Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
Lumière University Lyon 2
Lumière University Lyon 2 is one of the three universities that comprise the current University of Lyon, having splintered from an older university of the same name, is based on two campuses in Lyon itself. It has a total of 27,500 students studying for three-to-eight-year degrees in the arts and social sciences. At the end of the 18th century, Lyon did not have a university. Education was still linked to religious congregations and influenced by the town's commercial and industrial requirements. 1835 and 1838: Creation of the Faculties of Science and Humanities. 1874 and 1875: Creation of the Faculties of Medicine and Law. 1896: All these faculties were combined to form the University of Lyon. The same year, the historical buildings on the left bank of the Rhone were finished dedicated to the faculties of medicine and science to the faculties of law and humanities. University of Lyon 2 is now established in part of these buildings. December 1969: University Lyon 2 was created as a result of the Loi Faure of 1968, according to which each university must be a independent establishment.
It comprised law and social sciences. The number of students soon rose significantly. In such a demographic context, the University was extended in Bron, where a new campus was built during the 1970s, its original features included a modular organisation, a street within the university and a landscaped environment. For some years now, it has been part of the developing area of Porte des Alpes near Bron. 1987: University Lyon 2 was renamed University Lumière Lyon 2. The logo was created by the Art and Design School of Lyon reflecting the University's new ambitions: offering optimal access to the foundations of culture, promoting initiatives and opening itself to the world. Today: University Lumière Lyon 2 extends over two main sites: Berges du Rhône, the historic site in the centre of Lyon on the left bank of the Rhone, the head office of the University. Robert Faurisson – French academic and arts teacher today redeemed, above all known as activist and Holocaust denial author. Jacques Bichot – French economist, university professor, honorary member of the Economic and Social Council.
Mohammed Arkoun – Algerian intellectual historian of the Islam and philosopher. Bruno Julliard, former President of the UNEF, the largest student union in France. Jérôme Kerviel, former Société Générale trader who incurred one of the largest losses in banking history; the Lumière University extends over 2 main sites: The Berges du Rhône' campus - a historic site in the centre of Lyon on the left bank of the Rhone, the head office of the university. The Porte des Alpes' campus, on the south-eastern outskirts of Lyon, in Bron and Saint-Priest. Lyon 2 Lumière University is one of the first universities to have integrated the European higher education scheme right from the start of the academic year 2004; the courses are organised within the scope of the LMD' system. Lyon 2 Lumière University offers a variety of courses in 4 fields: Humanities and Social Sciences Society and Environment Economics and Management Law Lyon 2 is part of a pilot program on the intensive use of TICE; the digital work environment was introduced at the University in 2003.
The Digital Working Environment project at Lumière Lyon 2 is part of a national and local drive to accompany and assist individuals who make up the academic world throughout their diverse field of activity. The five ENT tool categories include: information: 3 portals, faculties' Internet sites, Web TV.
Aquitaine, archaic Guyenne/Guienne, is a historical region of France and a former administrative region of the country. Since 1 January 2016 it has been part of the region Nouvelle-Aquitaine, it is situated in the south-western part of Metropolitan France, along the Atlantic Ocean and the Pyrenees mountain range on the border with Spain. It is composed of the five departments of Dordogne, Lot-et-Garonne, Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Gironde. In the Middle Ages, Aquitaine was a duchy, whose boundaries fluctuated considerably. There are traces of human settlement by prehistoric peoples in the Périgord, but the earliest attested inhabitants in the south-west were the Aquitani, who were not proper Celtic people, but more akin to the Iberians. Although a number of different languages and dialects were in use in the area during ancient times, it is most that the prevailing language of Aquitaine during the late pre-historic to Roman period was an early form of the Basque language; this has been demonstrated by various Aquitanian names and words that were recorded by the Romans, which are easily readable as Basque.
Whether this Aquitanian language was a remnant of a Vasconic language group that once extended much farther, or it was limited to the Aquitaine/Basque region is not known. One reason the language of Aquitaine is important is because Basque is the last surviving non-Indo-European language in western Europe and it has had some effect on the languages around it, including Spanish and, to a lesser extent, French; the original Aquitania at the time of Caesar's conquest of Gaul included the area bounded by the Garonne River, the Pyrenees and the Atlantic Ocean. The name may stem from Latin'aqua', maybe derived from the town "Aquae Augustae", "Aquae Tarbellicae" or just "Aquis" or as a more general geographical feature. Under Augustus' Roman rule, since 27 BC the province of Aquitania was further stretched to the north to the River Loire, thus including proper Gaul tribes along with old Aquitani south of the Garonne within the same region. In 392, the Roman imperial provinces were restructured as Aquitania Prima, Aquitania Secunda and Aquitania Tertia, better known as Novempopulania in the south-west.
Accounts of Aquitania during the Early Middle Ages are a blur, lacking precision, but there was much unrest. The Visigoths were called into Gaul as foederati, they established themselves as the de facto rulers in south-west Gaul as central Roman rule collapsed. Visigoths established their capital in Toulouse. In 507, they were expelled south to Hispania after their defeat in the Battle of Vouillé by the Franks, who became the new rulers in the area to the south of the Loire; the Roman Aquitania Tertia remained in place as Novempopulania, where a duke was appointed to hold a grip over the Basques. These dukes were quite detached from central Frankish overlordship, sometimes governing as independent rulers with strong ties to their kinsmen south of the Pyrenees; as of 660, the foundations for an independent Aquitaine/Vasconia polity were established by the duke Felix of Aquitaine, a magnate from Toulouse of Gallo-Roman stock. Despite its nominal submission to the Merovingians, the ethnic make-up of new realm Aquitaine wasn't Frankish, but Gallo-Roman north of the Garonne and main towns and Basque south of the Garonne.
A united Basque-Aquitanian realm reached its heyday under Odo the Great's rule. In 721, the Aquitanian duke fended Umayyad troops off at Toulouse, but in 732, an Umayyad expedition commanded by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi defeated Odo next to Bordeaux, went on to loot its way up to Poitiers. Odo was required to pledge allegiance to the Frankish Charles Martel in exchange for help against the advancing Arabic forces. Basque-Aquitanian self-rule temporarily came to a halt in 768 after the assassination of Waifer. In 781, Charlemagne decided to proclaim his son Louis King of Aquitaine within the Carolingian Empire, ruling over a realm comprising the Duchy of Aquitaine and the Duchy of Vasconia He suppressed various Basque uprisings venturing into the lands of Pamplona past the Pyrenees after ravaging Gascony, with a view to imposing his authority in the Vasconia to south of Pyrenees. According to his biography, he achieved everything he wanted and after staying overnight in Pamplona, on his way back his army was attacked in Roncevaux in 812, but narrowly escaped an engagement at the Pyrenean passes.
Seguin, count of Bordeaux and Duke of Vasconia, seemed to have attempted a detachment from the Frankish central authority on Charlemagne's death. The new emperor Louis the Pious reacted by removing him from his capacity, which stirred the Basques into rebellion; the king in turn sent his troops to the territory, obtaining their submission in two campaigns and killing the duke, while his family crossed the Pyrenees and continued to foment risings against Frankish power. In 824, the 2nd Battle of Roncevaux took place, in which counts Aeblus and Aznar, Frankish vassals from the Duchy of Vasconia sent by the new King of Aquitaine, were captured by the joint forces of Iñigo Arista and the Banu Qasi. Before Pepin's death, emperor Louis had appointed a new king in 832, his son Charles the Bald, while the Aquitanian lords elected Pepin II as king; this struggle for control of the kingdom led to
University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour
The University of Pau and Pays de l'Adour was founded in 1972. It is a multi-site establishment, based in Pau but in Bayonne and Mont-de-Marsan in the Adour river basin. Coming administratively under the Academy of Bordeaux, it is the third largest university in southwestern France, with some 12,000 students; the University's logo is a stylised representation of the Pyrénées or the Pic du Midi d'Ossau, the blue triangle being the Atlantic ocean. The colors used are those of the university's graphic charter; the university was founded in 1970, in a splendid urban park. However, the origins of the Law faculty go further back; the university was led by the following presidents: With nearly 9,000 students, the Pau campus is the largest. The President's office is located there in the Présidence semicircular building; the campus is located to the north of Pau, about twenty minutes ride from the town centre, but within the urban limits. The campus is comprised in the space between Avenue de l'Université-Cours Léon Bérard-Boulevard Tourasse to the South, Avenue du Doyen Poplawski to the West, rue Audrey Benghozi and Boulevard Lucien Favre to the North and Allées Condorcet to the East.
This campus has three departments of Arts and Sciences, as well as a technological institute, the Ecole Nationale Supérieure en Génie de Technologies Industrielles and a School for Business Administration with a satellite in Bayonne. There are two specialised university libraries, one for the Sciences Department, the other common to the Law and Arts Departments; the department gathers the law and management services as well as the Institute of Business Administration. It provides education to about 3,000 students dispatched in several degrees, it is located in the north-western part of the UPPA campus, south-west of the École supérieure de commerce, west of the Department of Arts, north-west of the Institut de Recherche sur les Sociétés et l'Aménagement and east of the André Lavie stadium, across Dean Poplawski avenue. South lays a big lawn much appreciated by students during summer times. There is an east-west road entrance to the campus branching from the north-south oriented Dean Poplawski Avenue, just north of the department.
There are bus stops for the STAP bus service line 4 and Studibus line along Dean Poplawski Avenue, to town center and the SNCF train station. The department is accessible to the disabled; the department is lodged in a three storeys elaborate building with the amphitheatre-like classrooms being grouped at the eastern corner of the complex. The inner infrastructure is made of unpainted crude supporting concrete walls with lighter separation plaster painted walls; the exterior roofing is made of small clay tiles. Brick is used for the sculptural elements like the well-like artificial space in the center of the inner patio, as well as pebbles for floor decoration. Large glass bays are used as separation elements; the department features a number of landmarks. The pillar-shape archives room near the student secretary is called'the lighthouse', the sculpture-like structure in the patio is called'the well', the underground part of the building is referred to as'the cellar'; the coffee-machines place and the eaves of the building are popular meeting points.
The concrete sign Faculté de Droit, d'Economie et Gestion serves as a bench in the shade of the trees. There is a nearby cafeteria called "L'Arlequin"; the current dean is Jean-Jacques Lemouland, the current IAE director is Jean-Jacques Rigal. The department grants Master degrees. Research centers are located at the second floor; the university law faculty was part of L'Université Numérique Juridique Francophone French project. Research centers in law include CECL, LIEN, CRAJ, CREPAO, IE2JA The research center in economics is Centre d'Analyse Théorique et de Traitement or CATT, the research center in management is Centre de Recherche en Gestion or CREG; the Centre Local des Oeuvres Universitaires et Scolaire is taking charge of all things regarding students life. There are a number of dormitories situated near the campus or in town; the accommodations range from single rooms to small apartments. The main restaurant is called Cap Sud, it is situated to the South-West of the campus, where the maison de l'étudiant is located.
There are students Unions present on the campus. Staff is taken care of by Direction des ressouces humaines services situated on the second floor in the Présidence building. There is a chain at Cap Sud dedicated to University personnel. Staff belonging to IATOSS or ITRF personnel categories can go eating to the nearby Cité administrative's restaurant inter-administratif. There are a number of Unions present on the campus. Sport at UPPA is organised by SUAPS service. There are a number of sporting facilities including André Lavie Stadium close to Pau's Léo Lagrange COSEC, UPPA sport hall close to Plein Ciel swimming pool and tennis courses, a football field, an outdoor climbing wall on BU Droit-Lettres... Located arou
Aix-Marseille University is a public research university located in the region of Provence, southern France. It was founded in 1409 when Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, petitioned the Pisan Antipope Alexander V to establish the University of Provence; the university as it is today was formed by the merger of the University of Provence, the University of the Mediterranean and Paul Cézanne University. The merger became effective on 1 January 2012, resulting in the creation of the largest university in the French-speaking world, with about 74,000 students. AMU has the largest budget of any academic institution in the Francophone world, standing at €750 million; the university is organized around five main campuses situated in Marseille. Apart from its major campuses, AMU owns and operates facilities in Arles, Avignon, Digne-les-Bains, Gap, La Ciotat and Salon-de-Provence; the university is headquartered at the Marseille. AMU has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, business, science and arts.
To date, there have been four Nobel Prize laureates amongst its alumni and faculty, as well as a two-time recipient of the Pulitzer Prize, four César Award winners, multiple heads of state or government, parliamentary speakers, government ministers and members of the constituent academies of the Institut de France. AMU has hundreds of research and teaching partnerships, including close collaboration with the French National Centre for Scientific Research and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission. AMU is a member of numerous academic organisations including the European University Association and the Mediterranean Universities Union; the institution developed out of the original University of Provence, founded on 9 December 1409 as a Studium generale by Louis II of Anjou, Count of Provence, recognized by papal bull issued by the Pisan Antipope Alexander V. However, there is evidence that teaching in Aix existed in some form from the beginning of the 12th century, since there were a doctor of theology in 1100, a doctor of law in 1200 and a professor of law in 1320 on the books.
The decision to establish the university was, in part, a response to the already-thriving University of Paris. As a result, in order to be sure of the viability of the new institution, Louis II compelled his Provençal students to study in Aix only. Thus, the letters patent for the university were granted, the government of the university was created; the Archbishop of Aix-en-Provence, Thomas de Puppio, was appointed as the first chancellor of the university for the rest of his life. After his death in 1420, a new chancellor was elected by the rector and licentiates – an uncommon arrangement not repeated at any other French university; the rector had to be an “ordinary student”, who had unrestricted civil and criminal jurisdiction in all cases where one party was a doctor or scholar of the university. Those displeased with the rector's decisions could appeal to a doctor legens. Eleven consiliarii provided assistance to the rector; these individuals represented all were elected from among the students.
The constitution was of a student-university, the instructors did not have great authority except in granting degrees. Mention should be made that a resident doctor or student who married was required to pay charivari to the university, the amount varying with the degree or status of the man, being increased if the bride was a widow. Refusal to submit to this statutable extortion was punished by the assemblage of students at the summons of the rector with frying-pans and horns at the house of the newly married couple. Continued recusancy was followed by the piling up of dirt in front of their door upon every Feast-day; these injunctions were justified on the ground that the money extorted was devoted to divine service. In 1486 Provence passed to the French crown; the university's continued existence was approved by Louis XII of France, Aix-en-Provence continued to be a significant provincial centre. It was, for instance, the seat of the Parliament of Aix-en-Provence from 1501 to 1789, no doubt aided by the presence of the law school.
In 1603 Henry IV of France established the Collège Royal de Bourbon in Aix-en-Provence for the study of belles-lettres and philosophy, supplementing the traditional faculties of the university, but not formally a part of it. This college de plain exercice became a significant seat of learning, under the control of the Jesuit order. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the college served as a preparatory, but unaffiliated, school for the university. Only the university was entitled to award degrees in the theology and medicine. Universities accepted candidates who had studied in colleges formally affiliated with them, which in reality required both college and university to be situated in the same city. In 1762 the Jesuits were forced to leave France, in 1763 the Collège Royal de Bourbon was affiliated with the university as a faculty of arts; the addition of the Collège Royal de Bourbon widened the scope of courses provided at the University of Provence. Formal instruction in French was provided at the college, with texts and a structured course of study.
Subsequently, physics became a part of the curriculum at the college as a part of the philosophy course in the 18th century. Equipment for carrying out experiments was obtained and the first course in experimental physics was provided at Aix-e
Pessac is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. It is a member of the metropolis of Bordeaux, being the second-largest suburb of Bordeaux and located just southwest of it. Pessac is home to the Montesquieu University, the Bordeaux Montaigne University, the Institut d'études politiques de Bordeaux. Pessac is located in the south of the Bordeaux metro area and is surrounded by Bordeaux, Gradignan, Canéjan, Saint-Jean-d'Illac and Mérignac; the western part of the commune is part of the Landes de Bordeaux. Early in World War II, the town was the scene of a quadruple execution on the firing range of Verthamon. Four communists militants, one of whom, Roger Rambaud, was not yet 17, were among the escapees from the military prison in Paris, were killed in the utmost secrecy by soldiers of the Third Republic; this case, classified "Secret Defense" for 70 years, has been revealed by the historian Jacky Tronel in the history magazine Arkheia. Neighborhoods of Pessac: 9 Kindergartens 15 Grade schools 5 Middle schools Collège Alouette Collège François Mitterrand Collège Gérard Philipe Collège Pessac Collège Sainte-Jeanne d'Arc Assomption3 High schools Lycée Pape-Clément: financed by the French government and the Communauté urbaine de Bordeaux, this school, presented as the high school of the year 2000, was inaugurated on 9 July 1987 by Jacques Chirac Prime Minister.
Its initial capacity was 1,100 students including 900 "demi-pensionnaires". It now holds 1,260 students. Lycée Sans Frontière Lycée professionnel Philadelphe de Gerde Pessac has a railway station on the westbound line from Bordeaux, Gare de Pessac. Pessac is served by the urban transport network of the Bordeaux agglomeration, Transports Bordeaux Métropole. Pessac is located on line B of the Tramway de Bordeaux. 1929: Yvette Roudy, socialist minister 1938: Jean Eustache, film actor and director 1953: Patrice Brun 1971: Thierry Poulain-Rehm, university 1979: Myriam Borg-Korfanty, handball player 1980: Julien Lescarret, matador Pessac is twinned with: Burgos, Spain Galați, Romania. Château Haut-Brion Pessac-Léognan, wine appellation Communes of the Gironde department Operation Josephine B, a 1941 attack on an electricity substation. INSEE Official website
Claude Bernard University Lyon 1
The Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, is one of the three public universities of Lyon, France. The dominant areas of study covered by the university are medicine; the main administrative and research facilities are located in Villeurbanne. Other campus are the domains of Gerland and Laennec. Attached to the University are the Hospices civils de Lyon including the "Centre hospitalier Lyon Sud", the largest teaching hospital in the Rhône-Alpes region and second largest in France; the university is named after the French physiologist Claude Bernard. It is the heritage of the "faculté des sciences de Lyon", founded in 1833 and the "faculté de médecine", founded in 1874. Out of the 2630 faculty 700 are medical practitioners at local teaching hospitals; the university is independent since January 2009. Its yearly budget is 421 Mio Euros. Biology Chemistry and Biochemistry Mathematics Physics Earth science Electrical engineering Computer science Mechanical engineering Medicine Pharmacy Odontology Audiology Occupational therapy Physiotherapy Speech therapy Ophthalmology Psychomotricity Sport Observatory of Lyon ISFA, Graduate School of Actuarial Studies Engineering school École polytechnique universitaire de l'université Lyon-I List of colleges and universities List of modern universities in Europe Nataly Mermet, Équation: 40 ans d'innovation à l'Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Glénat, 2011.
Université Claude Bernard Website