Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
A Bordeaux wine is any wine produced in the Bordeaux region of southwest France. Bordeaux is centered on the Garonne River. To the north of the city the Dordogne River joins the Garonne forming the broad estuary called the Gironde and covering the whole area of the Gironde department,with a total vineyard area of over 120,000 hectares, making it the largest wine growing area in France. Average vintages produce over 700 million bottles of Bordeaux wine, ranging from large quantities of everyday table wine, to some of the most expensive and prestigious wines in the world; the vast majority of wine produced in Bordeaux is red, with sweet white wines, dry whites, rosé and sparkling wines collectively making up the remainder. Bordeaux wine is made by châteaux. There are 54 appellations of Bordeaux wine; the wine was introduced to the Bordeaux region by the Romans in the mid-1st century, to provide wine for local consumption, wine production has been continuous in the region since then. In the 12th century, the popularity of Bordeaux wines in England increased following the marriage of Henry Plantagenet and Eleanor of Aquitaine.
The marriage made the province of Aquitaine part of the Angevin Empire, thenceforth the wine of Bordeaux was exported to England. At this time, Graves was the principal wine region of Bordeaux, the principal style was clairet; this accounts for the ubiquity of claret in England, though this is now used to refer to all red wine rather than the clairet style specifically. The export of Bordeaux was interrupted by the outbreak of the Hundred Years' War between France and England in 1337. By the end of the conflict in 1453 France had repossessed the province, thus taking control of wine production in the region; as part of the Auld Alliance, the French granted Scots merchants a privileged position in the trade of claret—a position that continued unchanged after the Treaty of Edinburgh ended the military alliance between France and Scotland. When the by Protestant kingdoms of England and Scotland, both ruled by the same Stuart king by this point, were trying to militarily aid the Huguenot rebels in their fight against Catholic France in La Rochelle, Scots trading vessels were not only permitted to enter the Gironde, but the French navy escorted them safely to the port of Bordeaux to protect them from Huguenot privateers.
In the seventeenth century, Dutch traders drained the swampy ground of the Médoc so it could be planted with vines, this surpassed Graves as the most prestigious region of Bordeaux. Malbec was the dominant grape here, until the early 19th century, when it was replaced by Cabernet Sauvignon. In 1855, the châteaux of Bordeaux were classified. From 1875 to 1892 all Bordeaux vineyards were ruined by phylloxera infestations; the region's wine industry was rescued by grafting native vines on to pest-resistant American rootstock. The major reason for the success of winemaking in the Bordeaux region is an excellent environment for growing vines; the geological foundation of the region is limestone, leading to a soil structure, heavy in calcium. The Gironde estuary dominates the regions along with its tributaries, the Garonne and the Dordogne rivers, together irrigate the land and provide an Atlantic Climate known as an oceanic climate, for the region. Bordeaux lies at the center of the confluence of the Dordogne and Garonne Rivers, which flow into the Gironde.
These rivers define the main geographical subdivisions of the region: "The right bank", situated on the right bank of Dordogne, in the northern parts of the region, around the city of Libourne. Entre-Deux-Mers, French for "between two seas", the area between the rivers Dordogne and Garonne, both of which are tidal, in the centre of the region. "The left bank", situated on the left bank of Garonne, in the west and south of the region, around the city of Bordeaux itself. The left bank is further subdivided into: Graves, the area upstream of the city Bordeaux. Médoc, the area downstream of the city Bordeaux, situated on a peninsula between Gironde and the Atlantic at the Left Bank of the Gironde. In Bordeaux the concept of terroir plays a pivotal role in wine production with the top estates aiming to make terroir driven wines that reflect the place they are from from grapes collected from a single vineyard; the soil of Bordeaux is composed of gravel, sandy stone, clay. The region's best vineyards are located on the well-drained gravel soils that are found near the Gironde river.
An old adage in Bordeaux is the best estates. The majority of land facing riverward is occupied by classified estates. Red Bordeaux is made from a blend of grapes. Permitted grapes are Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Petit Verdot and Carménère. Today Carménère is used, with Château Clerc Milon, a fifth growth Bordeaux, being one of the few to still retain Carménère vines; as a broad generalisation, Cabernet Sauvignon dominates the blend in red wines produced in the Médoc and the rest of the left bank of the Gironde estuary. Typical top-quality Châteaux blends are 15 % Cabernet Franc and 15 % Merlot; this is referred to as the "Bordeaux Blend". Merlot tends to predominate in Saint-Émilion and the other right bank appellations; these Right Bank blends from top-quality Châteaux are 70% Merlot, 15% Cabernet Franc and 15% Cabernet Sauvignon. White Bordeaux is predominantly, in the case of the sweet Sauternes, made f
Bordeaux (St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands)
Bordeaux known as Estate Bordeaux, is a historic former sugar plantation located on the West End of Saint Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands, it was listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places in 1978; the listing included a contributing structure. King Christian V gave the estate to the Brandenburg Company in 1695; the estate was owned by several owners between 1739 and 1854, when it was sold to Rasmus Wilhelm Rasmussen, whose family sold the estate to the V. I. Government in 1955, it is located on a bluff 680 feet above Bordeaux Bay. In 1978 the buildings were in ruins; the former Great House of the plantation, in the West End Quarter, is a two-room building with plastered rubble walls, with a basement and with a porch along its south facade. It had a hipped roof, gone, it has a one-story 20 by 31 feet addition with a corrugated tin roof. Ruins of cisterns and outbuildings are nearby. A former mill building and factory are located some distance away from the great house. By the water is a one-room building 44 by 30 feet in plan a sugar warehouse, with 22 inches rubble and coral block walls
For the English artist, Robin Guthrie, see Robin Guthrie Robin Andrew Guthrie is a Scottish musician, composer, record producer and audio engineer, best known as the co-founder of the alternative rock band Cocteau Twins. During his career Guthrie has performed guitar, bass guitar, keyboards and other musical instruments, in addition to programming and sound processing. Following the break-up of the Cocteau Twins in 1998, Guthrie released his first solo record, Imperial, in 2003 on Bella Union Records. Guthrie's next release, co-written with Harold Budd, was the film score for Gregg Araki's Mysterious Skin; the soundtrack was released in May 2005 by Commotion and consists of 15 complete songs based on the short pieces used in the film. In 2006, Guthrie signed a four-album solo deal with Darla Records, the first product of, the album Continental, he subsequently released two four-track EPs, Waiting for Dawn. Two more collaborations with Harold Budd were released in 2007. After the Night Falls and Before the Day Breaks were both co-composed, co-produced and played with Budd.
Like the soundtrack to Mysterious Skin, both albums are slow, drifting pieces utilising treated guitar and piano. Guthrie has collaborated with singer Siobhan de Maré as the band Violet Indiana, their first full-length album, was released in 2001. A second album, Russian Doll, followed in 2004. In March 2006 Guthrie reported on his weblog. In May 2009, Mirrorball, an album-length collaboration between Guthrie and John Foxx was released on Metamatic Records. A new solo album, was released via Rocket Girl in Europe on 1 September 2009 and Darla Records on 15 September 2009. Additionally, Guthrie issued the Angel Falls EP in early 2009, the Songs to Help My Children Sleep EP in October 2009. A further EP Sunflower Stories was released in March 2010 Guthrie's most recent releases are Emeralds and two collaboration albums with Harold Budd and Winter Garden, he played guitar on the Telefon Tel Aviv track "The Sky Is Black", from The Birds EP. Guthrie released Fortune, his newest full-length album on 26 November 2012.
In 2015, Guthrie and friend Mark Gardener of Ride wrote and recorded an album'Universal Road' together. Guthrie tours live under the name "The Robin Guthrie Trio" consisting of himself, Steve Wheeler & Antti Mäkinen, he works and lives in France with his wife Florence, their daughter Violette, Lucy Belle, his daughter with Elizabeth Fraser. In 1990 Guthrie produced Lush's second EP Mad Love and a few other songs scattered on various compilation albums, he went on to produce their 1992 debut album Spooky and Black Spring EP. In 2005 Guthrie mixed the Amber Smith's third studio album entitled RePRINT which brought the band an international breakthrough. Studio albumsImperial Continental Carousel Emeralds Fortune Universal Road Official website Robin Guthrie on IMDb
Nanette Bordeaux was a French Canadian-born American film actress. Born Hélène Olivine Veilleux, Bordeaux made over 15 film appearances between 1942 and 1957. Bordeaux moved with her family from Quebec to New York City in the 1930s, where she began auditioning for several theatre productions. By 1938, Bordeaux did a screen test at the Hal Roach Studios, was chosen over 50 other actresses, she made appearances in several small movies under the name Francine Bordeaux. Bordeaux was hired by Columbia Pictures director Jules White in 1949, began appearing in several short subjects, most notably with the Three Stooges; as she sported a genuine French accent, she was cast as a "Fifi," in films such as Hugs and Mugs, Pest Man Wins, A Missed Fortune and Loose Loot. She had to hide her French accent under an American one in such films as Slaphappy Sleuths and Income Tax Sappy. Bordeaux's career was cut short when she died of acute bronchopneumonia on September 20, 1956 at age 45, her last film, A Merry Mix Up, was released six months after her death.
A Merry Mix Up Come on Seven He Popped His Pistol Loose Loot A Missed Fortune Pest Man Wins Three Hams on Rye Hugs and Mugs Flung by a Fling Homecoming So Dark the Night Women in Bondage I Married an Angel Nanette Bordeaux on IMDb Nanette Bordeaux at AllMovie Nanette Bordeaux at threestooges.net Nanette Bordeaux at Find a Grave
Dogue de Bordeaux
The Dogue de Bordeaux, Bordeaux mastiff, French mastiff or Bordeauxdog is a large French mastiff breed—and one of the most ancient French dog breeds. A typical brachycephalic molossoid type breed, the Bordeaux is a powerful dog, with a muscular body; this brawny breed has been put to work in many different capacities, from pulling carts and hauling heavy objects, to guarding flocks and the castles of the European elite. The Dogue de Bordeaux was known in France as early as the fourteenth century in southern France in the region around Bordeaux. Hence, the city lent its name to this large dog. A uniform breed type of the Bordeaux dog did not exist before about 1920; the French placed emphasis on keeping the old breeding line pure. Black masks were considered an indication of the crossing in of the English mastiff; as an important indication of purity of the breed, attention was paid to the self colored nose, lighter eye color, red mask. They were bred with huge heads; the Dogue de Bordeaux was at one time known to come in two varieties and Doguins, the Dogue being larger than the Doguin.
The smaller Doguin has withered away to nothing more than a mention in breed history books, is no longer in existence. The history of the breed is believed to predate the bulldog, it is said that the Dogue can be found in the background of the bullmastiff, others claim that the Dogue and bastiff breeds were both being accomplished at the same time. Another theory is the Dogue de Bordeaux originates from the Tibetan mastiff and it is said that the Dogue is related to the Greco Roman molossoids used for war; as there was a breed similar to the Dogue de Bordeaux in Rome at the time of Julius Caesar's reign a cousin of the Neapolitan mastiff. Others suggest that the Dogue de Bordeaux is a descendant of a breed which existed in ancient France, the Dogues de Bordeaux of Aquitaine. Whichever theory is true, the Dogue de Bordeaux shares the same common links as all modern molossers; the Dogue de Bordeaux was once classified into three varieties, the Parisian, the Toulouse and the Bordeaux, types which were bred depending on the region of France and the jobs it was required to do.
The ancestral Dogue de Bordeaux had various coat colors, such as brindle and a majority of white markings that carried up the legs. It had scissor bites in undershot in others. Another controversial aspect was the mask, none or black; the Dogue de Bordeaux of Bordeaux of the time sported cropped ears. Regardless, it had a general type similar to today's Dogue de Bordeaux. In 1863, the first canine exhibition was held at the "Jardin d'Acclimatation" in France; the winner of the Dogue de Bordeaux was a female named Magentas. The Dogue de Bordeaux was given the name of the capital of its region of origin, today's Dogue de Bordeaux. During the 1960s, a group of breeders of the Dogue de Bordeaux in France, headed by Raymond Triquet, worked on the rebuilding of the foundation of the breed. In 1970, a new standard was written for the breed, with the most recent update in 1995; this standard is the basis of the standard written for the AKC in 2005. Although the Dogue de Bordeaux first arrived in the USA in the 1890s for the show ring, the first documented Dogues de Bordeaux of modern times appeared in 1959, Fidelle de Fenelon.
Between 1969 and 1980, imported Dogues de Bordeaux in the USA were scarce, limited to a few breeders who worked with the French Dogue de Bordeaux Club, the SADB. The breed was first "officially" introduced to American purebred enthusiasts in an article written in 1982 and by the American anthropologist, Dr. Carl Semencic for "Dog World" magazine; that article, entitled "Introducing the Dogue de Bordeaux", was followed by chapters dedicated to the Dogue in Semencic's books on dogs, published by T. F. H. Publications of Neptune, New Jersey; when Semencic's first article on the breed was published, there were no Bordeaux Dogues in the United States. There were 600 examples left in the world in France, the Netherlands and East Berlin, the breed's numbers were on the decline. Much in 1989, the typical American family saw the Dogue de Bordeaux for the first time on the big screen in Touchstone's movie Turner & Hooch about a policeman and his canine partner, although many people did not know that the massive slobbering animal was a Dogue de Bordeaux.
Since the Dogue de Bordeaux has taken hold in the United States and can be found in increasing numbers across the country. The Dogue de Bordeaux has been supported by multiple breed clubs throughout the years, has found its way to full American Kennel Club recognition through the assistance of the Dogue de Bordeaux Society of America. Since 1997, the society has helped bring the breed to the point in which full AKC recognition could be achieved; the Dogue de Bordeaux has begun to flourish is recent years, with its introduction into more movies and television, as well as its full recognition status by the AKC known as the AKC. Its numbers are climbing, but careful attention must be paid to health in the breed if its increase in popularity is to show a positive forward motion; the breed was first exhibited in France in 1863 after which time it gained in popularity not only in their home country but in other parts of the world. The first record of Dogue de Bordeaux in the UK can be seen in
Bordeaux–Mérignac Airport is the international airport of Bordeaux, in south-western France. It is situated in the commune of Mérignac, 12 km west of Bordeaux, within the département of the Gironde, it features flights to metropolitan and leisure destinations in Europe and Northern Africa and serves as a base for Volotea. Transatlantic service is operated on a seasonal basis by Air Transat nonstop to Montreal, Quebec in Canada. KG 40, the prime land-based maritime patrol Luftwaffe unit was based at Bordeaux-Mérignac during the Occupation of France in World War II. Bordeaux Airport has three passenger buildings: Terminal A is for international flights Terminal B passenger air terminal has two levels and is principally dedicated to Air France traffic between Paris and Bordeaux. Terminal billi is a separate facility for low cost carriers, it has one floor and has small check-in and arrivals areas as well as a departures area with six aircraft parking positions which are used for walk boarding. Users of Terminal billi are easyJet and Wizz Air from 22 September 2017.
The following airlines operate regular scheduled and charter flights from Bordeaux–Mérignac Airport: The airport is accessible by road via the A630 autoroute. There is a shuttle by 30'Direct shuttle serving the Bordeaux Saint-Jean railway station. Bus route 1+ of Transports Bordeaux Métropole serves the city centre; the Bordeaux tramway system is planned to link the airport with the city centre by the end of 2019. United States Air Force in France Media related to Bordeaux - Mérignac Airport at Wikimedia Commons Official website Aéroport de Bordeaux Airport information for LFBD at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006. Accident history for BOD at Aviation Safety Network