Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
The Citadis is a family of low-floor trams and light rail vehicles built by Alstom. As of 2017, over 2,300 Citadis trams have been sold and 1,800 tramways are in revenue service throughout the world, with operations in all six inhabited continents. An evolution of Alstom's earlier TFS vehicle, most Citadis vehicles are made in Alstom's factories in La Rochelle and Valenciennes, in Barcelona and Annaba, Algeria; the Citadis family includes both partial and low-floor trams and LRVs, in versions with three, five and nine sections. It comprises the following standard variants: Citadis X00: Citadis 100 – three section, 70% low floor designed and manufactured by Konstal in Chorzów for the Polish market Citadis X01: Citadis 301 – three section, 70% low floor Citadis 301 CIS – 100% low floor version with IPOMOS bogies on 1,524 mm gauge. Designated 71-801 according to the Russian unified system of rolling stock classification. Citadis 401 – five sections, 70% low floor Citadis X02: Citadis 202 – three section, 100% low floor Citadis 302 – five sections, 100% low floor Citadis 402 – seven sections, 100% low floor Citadis 502 – nine sections, 100% low floor Citadis X03: Citadis 403 – seven sections, 100% low floor Citadis X04: Citadis 304 – 100% low floor, next generation design for Central and Eastern Europe Citadis X05: Citadis 205 or Compact – three sections, 100% low floor Citadis 305 – five sections, 100% low floor Citadis 405 – seven sections, 100% low floor Regio-Citadis – three sections, 70% low floor LRV Citadis Dualis – four or five sections, 100% low-floor LRV Citadis Spirit – three or four sections, 100% low floor LRV designed for the North American market Like most trams, Citadis vehicles are powered by overhead electric wires collected by a pantograph, but the trams in several places do not use pantograph current collection entirely.
Other places, such as Toronto, use a trolley pole. The most popular solution is Alstom's proprietary ground-level power supply, consisting of a type of third rail, only powered while it is covered by a tram so that there is no risk of a person or animal coming into contact with a live rail. On the networks in France and in Sydney, the trams switch to conventional overhead wires in outer areas, but the Dubai vehicles are the first to employ APS for its entire passenger length. Another option is to use on-board batteries to store electrical power, allowing brief periods of catenary-free operation without the need to install special infrastructure; the Citadis trams in Nice operate off a set of nickel metallic hydride batteries in two large open spaces where overhead wires would be an eyesore. This has since been superseded by a supercapacitor-based energy storage system, in use in Rio de Janeiro and along a new line in Nice; the Regio-Citadis can be built as a dual-voltage or electro-diesel vehicle with various configurations.
The main article provides order descriptions. 15 kV AC railway electrification Ground-level power supply used in Bordeaux Railway electrification system Alstom Transport dead link] Alstom Citadis Trams List of all ordered Citadis «Sensolab drives interior experimentation» – design of Citadis tram interiors for Paris, Le Mans, Railway Gazette International
Alstom SA is a French multinational company operating worldwide in rail transport markets, active in the fields of passenger transportation and locomotives, with products including the AGV, TGV, Pendolino high-speed trains, in addition to suburban and metro trains, Citadis trams. Alstom was formed from a merger between Compagnie Française Thomson Houston and the Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques in 1928. A merger with parts of the General Electric Company plc formed GEC Alsthom in 1989. In 2004, Alstom was in financial crisis due to massive inherited unexpected costs arising from a design flaw inherited from the acquisition of ABB Group's turbine business, in addition to losses in other areas of the business; the company required a €3.2 billion state-backed bailout in 2003 – and as a result was required to sell several divisions including shipbuilding and electrical transmission to Nikhanj Power, in order to comply with EU rules on state aid. In 2014, Alstom and General Electric announced that a US$17 billion bid for the company's power and grid divisions had been made and provisionally accepted.
After modification of the deal following political controversy in France relating to the take over by a foreign company of a strategic player in heavy industry, GE's bid was modified. The GE acquisition deal for the power and grid division was accepted by EU and US anticompetition authorities in mid 2015, subject to the sale of Alstom's heavy gas turbine business; the acquisition was finalised on 2 November 2015, with GE acquiring Alstom's power generation and electricity transmission business leaving the Alstom company operating in the rail transport market. In 2017, Alstom announced a proposed merger with Siemens Mobility of Germany, to be completed in 2018, at which point the company would be called Siemens Alstom; the European Commission has expressed its concern about the two companies being too dominant in Europe after their merger, there have been popular protests concerning international-financial reforms to French territorial railway infrastructure and SNCF. Objections to the merger include possible increases in passenger fares and cargo fees.
Alsthom was founded in 1928 from the merger of French heavy engineering interests of the Thomson-Houston Electric Company – the Compagnie française pour l'exploitation des procédés Thomson Houston and Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques, with the first factory in Belfort. In 1932, Alsthom expanded into transportation by acquiring Constructions Electriques de France, Tarbes, a manufacturer of electric locomotives as well as electrical and hydraulic equipment. In 1969, Compagnie Générale d'Electricité became the majority shareholder of Alsthom. In 1976, Alsthom merged with Chantiers de l'Atlantique. Thus, the business expanded into marine; the next year, it constructed the first 1300 MW generator set for the Paluel power station, setting a world record with an output of 1500 MW. In 1978, Alsthom delivered its first TGV to SNCF; the TGV went on to break world rail speed records in 1981 and in 1990. It set the world endurance record for high-speed train lines in 2001, travelling the 1,067.2 kilometres from Calais to Marseille in 3 hours and 29 minutes.
In 1986, Alsthom Belfort received an order from EDF for the largest gas turbine in the world. In 1988–89, holding company CGEE Alsthom acquired ACEC Energie and ACEC Automatisme from the dissolution of Belgian electrical engineering company ACEC SA. Alsthom acquired 100 % of ACEC's transport division. In 1989 GEC Alsthom was formed from a 50–50 merger of the power and transport activities of Compagnie Générale d'Electricité subsidiary Alstom and the Powers System Division of the British General Electric Company plc, with the intent to allow Alsthom to export outside France. In May 1989 the rail vehicle manufacturer Metro-Cammell was acquired. In 1994 GEC Alsthom acquired the rail vehicle manufacturer Linke-Hofmann-Busch from Salzgitter AG. In 1995, the company acquired the remaining shares in the steam turbine manufacturer MAN Energie. In early 1998, GEC Alsthom acquired the electrical contractor Cegelec, renaming it Alstom Power Conversion. In 1998 GEC-Alsthom bought Italian firm SASIB SpA's rail signalling subsidiary Sasib Railways, which included the former General Railway Signal.
In June 1998 GEC Alsthom was listed on the Paris Stock Exchange. In 1999 Alstom's energy division merged with ABB in a 50–50 joint company known as ABB Alstom Power. Alstom bought Canada's Télécité, a passenger information and security solutions company, sold its heavy-duty gas turbine business to General Electric; the next year, it bought out ABB's share in ABB Alstom Power. In 2000 Alstom sold its diesel engine businesses to MAN Group, it acquired a 51% stake in Fiat Ferroviaria, the Italian rail manufacturer and world leader in tilting technology. In April 2003, Alstom sold its industrial turbine business to Siemens for €1.1 billi
Bordeaux Tramway Line A
The A line of the Bordeaux tramway is operated by Transports Bordeaux Métropole, connects Lormont and Floirac to Mérignac. It connects the left and right banks of the Garonne, passing by the Pierre bridge and the center of Bordeaux. Line A was inaugurated on December 21, 2003 by Alain Juppé and Jacques Chirac running between the stations of Bordeaux-Mériadeck and Lormont-Lauriers/Cenon-La Morlette; the line was extended on September 26, 2005 between Bordeaux-Mériadeck and Saint-Augustin in the west. In 2007, it was extended two more times, from Cenon-La Morlette to Floirac-Dravemont in the east on February 27, again from Saint-Augustin to Mérignac Centre in the west on June 21. In summer 2008, the Lormont branch was extended further; the trains used on the line A are type 402, made by Alstom. Each train can seat 300 persons. All trains have air conditioning, are capable of running either on overhead wires or on ground-level power supply. Line A uses both types of power supply, with APS in the center of Bordeaux as well as near Cenon-La Morlette, Lormont-Lauriers and Mérignac Centre, overhead wires everywhere else.
Bordeaux Tramway de Bordeaux InfoTBC - official site of the Bordeaux bus and tramway network Plan Touristique Tbc - tramway and bus network map
Station Quinconces (Tram de Bordeaux)
Quinconces station is located on line and line in Bordeaux. This stations serves as a connection to line. 19 November 2007, line. The station is situated by place des Quinconces in Bordeaux; the place des Quinconces serves as a terminus for many bus lines, enabling their connections with the tramway. Buses of the TBCBus Citram Aquitaine Place des Quinconces Allées de Tourny Parking Tourny TBC Tramway de Bordeaux
Bordeaux Tramway Line B
The B line of the Bordeaux tramway is operated by Transports Bordeaux Métropole, connects Station Pessac Centre in Pessac to Claveau in north Bordeaux. Line B of the tramway uses Citadis 300 cars from Alstom; these type 402 cars offer 300 seats. These air conditioned cars operate both with ground-level power supply. APS is used for part of line B, notably in the center of Bordeaux; the change between APS and overhead lines takes place at the station, Peixotto, at the entrance to the university area. Bordeaux Tramway de Bordeaux InfoTBC - official site of the Bordeaux bus and tramway network Plan Touristique Tbc - tramway and bus network map
Station Porte de Bourgogne (Tram de Bordeaux)
Porte de Bourgogne station is located on line and line of the tramway de Bordeaux. This stations serves as a junction between two lines, it allows the passage from one line to another through a switch between the two lines. The station is located on Quay Richelieu in Bordeaux, close to place Bir-Hakeim. Line A continues towards line C towards the quays. Apart from the junctions between the two tram lines, Porte de Bourgogne stations has junctions with two bus lines. Bus de la TBC: Porte de Bourgogne Les Quais Pont de Pierre TBC Tramway de Bordeaux