an order for more than 50 ships to sail for "particular service" under Admiral James Gambier. On 19 July, Lord Castlereagh, the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, ordered General Lord Cathcart at Stralsund to go with his troops to the Sound where they would get reinforcements. During the night of 21/22 July, Canning received intelligence from Tilsit that Napoleon had tried to persuade Alexander I of Russia to form a maritime league with Denmark and Portugal against Britain.
Spencer Perceval, the Chancellor of the Exchequer, wrote a memorandum setting out the government's case for sending forces to Copenhagen: "The intelligence from so many and such various sources" that Napoleon's intent was to force Denmark into war against Britain could not be doubted. "Nay, the fact that he has avowed such intention in an interview with the E of R is brought to this country in such a way as it cannot be doubted. Under such circumstances it would be madness, it would be idiotic... to wait for an overt act". The British assembled a force of 25,000 troops, the vanguard sailed on 30 July. Canning offered Denmark a treaty of alliance and mutual defence, with a convention signed for the return of the fleet after the war, the protection of 21 British warships and a subsidy for how many soldiers Denmark kept standing. On 31 July, Napoleon ordered Talleyrand to tell Denmark to prepare for war against Britain or else Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte would invade Holstein. Neither Talleyrand nor Jackson persuaded the Danes to end their neutrality, so Jackson went back to the British fleet assembled in the Sound on 15 August.
The British published a proclamation demanding the deposit of the Danish fleet. On 12 August, the 32-gun Danish frigate Frideriksværn sailed for Norway from Elsinor. Admiral Lord Gambier sent the 74-gun third rate Defence and the 22-gun sixth rate Comus after her though war had not yet been declared. Comus was so outdistanced her. On 15 August, Comus captured her; the British took her into service as HMS Frederikscoarn. The British troops under General Lord Cathcart were organised as follows: Cavalry Brigade: Major General von Linsingen, 1st, 2nd, 3rd Light Dragoons King’s German Legion Artillery & Engineers: Major General Blomefield, 84 field guns and 101 siege guns First Division: Lieutenant General Sir George Ludlow Guards Brigade: Major General Edward Finch, 1/Coldstream Guards, 1/3rd Guards 1st Brigade: Brigadier General Warde, 1/28th, 1/79th Second Division: Lieutenant General Sir David Baird 2nd Brigade: Major General Grosvenor, 1/4
Regensen is a residential college for students at the University of Copenhagen and Technical University of Denmark. It is situated in the heart of the old city, right next to the Rundetårn. Commissioned by King Christian IV and inaugurated by Royal Charter by on 1 July 1623, Regensen has for centuries provided a unique living and working environment for 100 students; some of the buildings burned down along with the rest city in the Great Fire of Copenhagen in 1728, but was rebuilt the same year. Regensen's mission is to provide housing to talented yet non-privileged students at the University of Copenhagen and the Technical University of Denmark; until the 1980s, the foundation behind Regensen, provided free housing and a scholarship for students chosen for admission. Because of financial difficulties, a small fee was introduced; this is still well under housing price levels in Copenhagen and Regensen thus continues to provide financial stability for its students. It is the second oldest of the old dormitories of the University of Copenhagen, many old student traditions live on making the place lively.
Danish citizens studying at the University of Copenhagen or the Technical University of Denmark who have completed two years of full-time studies and have an average grade of at least 7, can be considered for admission to one of its 100 rooms. Applications are open twice a year, corresponding with the start of the Spring and Autumn semesters. Applications are quite competitive, with 120-150 applications for around 10 spots. Since 2013 there are two scholarships a year for foreign students, in honour of Jonas Thomsen Sekyere; the residents of Regensen organize themselves in small'clubs' in which they gather to eat and socialize. The current clubs are'Gamle', Konvencio,'PIP','Ping','Skrap','HOF','Tilia', and'Uglen'. Many of Denmark's major social and political debates through the ages have taken shape in the College, through the many prominent alumni ranging from scientists to dramatists, novelists and politicians. Regensen is characterised by an intricate calendar of special feast days that are observed in the Great Hall with a complex array of festive traditions.
Thomas Kingo and poet Rasmus Rask and philologist Christian Winther, poet D. G. Monrad, bishop Rasmus Malling-Hansen, educator, scientist Viggo Hørup and journalist, co-founder of Politiken Niels Finsen, doctor, 1903 Nobel laureate Vilhelm Buhl, social democratic prime minister Kaj Munk and poet Jens Otto Krag, social democratic prime minister Simon Spies, travel-king Mogens Glistrup and lawyer Homepage in Danish Homepage for former residents
University of Copenhagen Faculty of Social Sciences
The Faculty of Social Sciences at the University of Copenhagen is divided into five departments, where research and teaching are carried out in the fields of Economics, Political Science, International Politics, Anthropology and Sociology. The faculty prepares students for the Bachelor's degree, the Master's degree, the Ph. D. in the fields of Economics, Political Science, Sociology and Social Studies