Akershus is a county in Norway, bordering Hedmark, Buskerud, Østfold. Akershus, with a little over 614,000 inhabitants, is the second most populated county by population after Oslo; the county is named after Akershus Fortress. The county administration is in Oslo, not part of the county per se; the county is conventionally divided into the traditional districts Follo and Romerike, which fill the vast part of the county, as well as the small exclave west of Oslo that consists of Asker and Bærum. This resulted after the transfer of the great municipality of Aker from Akershus County to Oslo in 1948. Embracing numerous suburbs of Oslo, notably Bærum, Akershus is one of the most densely populated areas in the country; the main national railway lines into Oslo run through Akershus with many junctions and stations such as Asker, Sandvika and Lillestrøm. Akershus includes some of the river Glomma; the county includes the historical place Eidsvoll, 48 km north of Oslo, in which the national assembly ratified the Norwegian constitution in 1814.
South of Eidsvoll is Oslo Airport at Gardermoen. Oslo's previous international airport, Fornebu, is located in Akershus; the estate of the crown prince is located in Asker. The county has Akershus University Hospital and Sykehuset Asker og Bærum; the main road from continental Europe, E6, enters Akershus in the south, runs through eastern Oslo, further to Gardermoen, into Hedmark County on the eastern shores of lake Mjøsa. E18 enters Akershus in the south-east, merges for a short stretch with E6 at Vinterbro in Ås, before running under central Oslo. E18 turns south-west through Bærum and Asker before entering Buskerud County north of Drammen. E16 runs from the intersection with E18 in Sandvika into Buskerud County west of Sollihøgda. All main railways out of Oslo run through Akershus: Southwest: the Drammen Line Southeast: the Østfold Line as two separate railways North: the Gjøvik Line Northeast: the Trunk Line, Gardermoen Line, Dovre Line East: the Kongsvinger Line Akershus became a fief in the 16th century, also included the current counties of Hedmark, Oppland and Oslo, as well as the municipalities of Askim, Trøgstad in the county of Østfold.
In 1662, Akershus became an Amt, in 1685, Buskerud was separated from Akershus and became an Amt of its own. In 1768, Hedmark and Oppland were separated from Akershus to become Oplandenes Amt. In 1842, the city of Christiania was made a separate Amt, as well. In 1919, the term Amt was changed to Fylke. In 1948, the greatest and the most populous municipality of Akershus, was transferred to the county of Oslo; the county is named after Akershus Fortress. The fortress was built in 1299, the meaning of the name is "the house of Aker"; the name is somewhat misleading now. In fact, the administration of Akershus sits outside the county, as well, in the centre of Oslo; the coat-of-arms is from modern times. It shows a gable from Akershus Fortress. Akershus has a total of 22 municipalities: Akershus county website Media related to Akershus at Wikimedia Commons Akershus travel guide from Wikivoyage
Eastern Norway is the geographical region of the south-eastern part of Norway. It consists of the counties Telemark, Vestfold, Østfold, Oslo, Buskerud and Hedmark. Eastern Norway is by far the most populous region of Norway, it contains the country's capital, Norway's most populous city. In Norwegian, the region is called Austlandet in contrast to Vestlandet; as of 2015, the region had 50.4 % of Norway's population. The region is bounded by mountains in the north and west, the Swedish border to the east and by Viken and Skagerrak to the south; the border towards Sørlandet is less obvious. The mountains reach a height of 2469 metres in the Jotunheimen mountain range, the highest point in the Nordic countries. Other prominent mountain ranges include part of the Dovrefjell in the far north of the region, the Rondane north east of Lillehammer and others; the high plateau of Hardangervidda extends into Western Norway. Valleys cut deep into the mountains, from east to west the main valleys are Østerdal, Valdres, Hallingdal and the many valleys of Telemark.
Østerdalen is surrounded by flat areas of conifer forests, but the others are all cut into the mountains. Most of eastern Norway's southern half is dominated of rolling hills with pine and spruce forests, agricultural land down in the valleys The area around the Oslo fjord and towards the north east are comparatively flat, there are patches of intensely cultivated lands, notably Hedmarken, Hadeland and others; the population density in the flatlands is the highest in the nation, some 40% of the nation's population lives within 200 km of Oslo. Numerous islands shelter the coasts, creating a paradise for boaters in the summer; the Norwegian dialects spoken in the south-east share a common intonation, but there is some variation in grammar and pronunciation. The dialects of the interior mountainous areas are all distinct; the dialects of the coastal areas are more similar to the written language. The eastern forests of Finnskogen were the home of an ethnic minority, immigrants from Finland that came in the 17th century.
Their language and culture was preserved into the 20th century, but now only folk tunes and food specialities remain. The southernmost group of Norway's Sami population is to be found in the north-eastern corner, in Engerdal; the culture of mountain valleys is preserved to a greater degree than the more urbanized metropolitan areas. The area is distinguished with traditional architecture, like stave churches and lafteverk, folk music and food; some are concerned for the loss of local culture in the face of modernization. There are many tourist traps, which have a tendency of becoming Disneyland versions of the actual culture in the ski resorts, which are transformed by people from the cities, with increased building of shops and vacation houses, it is common to see moose warning signs missing from their posts, because of many tourists taking them home as a souvenir. This is of course illegal, can result in a fine; the coastal region is densely populated both by European standards. This region was the early industrialized.
Traditionally the biggest export was timber and shipping, now employment in the industrial sector is in decline and most people are working in service-oriented companies. The coastal area is varied, from the metropolitan Oslo to the more quiet and idyllic old maritime city of Drøbak, the oldest city in Norway, Tønsberg There is some museum railway lines, for example the Krøder Line, where one can ride heritage steam and diesel trains on old twisty railway tracks. Oslo, the capital of Norway, has attracted people from all over Norway. Most of the immigrants settle here as well. There are numerous mosques, Hindu shrines, Sikh temples, Buddhist temples, as well as many churches, giving Oslo a cosmopolitan feel. East Norway travel guide from Wikivoyage
Norway the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula. The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land. Norway has a total area of 385,207 square kilometres and a population of 5,312,300; the country shares a long eastern border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, the Skagerrak strait to the south, with Denmark on the other side. Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the Barents Sea. Harald V of the House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway. Erna Solberg has been prime minister since 2013. A unitary sovereign state with a constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the parliament, the cabinet and the supreme court, as determined by the 1814 constitution; the kingdom was established in 872 as a merger of a large number of petty kingdoms and has existed continuously for 1,147 years.
From 1537 to 1814, Norway was a part of the Kingdom of Denmark-Norway, from 1814 to 1905, it was in a personal union with the Kingdom of Sweden. Norway was neutral during the First World War. Norway remained neutral until April 1940 when the country was invaded and occupied by Germany until the end of Second World War. Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels: counties and municipalities; the Sámi people have a certain amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament and the Finnmark Act. Norway maintains close ties with both the United States. Norway is a founding member of the United Nations, NATO, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, the Antarctic Treaty, the Nordic Council. Norway maintains the Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system, its values are rooted in egalitarian ideals; the Norwegian state has large ownership positions in key industrial sectors, having extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber and fresh water.
The petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the country's gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the world's largest producer of oil and natural gas outside of the Middle East; the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World IMF lists. On the CIA's GDP per capita list which includes autonomous territories and regions, Norway ranks as number eleven, it has the world's largest sovereign wealth fund, with a value of US$1 trillion. Norway has had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world since 2009, a position held between 2001 and 2006, it had the highest inequality-adjusted ranking until 2018 when Iceland moved to the top of the list. Norway ranked first on the World Happiness Report for 2017 and ranks first on the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity, the Democracy Index. Norway has one of the lowest crime rates in the world. Norway has two official names: Norge in Noreg in Nynorsk; the English name Norway comes from the Old English word Norþweg mentioned in 880, meaning "northern way" or "way leading to the north", how the Anglo-Saxons referred to the coastline of Atlantic Norway similar to scientific consensus about the origin of the Norwegian language name.
The Anglo-Saxons of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. There is some disagreement about whether the native name of Norway had the same etymology as the English form. According to the traditional dominant view, the first component was norðr, a cognate of English north, so the full name was Norðr vegr, "the way northwards", referring to the sailing route along the Norwegian coast, contrasting with suðrvegar "southern way" for, austrvegr "eastern way" for the Baltic. In the translation of Orosius for Alfred, the name is Norðweg, while in younger Old English sources the ð is gone. In the 10th century many Norsemen settled in Northern France, according to the sagas, in the area, called Normandy from norðmann, although not a Norwegian possession. In France normanni or northmanni referred to people of Sweden or Denmark; until around 1800 inhabitants of Western Norway where referred to as nordmenn while inhabitants of Eastern Norway where referred to as austmenn. According to another theory, the first component was a word nór, meaning "narrow" or "northern", referring to the inner-archipelago sailing route through the land.
The interpretation as "northern", as reflected in the English and Latin forms of the name, would have been due to folk etymology. This latter view originated with philologist Niels Halvorsen Trønnes in 1847; the form Nore is still used in placenames such as the village of Nore and lake Norefjorden in Buskerud county, still has the same meaning. Among other arguments in favour of the theor
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology
Orienteering is a group of sports that require navigational skills using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and unfamiliar terrain whilst moving at speed. Participants are given a topographical map a specially prepared orienteering map, which they use to find control points. A training exercise in land navigation for military officers, orienteering has developed many variations. Among these, the oldest and the most popular is foot orienteering. For the purposes of this article, foot orienteering serves as a point of departure for discussion of all other variations, but any sport that involves racing against a clock and requires navigation with a map is a type of orienteering. Orienteering is included in the programs of world sporting events including the World Games and World Police and Fire Games. Orienteering sports combine significant navigation with a specific method of travel; because the method of travel determines the needed equipment and tactics, each sport requires specific rules for competition and guidelines for orienteering event logistics and course design.
International Orienteering Federation, the governing body of the sport sanctions the following four disciplines as official disciplines in the sport of orienteering: Foot orienteering Mountain bike orienteering Ski orienteering Trail orienteering Moreover, International Amateur Radio Union sanctions the following orienteering sport: Amateur radio direction finding Other orienteering disciplines include, but are not limited to: Canoe orienteering Car orienteering Mountain marathoning Mounted orienteering Rogaining SportLabyrinth – micro orienteeringAdventure racing is a combination of two or more disciplines, includes orienteering as part of the race. At international level, the International Orienteering Federation defines rules and guidelines which govern four orienteering sports: foot orienteering, mountain bike orienteering, ski orienteering, trail orienteering, it is based in Finland and it claims on its website to aim to "spread the sport of orienteering, to promote its development and to create and maintain an attractive world event programme."
Since 1977 the IOF has been recognised by the IOC There are governing bodies for most of the individual nations that are represented in the sport of orienteering. These national bodies are the rule-making body for that nation. For example, the British Orienteering Federation is the national governing body for the United Kingdom; the federation was founded in 1967 and it is made up of 13 constituent associations. For the United States, the national governing body is Orienteering USA. Most nations have some form of regional governing bodies; these are not rule-making bodies but are there to assist in coordinating clubs within that region, e.g. they may allocate dates so that clubs do not clash with their events. Clubs are formed at a local level and affiliated to their national governing body, it is clubs who put on events open to all-comers. Clubs may put on practice and social events. Open clubs are open to anyone and there is no restriction on joining them. Closed clubs restrict their membership to specific groups.
For example, BAOC has restrictions on, principally British Army personnel. The International Rogaining Federation governs rogaining. Separate organizations govern; the International Amateur Radio Union governs amateur radio direction finding. Orienteering terms vary within English speaking countries, in other countries where English is the de facto international language of orienteering. Variations are set out in table below; the history of orienteering begins in the late 19th century in Sweden, the actual term "orientering" was first used in 1886 at the Swedish Military Academy Karlberg and meant the crossing of unknown land with the aid of a map and a compass. In Sweden, orienteering grew from military training in land navigation into a competitive sport for military officers for civilians; the name is derived from a word root meaning to find the location. The first civilian orienteering competition open to the public was held in Norway in 1897 back when Norway was still part apart of the Swedish union.
From the beginning, locations selected for orienteering have been chosen in part for their beauty, natural or man-made. For the first public orienteering competition in Sweden, in 1901, control points included two historic churches, Spånga kyrka and Bromma kyrka. With the invention of inexpensive yet reliable compasses, the sport gained popularity during the 1930s. By 1934, over a quarter million Swedes were participants, orienteering had spread to Finland, the Soviet Union, Hungary. Following World War II, orienteering spread throughout Europe and to Asia, North America and Oceania. In Sweden in 1959, an international orienteering conference was held. Representatives from 12 countries participated. In 1961, orienteering organizations representing 10 European nations founded the International Orienteering Federation. Since IOF has supported the founding of many national orienteering federations. By 2010, 71 national orienteering federations were member societies of the International Orienteering Federation.
These federations enabled the develop