Oklahoma State University–Stillwater
Oklahoma State University is a public land-grant and sun-grant research university in Stillwater, Oklahoma. OSU was founded in 1890 under the Morrill Act. Known as Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, it is the flagship institution of the Oklahoma State University System. Official enrollment for the fall 2010 semester system-wide was 35,073, with 23,459 students enrolled at OSU-Stillwater. Enrollment shows. OSU is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with highest research activity; the Oklahoma State Cowboys and Cowgirls' athletic heritage includes 52 national championships, a total greater than all but three NCAA Division I schools in the United States, first in the Big 12 Conference. Students spend part of the fall semester preparing for OSU's Homecoming celebration, begun in 1913, which draws more than 40,000 alumni and over 70,000 participants each year to campus and is billed by the university as "America's Greatest Homecoming Celebration." On December 25, 1890, the Oklahoma Territorial Legislature gained approval for Oklahoma Territorial Agricultural and Mechanical College, the land-grant university established under the Morrill Act of 1862.
It specified. Such an ambiguous description created rivalry between towns within the county, with Stillwater winning out. Upon statehood in 1907, "Territorial" was dropped from its title; the first students assembled for class on December 14, 1891. Classes were held for two and one-half years in local churches until the first academic building known as Old Central, was dedicated on June 15, 1894, on the southeast corner of campus, which at the time was flat plowed prairie. In 1896, Oklahoma A&M held its first commencement with six male graduates; the first Library was established in Old Central in one room shared with the English Department. The first campus building to have electricity, Williams Hall, was constructed in 1900. With its turreted architecture it was referred to as the "Castle of the Prairies". One of the earliest campus buildings was a barn, used as part of an agricultural experiment station, served by a large reservoir pond created in 1895; the barn burned in 1922, but the pond and remodeled in 1928 and 1943, is now known as Theta Pond, a popular campus scenic landmark.
In 1906, Morrill Hall became the principal building on campus. A fire gutted the building in 1914, but the outside structure survived intact, the interior was reconstructed; the first dormitory for women was completed in 1911. It contained a kitchen, dining hall, some classrooms, a women's gymnasium, it is now houses the Gardiner Art Gallery. By 1919 the campus included Morrill Hall, the Central Building, the Engineering Building, the Women's building, the Auditorium, the Armory-Gymnasium and the Power Plant. At the beginning of World War II, Oklahoma A&M was one of six schools selected by the United States Navy to give the Primary School in the Electronics Training Program known as Naval Training School Elementary Electricity and Radio Materiel. Starting in March 1942, each month a new group of 100 Navy students arrived for three months of 14-hour days in concentrated electrical engineering study. Cordell Hall, the newest dormitory, was used for housing and meals. Professor Emory B. Phillips was the Director of Instruction.
ETP admission required passing the Eddy Test, one of the most selective qualifying exams given during the war years. At a given time, some 500 Navy students were on the campus, a significant fraction of the war-years enrollment; the training activity continued until June 1945, served a total of about 7,000 students. Kamm, a future professor and president of Oklahoma State University. During some of the war years, the Navy had a Yeoman training activity for WAVES and SPARS on the campus. Much of the growth of Oklahoma A&M and the campus architectural integrity can be attributed to work of Henry G. Bennett, who served as the school's president from 1928 to 1950. Early in his tenure Dr. Bennett developed a strategic vision for the physical expansion of the university campus; the plan was adopted in 1937 and his vision was followed for more than fifty years, making the university what it is today, including the Georgian architecture that permeates the campus. The focal point of his vision was a centrally located library building, which became a reality when the Edmon Low Library opened in 1953.
Another major addition to the campus during the Bennett years was the construction of the Student Union, which opened in 1950. Subsequent additions and renovations have made the building one of the largest student union buildings in the world at 611,000 sq ft. A complete renovation and further expansion of the building began in 2010. On May 15, 1957, Oklahoma A&M changed its name Oklahoma State University of Agricultural and Applied Sciences to reflect the broadening scope of curriculum offered. Oklahoma Gov. Raymond Gary signed the bill authorizing the name change passed by the 26th Oklahoma Legislature on May 15, 1957. However, the bill only authorized the Board of Regents to change the name of the college, a measure they voted on at their meeting on June 6. However, the name was shortened to Oklahoma State University for most purposes, the "Agricultural & Applied Sciences" name was formally
The Southdown is a small, dual-purpose English sheep, raised for meat. The Southdown breed was bred by John Ellman of Glynde, near Lewes, East Sussex, about 200 years ago, his work was continued by Jonas Webb of Babraham in Cambridgeshire, who developed the larger animal of today. It was used in the breeding of the Canterbury lamb; this sheep was involved with crossbreeding to develop other breeds: with existing stock, the Hampshire, via the Hampshire, the Oxford Down with the Norfolk Horn, the Suffolk. The Southdown in Britain is recognised by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust as a native breed, although today it is popular amongst the smaller scale breeders of sheep, it has been split into two sub-breeds. The Southdown raised by commercial growers today, is larger than the "traditional" Southdown of years past. North American Southdowns are taller than their English counterparts; the original blood line of the English Southdowns are the Olde English'Babydoll' Southdown sheep in the US. They have been selected for their smaller size of the original blood lines and a focus on wool and hobby breeding rather than commercial meat production.
In California and New Zealand, they are placed in vineyards to graze weeds because they are too short to reach the grapes on the vines. Baby Doll breeders claim that their sheep are closer to the original English Southdown than are the commercial Southdown sheep being grown today. Mature weights for rams range from 190 to 230 lb. From mature ewes, fleece weights are between 5.0 and 8.0 lb ( with a yield of 40% to 55%. The fleeces are considered medium-wool type with a fiber diameter of 23.5 to 29.0 microns and a numerical count of 54 to 60. The staple length ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 inches. An estimated 110,000 sheep were in Sussex as early as 1341. At the time, their wool was second only to the Hereford sheep in fineness and quality. In 1780, John Ellman realized the potential of these animals and set out to standardize the Southdown breed. In the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries, they were found in large numbers in the South Downs near Lewes. In 1813, Arthur Young estimated 200,000 ewes were kept on the eastern South Downs and commented, "the amazing number they keep is one of the most singular circumstances in the sheep husbandry of England".
The principal reason for the large concentrations of Southdown sheep on downland farms over these centuries was their role in the maintenance of soil fertility. The large flocks grazed the open downs by day and at dusk they came down to the lower arable land for folding; the downland soils are chalky and not fertile, so the close-folding by the sheep on small areas manured and trod the soil. This meant wheat could be grown the following year. With the gradual introduction of new crops such as field turnips, kohl rabi and other forage crops, the folding system took off, increasing in parallel with expanding human population; the system reached its zenith from about 1845 to 1880. The 20th century brought the establishment of pedigree recording. By 1911, 359 registered Southdown flocks contained some 114,495 breeding ewes throughout Britain. Much remained the same until the First World War, when the Southdown flocks declined with some rapidity, as shepherds and farm workers went off to war. By 1922, the 359 pedigree flocks had shrunk to 245.
From until 1939, the registered Southdown flocks numbered around 200. Folded flocks were smaller flocks averaged only 135 ewes apiece; the use of artificial fertilizers had gained ground, the combine-drill, which sowed grain seeds and fertilizer together, rendered close-folding by sheep unnecessary. Surrendering to basic arable farming changes, the Southdown became a grassland breed. During the interwar years, the United Kingdom was known for farm animal breeding, pedigreed Southdowns were still being exported to most parts of the world New Zealand. In 1937, the number of exported Southdowns reached 459 head. During the Great Depression, a severe and prolonged fall in the prices of wool and cereals due to rising volumes of imports from the British Empire was accompanied by the Wet Years - a six-year period of cold, wet weather with little sun. In the Second World War, the South Downs were commandeered for military training, only fringe farms being left to produce milk for the towns. Sheep farming declined further after the war, although it is now being encouraged again through the designation of the downland as an environmentally sensitive area, the restoration of arable land to sheepwalk.
The Southdown has been placed on a watch list by the Rare Breeds Survival Trust. The original Southdown breed reached the United States in 1803, their popularity grew because the Southdowns were easy to take care of and were resilient to many problems for which other sheep are known. They declined in nearly the same pattern that had occurred in England. One other factor that affected the original bloodlines was that the Southdown could not satisfy the consumer demand for larger meat cuts; this was significant in the development and mass production of the larger, leggier Southdown of today. This divergence from the original breed standards was the beginning of what became two distinct lines in the US; the American Southdowns were developed by breeding the original bloodlines to larger breeds of Southdowns from other countries to create a sheep that could compete with the other larger meat breeds in the US. However, many of the original attributes for which the original Southdowns were known were bred out.
In 1986, a breeder, Robert Mock, began a search for the sheep with bloodlines that conformed to the
The Shorthorn breed of cattle originated in the North East of England in the late 18th century. The breed was developed as dual-purpose, suitable for both beef production. Over time, these different lines diverged, by the second half of the 20th century, two separate breeds had developed – the Beef Shorthorn, the Milking Shorthorn. All Shorthorn cattle are coloured red, white, or roan, although roan cattle are preferred by some, white animals are not common. However, one type of Shorthorn has been bred to be white – the Whitebred Shorthorn, developed to cross with black Galloway cattle to produce a popular blue roan crossbreed, the Blue Grey; the breed developed from Teeswater and Durham cattle found in the North East of England. In the late 18th century, the Colling brothers and Robert, started to improve the Durham cattle using the selective breeding techniques that Robert Bakewell had used on Longhorn cattle. In 1796, Charles Colling of Ketton Hall, bred the famous Durham Ox; the culmination of this breeding program was the birth of the bull Comet, bred by Charles Colling, in 1804.
This bull was subsequently sold for 1,000 guineas in 1810 at the Brafferton sale, the first 1,000-guinea bull recorded. Related cattle may have been imported to the United States by Harry Dorsey Gough of Baltimore, before 1808. At the same time, Thomas Bates of Kirklevington and John Booth of Killesby were developing the Teeswater cattle; the Bates cattle were subsequently developed for their milking qualities, whereas the Booth cattle were developed for their beef qualities. Animals taken to Scotland in 1817 from the Booth herd were used to produce the Beef Shorthorn breed. In 1822, George Coates published the first volume of his herd book. Coates published the first four volumes, after which Henry Stafford took over the ownership and publishing of the herd book, retaining the name Coates's Herd Book; the Shorthorn Society of Great Britain and Ireland was founded in 1874, purchased the copyright of the herd book from Stafford. They have continued to compile and publish Coates's Herd Book since.
The American Shorthorn Herd Book was the first to be published in the United States for any breed and was started in 1846, with the formation of the American Shorthorn Association following 26 years in 1872. Some Shorthorns have been found to have a genetic defect called tibial hemimelia, a disease caused by an abnormal gene. TH was identified in a small number of Shorthorn cattle in Canada in 1999, it is characterised by severe deformities in newborn calves, which are born with twisted rear legs with missing tibias and fused joints, large abdominal hernias, skull deformities. They must be destroyed. All the affected animals descend from a single individual; the gene involved is recessive: the disease occurs only when homozygous. Today, the breed is found in English-speaking countries, Southern South America; the main countries are: Argentina, Canada, New Zealand, Republic of Ireland, South Africa, United Kingdom, the United States of America and Zimbabwe. Beamish Museum in north-eastern England preserves the Durham breed.
Shorthorn cattle were one of the first purebred breeds to be imported into Australia when several cows were brought into New South Wales in 1800. More purebred Shorthorns were imported into NSW in 1825 by Potter McQueen of Scone. Nine months the Australian Agricultural Company imported additional Shorthorns, in the 1930s, Thomas Simpson Hall, the breeder of the Halls Heeler, imported Durham Shorthorns from which he developed extensive herds of Poll Shorthorns; the breed has a wide genetic base, resulting in the development of several distinct though related strains – these are the traditional strains: Beef Shorthorn Poll Shorthorn Durham Milking or Dairy Shorthorn Australian ShorthornThe current Shorthorn Society of Australia encompasses the Poll Shorthorn, Australian Shorthorn, Durham. Many other beef cattle breeds have used Shorthorn genetics in the development of new breeds such as the Belmont Red and Santa Gertrudis cattle; the Shorthorn Society of United Kingdom & Ireland American Shorthorn Association Asociacion Argentina de Criadores de Shorthorn Shorthorn Association of Australia Canadian Shorthorn Association Irish Shorthorn Society New Zealand Shorthorn Association Cattle breeds: Shorthorn The Shorthorn Breed of Cattle – Oklahoma State University Shorthorn Breed Information – Cattle.com The Durham Ox – painting of Comet, a Durham Shorthorn, 1804
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or a tup, a castrated male as a wether, a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep are most descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces and milk. A sheep's wool is the most used animal fiber, is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, lamb in the United States. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, the British Isles are most associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a entrenched place in human culture, find representation in much modern language and symbology; as livestock, sheep are most associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals; the exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear.
The most common hypothesis states. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind. C in Mesopotamia; the rearing of sheep for secondary products, the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Sheep were kept for meat and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC, the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later. Sheep husbandry spread in Europe. Excavations show that in about 6000 BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. From its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, were said to name individual animals. Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, speaks at length about wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from 1493 onwards. Domestic sheep are small ruminants with a crimped hair called wool and with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are variations of brown hues, variation within species is limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, spotted or piebald. Selection for dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly.
However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, may appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces for handspinning; the nature of the fleece varies among the breeds, from dense and crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre. Depending on breed, sheep show a range of weights, their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait, selected for in breeding. Ewes weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, rams between 45 and 160 kilograms; when all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth; as with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation the rear
Polled livestock are livestock without horns in species which are horned. The term refers both to breeds or strains that are polled through selective breeding and to horned animals that have been disbudded. Natural polling occurs in cattle, water buffalo, goats, in these animals it affects both sexes equally; the history of breeding polled livestock starts about 6000 years BCE. The archaic term muley or mulley is sometimes used to refer to hornless livestock in folk songs, folk tales, poetry, in the name of the polled Irish Moiled cattle breed. "Muley" derives from Irish and Scottish Gaelic maol, Welsh moel. In cattle, the polled allele is genetically dominant to that for horns; the polled trait is far more common in beef breeds than in dairy breeds. CRISPR technology is being developed to create polled versions of dairy breeds. In sheep, the allele for horns in both sexes is dominant to the allele for being polled in both sexes, both of these are dominant to that for polling in the female only.
The development of wholly polled strains in goats has been discouraged by a 1944 study that suggested a link between the polling gene and hermaphrodism. Little study on the subject has occurred since. Polled water buffalo have genital defects. Polled animals may have scurs – small, horny growths in the skin where their horns would be. In cattle, this trait has been traced to a separate gene from that responsible for polling. However, the presence of the allele for scurs in cattle can only be seen in a polled animal, because horns replace the scurs in horned animals. Similar scurs may occur where disbudding of a horned animal has been incomplete. Polled livestock are preferred by many farmers for a variety of reasons, the foremost being that horns can pose a physical danger to humans, other livestock and equipment. Horns may interfere with equipment used with livestock, or they may become damaged during handling. In other circumstances, horned animals may be preferred, for example, to help the animal defend itself against predators, to allow the attachment of head yokes to draught oxen, to provide a hand-hold on smaller animals such as sheep, or for aesthetic reasons – in some breeds the retention of horns is required for showing.
In the US no show requires horns to be left on. Most shows require at a minimum blunting of the horns to a minimum of 1⁄2 in. Diameter. Boer Goat Shows allow disbudded goats. Dairy breeds of goats required to be hornless or disbudded.4H and FFA show goats must be hornless or blunted so as not to be sharp and dangerous Polled strains have been developed of many cattle breeds which were horned. This has been done by crossing with polled breeds, most Angus and Galloway cattle. For example, polled Jersey cattle originated in Ohio sometime prior to 1895. Two strains were developed, the first to appear being founded by crosses of registered Jersey bulls on common muley cows; these were graded up by the continued use of purebred Jersey sires, selection being made of the polled offspring of each generation, the horned progeny being discarded. Thus originated what was known as the single-standard strain; as in the case of the Polled Shorthorns and Polled Herefords, the development of the single-standard strain was soon followed by the appearance of a double-standard strain, founded by a few hornless sports that were discovered in registered herds of horned Jersey cattle.
These standards were bred among themselves or crossed with registered horned Jerseys, followed by selection for the polled head, the strain was developed in this way. Castration Docking List of cattle breeds List of domestic Asian water buffalo breeds List of sheep breeds List of goat breeds
The Merino is one of the most relevant and economically influential breeds of sheep, much prized for its wool. The breed was originated and improved in Extremadura, in southwestern Spain, around the 12th century. Today, Merinos are still regarded as having some of the softest wool of any sheep. Poll Merinos have no horns, horned Merino rams have long, spiral horns which grow close to the head. Two suggested origins for the Spanish word merino are: It may be an adaptation to the sheep of the name of a Leonese official inspector over a merindad, who may have inspected sheep pastures; this word is from the medieval Latin maiorinus, a steward or head official of a village, from maior, meaning "greater". It may be from the name of an Imazighen tribe, the Marini, who intervened in the Iberian peninsula during the 12th and 13th centuries; the Merino is an excellent forager and adaptable. It is bred predominantly for its wool, its carcass size is smaller than that of sheep bred for meat. South African Meat Merino, American Rambouillet and German Merinofleischschaf have been bred to balance wool production and carcass quality.
Merino have been domesticated and bred in ways that would not allow them to survive well without regular shearing by their owners. They must be shorn at least once a year. If this is neglected, the overabundance of wool can cause heat stress, mobility issues, blindness. Merino wool is soft. Staples are 65–100 mm long. A Saxon Merino produces 3–6 kg of greasy wool a year, while a good quality Peppin Merino ram produces up to 18 kg. Merino wool is less than 24 micron in diameter. Basic Merino types include: strong wool, medium wool, fine and ultra fine. Ultra fine wool is suitable for blending with other fibers such as cashmere; the term merino is used in the textile industries, but it cannot be taken to mean the fabric in question is 100% merino wool from a Merino strain bred for its wool. The wool of any Merino sheep, whether reared in Spain or elsewhere, is known as "merino wool". However, not all merino sheep produce wool suitable for clothing, for clothing worn next to the skin or as a second skin.
This depends on the particular strain of the breed. Merino sheep bred; the Phoenicians introduced sheep from Asia Minor into North Africa and the foundation flocks of the merino in Spain might have been introduced as late as the 12th century by the Marinids, a tribe of Berbers. Although there were reports of the breed in the Iberian peninsula before the arrival of the Marinids. In the 13th and 14th centuries, Spanish breeders introduced English breeds which they bred with local breeds to develop the merino. Spain became noted for its fine wool and built up a fine wool monopoly between the 12th and 16th centuries, with wool commerce to Flanders and England being a source of income for Castile in the Late Middle Ages. Most of the flocks were owned by the church; the Mesta was an organisation of privileged sheep owners who developed the breed and controlled the migrations along cañadas reales suitable for grazing. The three Merino strains that founded the world's Merino flocks are the Royal Escurial flocks, the Negretti and the Paula.
Among Merino bloodlines stemming from Vermont in the USA, three historical studs were important: Infantado and Aguires. Before the 18th century, the export of Merinos from Spain was a crime punishable by death. In the 18th century, small exportation of Merinos from Spain and local sheep were used as the foundation of Merino flocks in other countries. In 1723, some were exported to Sweden, but the first major consignment of Escurials was sent by Charles III of Spain to his cousin, Prince Xavier the Elector of Saxony, in 1765. Further exportation of Escurials to Saxony occurred in 1774, to Hungary in 1775 and to Prussia in 1786. In 1786, Louis XVI of France received 366 sheep selected from 10 different cañadas; the Rambouillet stud enjoyed some undisclosed genetic development with some English long-wool genes contributing to the size and wool-type of the French sheep. Through one ram in particular named Emperor – imported to Australia in 1860 by the Peppin brothers of Wanganella, New South Wales – the Rambouillet stud had an enormous influence on the development of the Australian Merino.
Sir Joseph Banks procured two rams and four ewes in 1787 by way of Portugal, in 1792 purchased 40 Negrettis for King George III to found the royal flock at Kew. In 1808, 2000 Paulas were imported; the King of Spain gave some Escurials to the Dutch government in 1790. In 1788, John MacArthur, from the Clan Arthur introduced Merinos to Australia from South Africa. From 1765, the Germans in Saxony crossed the Spanish Merino with th