Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Sir John Joseph Caldwell Abbott, was a Canadian lawyer and politician, who served as the third prime minister of Canada, in office from 1891 to 1892. He held office as the leader of the Conservative Party. Abbott was born in, Quebec, he studied law at McGill University and became one of Montreal's best-known lawyers returning to McGill as a professor of law and earning a Doctor of Civil Law degree. He was best known for his successful defence of the perpetrators of the St. Albans Raid. Abbott involved himself in politics from a young age, signing the Montreal Annexation Manifesto in 1849 – which he regretted – and winning election to the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada in 1860. In the lead-up to Confederation he was a prominent advocate for the rights of English-speaking Quebecers. In the 1867 federal election, Abbott was elected to the new House of Commons of Canada as a member of the Conservative Party. A telegram leaked from his office played a key part in the Pacific Scandal of 1873, which led to the downfall of John A. Macdonald's first government.
Abbott was appointed to the Senate in 1887, in order to become Leader of the Government in the Senate. He became prime minister in June 1891 following Macdonald's death in office. Abbott was 70 years old at the time, served only until November 1892 when he retired due to ill health, he died the following year. Abbott was born in Lower Canada, to Harriet and the Rev. Joseph Abbott. In 1849, Abbott married Mary Martha Bethune, a relative of Dr. Norman Bethune, a daughter of Anglican clergyman and McGill acting president John Bethune, a granddaughter of the Presbyterian minister John Bethune; the couple had four daughters, many of whom died without descendants. Their eldest surviving son, William Abbott, married the daughter of Colonel John Hamilton Gray, a Father of Confederation and Premier of Prince Edward Island; the direct descendants of Abbott and Hamilton Gray include John Kimble Hamilton Abbott, a political commentator and lobbyist and a WWII Royal Canadian Airforce pilot in the infamous "Demon Squadron".
Abbott was the great-grandfather of Canadian actor Christopher Plummer and the first cousin of Maude Abbott, one of Canada's earliest female medical graduates and an expert on congenital heart disease. Abbott graduated as a Bachelor of Civil Law from McGill College in Montreal in 1847, while in the same year was initiated in the St. Paul's Masonic Lodge, No. 374, E. R. in Montreal. In 1867, he graduated as a Doctor of Civil Law. Most of his legal practice was in corporate law. Abbott argued that the Confederates were belligerents rather than criminals and therefore should not be extradited; the episode brought Canadian-American tensions close to armed conflict. Abbott was viewed as the most successful lawyer in Canada for many years, as measured by professional income, he began lecturing in commercial and criminal law at McGill in 1853, in 1855 he became a professor and dean of its Faculty of Law, where Wilfrid Laurier, a future prime minister of Canada, was among his students. He continued in this position until 1880.
In 1862, he was made Queen's Counsel. Upon his retirement, McGill named him emeritus professor, in 1881 appointed him to its Board of Governors. In 1849, he signed the Montreal Annexation Manifesto calling for Canada to join the United States, an action which he regretted as a youthful error, he joined the Loyal Orange Lodge of British North America, well known as a pro-British organization. Abbott first ran for Canada's Legislative Assembly in 1857 in the Argenteuil district, northwest of Montreal. Defeated, he challenged the election results on the grounds of voting list irregularities and was awarded the seat in 1860, he served as solicitor general for Lower Canada representing the liberal administration of John Macdonald and Louis Sicotte, from 1862 until 1863. He reluctantly supported Canada's confederation, fearing the reduction of the political power of Lower Canada's English-speaking minority. In 1865, he converted to a conservative, his proposal to protect the electoral borders of 12 English Quebec constituencies was incorporated into the British North America Act 1867.
Abbott was elected to the House of Commons in 1867 as member for Argenteuil. He was removed from his seat by petition in 1874 following his involvement in the Pacific Scandal, he narrowly lost the 1878 election won in February 1880, only to have his victory declared void because of bribery allegations. He was, subsequently elected in a by-election in August 1881. In 1887, Macdonald appointed him to the Senate, he served as Leader of the Government in the Senate from May 12, 1887 to October 30, 1893 and as Minister without Portfolio in Macdonald's cabinet. He served two one-year terms as mayor of Montreal from 1887 to 1889. Abbott was involved in the promotion of several railway projects, including the Canadian Pacific Railway, he worked to arrange financing for the first Canada Pacific Railway syndicate. As legal advisor to its main financier, Sir Hugh Allan, Abbott was the recipient of the infamous telegram from Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald during the 1872 Canadian federal election campaign which read "I must have anot
Thomas Cromwell (jurist)
Thomas Albert Cromwell, is a Canadian jurist and former Puisne Justice on the Supreme Court of Canada. After eleven years on the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal, Cromwell was nominated to succeed Michel Bastarache on the Supreme Court of Canada by Prime Minister Stephen Harper, assumed office on December 22, 2008. Cromwell retired in September 2016, was succeeded by Malcolm Rowe. Known as a centrist on Canada's highest court, his reasoning as a provincial appellate judge in R v Marshall. Cromwell was born in Ontario, he attended Queen's University where he earned a Bachelor of Music degree in 1973 and a law degree in 1976. He earned a Bachelor of Civil Law degree from the University of Oxford in 1977, he earned an ARCT Diploma from the Royal Conservatory of Music in 1974. He practised law in Kingston from 1979 to 1982 and was a sessional lecturer in civil procedure at the Queen's Law School from 1980 to 1982, he was a professor of law at Dalhousie University from 1982 to 1992 and again from 1995 to 1997.
Between these two periods he was Executive Legal Officer in the chambers of then-Chief Justice of Canada Antonio Lamer. In 1997, Jean Chrétien appointed him to the Nova Scotia Court of Appeal as a direct appointment. In that role, Cromwell decided in favour of recognizing the claimant's Aboriginal title in R v Marshall; when announcing the nomination to the Supreme Court of Canada, Harper stated that Cromwell would not be appointed to the bench until he had answered questions from an ad hoc all-party committee of the House of Commons. However, this process was bypassed when Cromwell was appointed. However, Parliament wound up meeting only seldom after Cromwell's initial nomination because of a federal election called by Harper for October 14, the subsequent proroguing of Parliament on December 4, until its scheduled resumption on January 26, 2009. While on the Supreme Court, Cromwell joined the rest of the court in a unanimous decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia to recognize the existence of Aboriginal title for the Tsilhqot'in.
The decision that drew in large part from his rejected Nova Scotia Court of Appeal ruling in R v Marshall. Cromwell wrote the minority opinion in R v Jordan, criticizing the majority's decision to impose strict time limits of 18 months in provincial court and 30 months in superior court after which a case would be stayed for "presumptively unreasonable" delay except in exceptional circumstances. Cromwell argued that what was unreasonable was specific to each individual case, the numbers decided by the majority without much discussion, would lead to more stays than necessary. Justice Cromwell retired from the Supreme Court of Canada on September 1, 2016, at the age of 64, fulfilling a personal intention to resign around age 65. Throughout his eight-year service on the Supreme Court, Cromwell authored around a hundred decisions and earned a reputation as a centrist, neither left or right, activist or deferent. After his departure from the Supreme Court, Chief Justice Beverley McLachlin asked him to remain as the chair of the Canadian Forum on Civil Justice's action committee addressing issues related to access to justice for civil and family matters.
Cromwell's departure from the Supreme Court before the mandatory retirement of 75 hurried plans by the government of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to create an independent nominee advisory board chaired by former prime minister Kim Campbell. In February 2017, Cromwell joined Borden Ladner Gervais as counsel. On February 12, 2019, former Minister of Justice and Attorney General of Canada Jody Wilson-Raybould retained Cromwell to advise her in the wake of her resignation from the federal cabinet. Reasons of the Supreme Court of Canada by Justice Cromwell
Vancouver is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011; the Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada with over 5,400 people per square kilometre, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census. 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. Vancouver is named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living cities for five consecutive years.
Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place; the original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B. I.. As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886.
By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third-largest port by tonnage in the Americas, 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North"; the city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names. The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands.
The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", the origin of the name that became "Vancouver". Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago; the city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish and Tseil-Waututh peoples of the Coast Salish group. They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River. Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579; the explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River as far as Point Grey.
The Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men from California, to nearby New Westminster on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver. Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities. A sawmill established at Moodyville in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging, it was followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street; this mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the 1880s, it remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s. The settlement which came to be called Gastown grew around
Avril Phaedra Douglas "Kim" Campbell is a Canadian politician, diplomat and writer who served as the 19th prime minister of Canada from June 25, 1993, to November 4, 1993. Campbell was the first and, to date, only female prime minister of Canada. Campbell was the first baby boomer to hold that office, the only Prime Minister born in British Columbia, she is Canada's third-shortest serving Prime Minister at 132 days in office. She is the chairperson for Canada's Supreme Court Advisory Board. Campbell was born in Port Alberni, British Columbia, the daughter of Phyllis "Lissa" Margaret and George Thomas Campbell, a barrister who had served with The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada in Italy, her father was born to Scottish parents, from Glasgow. Her mother left when Campbell was 12, leaving her sister Alix to be raised by their father; as a teenager, Campbell nicknamed herself Kim. While in her pre-teens, Campbell was a host and reporter on the CBC children's program Junior Television Club. Campbell and her family moved to Vancouver, where she attended Prince of Wales Secondary School and was a top student.
She became the school's first female student president, graduated in 1964. She earned an honours bachelor's degree in political science from the University of British Columbia, graduating in 1969, she was active in the student government and served as the school's first female president of the freshman class. She completed a year of graduate study at that school, to qualify for doctoral-level studies. Campbell entered the London School of Economics in 1970 to study towards her doctorate in Soviet Government, spent three months touring the Soviet Union, from April to June 1972, she had spent several years studying the Russian language, claimed she was nearly fluent, although when asked to say a few words of welcome by a reporter to Boris Yeltsin during his visit to Canada in 1993, she could not and could only say "Hello Mr. Yeltsin". Campbell left her doctoral studies, returning to live in Vancouver after marrying Nathan Divinsky, her longtime partner, in 1972, she earned, in 1983, an LL. B. from the University of British Columbia.
She was called to the British Columbia Bar in 1984, practised law in Vancouver until 1986. During her marriage to Divinsky, Campbell lectured part-time in political science at the University of British Columbia and at Vancouver Community College. While still attending law school, she entered politics as a trustee on the Vancouver School Board, becoming, in 1983, the chair of that board and serving in 1984 as its vice-chair, she once claimed to have told the board to "back off" although others alleged that she said "fuck off". In total, she was a trustee there from 1980 to 1984. Campbell and Divinsky were divorced in 1983, Campbell married Howard Eddy in 1986, a marriage that lasted until shortly before she became prime minister. Campbell is the second prime minister of Canada to have been divorced, after Pierre Trudeau, she dated Gregory Lekhtman, the inventor of Exerlopers, during her term as prime minister, but the relationship was private and she did not involve him in the 1993 election campaign.
She is married to Hershey Felder, an actor, playwright and concert pianist. She remains close to Nathan Divinsky's daughter Pamelea. Campbell was the unsuccessful British Columbia Social Credit Party candidate in Vancouver Centre for a seat in the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia in 1983, receiving 12,740 votes. Campbell ran unsuccessfully for the leadership of the BC Social Credit Party in the summer of 1986, but was elected in October 1986 to the British Columbia Legislative Assembly as a Socred member for Vancouver-Point Grey, getting 19,716 votes. Consigned to the backbenches, she became disenchanted with Premier Bill Vander Zalm's leadership and broke with him and Social Credit over the issue of abortion, which Vander Zalm was opposed to. Campbell decided to enter federal politics. Campbell was elected in the 1988 federal election as the member of parliament from Vancouver Centre, she won the party nomination after Pat Carney, declined to stand for re-nomination. In 1989 she was appointed to the cabinet as Minister of State, a junior role to the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs.
From 1990–1993 she held the post of Minister of Justice and Attorney General where she oversaw notable amendments to the Criminal Code in the areas of firearms control and sexual assault. In 1990, following the Supreme Court's decision invalidating the country's abortion law, Campbell was responsible for introducing Bill C-43 to govern abortions in Canada. Although it passed the House of Commons, it failed to pass the Senate, as of 2017 there is no national law governing abortions. In 1993 Campbell was transferred to the posts of Minister of National Defence and Minister of Veterans Affairs. Notable events during her tenure included dealing with the controversial issue of replacing shipborne helicopters for the navy and for search and rescue units; the actions by Canadian Airborne Regiment in the military scandal known as the Somalia Affair first emerged while Campbell was minister. When the Liberal Party of Canada took power, the incident became the subject of a lengthy public inquiry, continuing to focus attention on Campbell and the PCs.
In February 1993, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney announced his retirement from politics, to take effect June 25, 1993. Campbell entered the party leadership race to succeed Mulroney. Campbell had served in four cabinet portfolios prior to
Louise Arbour, is a Canadian lawyer and jurist. She is the Special Representative of the United Nations Secretary-General for International Migration. Arbour was the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, a former justice of the Supreme Court of Canada and the Court of Appeal for Ontario and a former Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. From 2009 until 2014, she served as CEO of the International Crisis Group, she made history with the indictment of a sitting head of state, Yugoslavian president Slobodan Milošević, as well as the first prosecution of sexual assault as the articles of crimes against humanity. Arbour was born in Quebec to Bernard and Rose Arbour, the owners of a hotel chain, she attended convent school. As editor of the school magazine, she earned a reputation for irreverence. In 1967, she graduated from Collège Regina Assumpta, proceeded to the Université de Montréal where she completed an LL. B. with distinction in 1970.
She became the Law Clerk for Justice Louis-Philippe Pigeon of the Supreme Court of Canada in 1971–72 while completing graduate studies at the Faculty of Law of the University of Ottawa. This is where she met her long time common-law partner Larry Taman, with whom she lived for 27 years. In a 2014 interview, Arbour named the move from Quebec to Ontario as the "biggest hurdle had to overcome to succeed in career," as her entire education had been in French, she was called to the Bar of Quebec in 1971 and to the Law Society of Upper Canada in 1977. She has three adult children: Emilie and Catherine, her daughter Emilie Taman was an NDP candidate in the 2015 Canadian election in the electoral district of Ottawa—Vanier. She has three grandchildren, her long time common law partner, Larry Taman, once Deputy Attorney General of Ontario, working with Attorney General Ian Scott. From 1972–73, Arbour was research officer for the Law Reform Commission of Canada, she taught at Osgoode Hall Law School, York University, first as a Lecturer as Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, as Associate Professor and Associate Dean.
She was Vice-President of the Canadian Civil Liberties Association until her appointment to the Supreme Court of Ontario in 1987 and to the Court of Appeal for Ontario in 1990. In 1995, Arbour was appointed as President of a Commission of Inquiry, under the Inquiries Act, for the purpose of investigating and reporting on events at the Prison for Women in Kingston, following allegations by prisoners of abuse. In 1996, at Richard Goldstone's recommendation, Arbour was appointed as his replacement as Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda in Arusha, of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia in The Hague, she indicted then-Serbian President Slobodan Milošević for war crimes, the first time a serving head of State was called to account before an international court. Other indictees were Milan Milutinović, President of the Republic of Serbia, Nikola Šainović, Deputy Prime Minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Dragoljub Ojdanić, Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Vlajko Stojiljković, Minister of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Serbia.
In 1999, Prime Minister Jean Chrétien appointed Arbour to the Supreme Court of Canada the 26th of May, just one day before the publication of the indictment of Milosevic by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. She has been published in the area of criminal procedure and criminal law, in both French and English. At various times, she has served as an editor for the Criminal Reports, the Canadian Rights Reporter, the Osgoode Hall Law Journal. Arbour has been awarded honorary doctorates by twenty-seven universities. In 2005, Arbour was awarded the Thomas J. Dodd Prize in International Justice and Human Rights, along with Justice Richard Goldstone, in recognition of her work on the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, she was the subject of a 2005 fact-based Canadian-German made-for-television movie, Hunt For Justice which follows her quest to indict Bosnian Serb war criminals. Arbour was played by Canadian actress Wendy Crewson, she was made a Companion to the Order of Canada in 2007 "for her contributions to the Canadian justice system and for her dedication to the advancement of human rights throughout the world".
She was made a Grand Officer of the National Order of Quebec in 2009. She was made a Commander of the National Order of the Legion of Honour in 2011, she has been awarded numerous honorary degrees, including Doctor of Civil Laws from the University of Western Ontario in June 2000, Doctor of Humane Letters from Mount Saint Vincent University in May 2001, Doctor of Laws degrees from the University of British Columbia in November 2001, the University of Waterloo in October 2006, in June 2009 from the University of Alberta and University of Guelph, from Simon Fraser University in October 2009. On January 24, 2008, Arbour welcomed the entry into force of the 2004 version of the Arab Charter on Human Rights, criticized for containing the following:Article 2 All forms of racism and foreign occupation and domination constitute an impediment to human dignity and a major barrier to the exercise of the fundamental rights of peoples. Following criticisms about this statement, Arbour distanced herself from some aspects of the charter.
The Arab Charter remains listed in
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city; the city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of, Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with cold, snowy winters. In 2016, the city had a population of 1,704,694, with a population of 1,942,044 in the urban agglomeration, including all of the other municipalities on the Island of Montreal; the broader metropolitan area had a population of 4,098,927. French is the city's official language and is the language spoken at home by 49.8% of the population of the city, followed by English at 22.8% and 18.3% other languages. In the larger Montreal Census Metropolitan Area, 65.8% of the population speaks French at home, compared to 15.3% who speak English.
The agglomeration Montreal is one of the most bilingual cities in Quebec and Canada, with over 59% of the population able to speak both English and French. Montreal is the second-largest French-speaking city in the world, after Paris, it is situated 258 kilometres south-west of Quebec City. The commercial capital of Canada, Montreal was surpassed in population and in economic strength by Toronto in the 1970s, it remains an important centre of commerce, transport, pharmaceuticals, design, art, tourism, fashion, gaming and world affairs. Montreal has the second-highest number of consulates in North America, serves as the location of the headquarters of the International Civil Aviation Organization, was named a UNESCO City of Design in 2006. In 2017, Montreal was ranked the 12th most liveable city in the world by the Economist Intelligence Unit in its annual Global Liveability Ranking, the best city in the world to be a university student in the QS World University Rankings. Montreal has hosted multiple international conferences and events, including the 1967 International and Universal Exposition and the 1976 Summer Olympics.
It is the only Canadian city to have held the Summer Olympics. In 2018, Montreal was ranked as an Alpha− world city; as of 2016 the city hosts the Canadian Grand Prix of Formula One, the Montreal International Jazz Festival and the Just for Laughs festival. In the Mohawk language, the island is called Tiohtià:ke Tsi, it is a name referring to the Lachine Rapids to the island's Ka-wé-no-te. It means "a place where nations and rivers unite and divide". In the Ojibwe language, the land is called Mooniyaang which means "the first stopping place" and is part of the seven fires prophecy; the city was first named Ville Marie by European settlers from La Flèche, or "City of Mary", named for the Virgin Mary. Its current name comes from the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. According to one theory, the name derives from mont Réal,. A possibility by the Government of Canada on its web site concerning Canadian place names, is that the name was adopted as it is written nowadays because an early map of 1556 used the Italian name of the mountain, Monte Real.
Archaeological evidence demonstrates that First Nations native people occupied the island of Montreal as early as 4,000 years ago. By the year AD 1000, they had started to cultivate maize. Within a few hundred years, they had built fortified villages; the Saint Lawrence Iroquoians, an ethnically and culturally distinct group from the Iroquois nations of the Haudenosaunee based in present-day New York, established the village of Hochelaga at the foot of Mount Royal two centuries before the French arrived. Archeologists have found evidence of their habitation there and at other locations in the valley since at least the 14th century; the French explorer Jacques Cartier visited Hochelaga on October 2, 1535, estimated the population of the native people at Hochelaga to be "over a thousand people". Evidence of earlier occupation of the island, such as those uncovered in 1642 during the construction of Fort Ville-Marie, have been removed. Seventy years the French explorer Samuel de Champlain reported that the St Lawrence Iroquoians and their settlements had disappeared altogether from the St Lawrence valley.
This is believed to be due to epidemics of European diseases, or intertribal wars. In 1611 Champlain established a fur trading post on the Island of Montreal, on a site named La Place Royale. At the confluence of Petite Riviere and St. Lawrence River, it is where present-day Pointe-à-Callière stands. On his 1616 map, Samuel de Champlain named the island Lille de Villemenon, in honour of the sieur de Villemenon, a French dignitary, seeking the viceroyship of New France. In 1639 Jérôme Le Royer de La Dauversière obtained the Seigneurial title to the Island of Montreal in the name of the Notre Dame Society of Montreal to establish a Roman Catholic mission to evangelize natives. Dauversiere hired Paul Chomedey de Maisonneuve 30, to lead a group of colonists to build a mission on his new seigneury; the colonists left France in 1641 for Quebec, arrived on the island the following year. On May 17, 1642, Ville-Marie was founded on the southern shore of Montreal is