In Norse mythology, Borghild was the first wife of Sigmund. She bore him two sons and Helgi, she is the personification of the evening mist, or the moon, who kills the light of day. Sinfjötli "saw a lovely woman and desired to have her; the brother of Borghild, the wife of King Sigmund, had asked for her hand.". Sinfjötli killed the brother in a contest to win the maiden's hand, Sinfjötli won, he became famous. When he came home, he told his father Sigmund. Sigmund told Borghild, Borghild wanted Sinfjötli to leave the kingdom for killing her brother. Sigmund offered to pay Borghild compensation; this was a generous offer, similar to Hrafnkel's offer to Thorbjorn for the death of Einar in Hrafnkels saga. Borghild, was not placated by this and said "You shall decide, sir, as is fitting.". Borghild arranged a funeral feast for her brother, she served the drink. Serving the drink was characteristic of the shieldmaiden in the stories about Valhalla, she tells Sinfjötli to drink, but he says it is poisoned, Sigmund takes it instead.
Borghild makes fun of Sinfjötli saying, "Why should other men drink ale for you?". She orders him to drink a second time, but Sinfjötli won't and Sigmund drinks it again. Borghild dares him a third time, saying that he should "drain it, if he had the heart of a Volsung.". Sigmund is drunk at this point and isn't thinking so he bids Sinfjötli to drink. Sinfjötli died. Sigmund was furious that his wife killed his son, so he drove Borghild out of the kingdom. Borghild died shortly after that. Borghild's poison worked on Sinfjötli and not Sigmund because of the Volsung blood. According to legend, the Volsung family descended from Odin, were therefore part god. Sigmund had more god-like blood in him than Sinfjötli, so Sigmund could withstand the poison, Sinfjötli could not. Völsunga saga Viking Saga Sigurd Sinfjötli Sigmund Saga of the Volsungs "The Norse Epic of Sigurd the Dragon Slayer" with introduction and translation by Jesse Byock
Randle Holme was a name shared by members of four successive generations of a family who lived in Chester, England from the late years of the 16th century to the early years of the 18th century. They were all herald painters and genealogists and were members of the Stationers' Company of Chester. All four painted memorial boards and hatchments, some of these can still be found in Cheshire churches; the first to bear the name, he was born in Chester, the son of Thomas Holme, a blacksmith whose family came from Tranmere, in Cheshire, Elizabeth Devenett from Kinnerton, Flintshire. He was apprenticed to Thomas Chaloner, deputy to William Flower, Norroy King of Arms in 1578, he was elected an alderman by 1604 and appointed as a servant to Prince Henry by May 1607. In 1600 and again in 1606 Holme was appointed deputy herald of the College of Arms in Cheshire and North Wales. Holme's main duty was to arrange funerals of those entitled to bear arms but he made an income from painting hatchments and memorial boards.
From the early 1620s ill health prevented him from undertaking long journeys and his son Randle Holme II deputised for him by making the annual Easter reports to the College of Arms. He was fined for not attending the coronation of Charles I in 1626 and for refusing a knighthood in 1631. Holme was sheriff of Chester in 1615–16 and mayor in 1633–34, he remained in the city of Chester during the siege of Chester in the Civil War from September 1645 to February 1646 and during the plague of 1648. Supported by Sir William Brereton he was made a commissioner for peace and oversaw the repair of the city walls. In 1598 he married Elizabeth née Alcock, Thomas Chaloner's widow, they had three children, William and Elizabeth. On 11 September 1635 he married daughter of Ralph Allen, alderman of Chester, he was buried at St Mary's on the Hill. He worked with his father and became deputy herald of the College of Arms for Lancashire in 1627, he was Chester city treasurer in 1633 and clerk to the Stationers' Company of Chester in 1641.
In 1633–34 he was sheriff of Chester and in 1643–44 he was mayor. During the siege of Chester he supported the Royalist cause and after the city fell he was dismissed as alderman and justice of the peace. In his life he worked as a genealogist. In 1625 he married Catherine Ellis of Overleigh and they had six children who survived infancy. Catherine died in 1640 and in 1643 he married Elizabeth Martyn, daughter of Thomas Dodd of Chester, he was buried at St Mary's on the Hill on 1 September 1659. He was the eldest son of the above, he was steward to the Stationers' Company of Chester in 1656 and an alderman from 1659. In 1664 Charles II granted him a sinecure, known as "sewer of the chamber of the extraordinary", he prepared items of heraldry and took fees for them without permission from the Norroy king of arms, Sir William Dugdale. Dugdale took him to court, Holme lost the case and it was decided that all the offending boards should be removed, defaced or destroyed. Dugdale travelled north on at least three occasions to carry this out himself.
Holme made peace with Dugdale and by 1675 was making funeral certificates for him. In 1678 he was appointed deputy herald for Chester and North Wales, he was the only one of the four Randle Holmes not to hold civic office in Chester and was one of the first Freemasons in Chester. He wrote a book entitled The Academie of Armorie and in 1688 printed parts 1 and 2 and some of book 3 at his house but the venture proved too expensive to complete; the rest of book 3 and book 4 were published in 1905 by the Roxburghe Club. Book 1 relates to heraldry and the other books form a "kind of encyclopaedia", he married Sarah Soley in 1655 and they had five children. Sarah died in 1665 and the following year he married Elizabeth Wilson and with her had another eight children. Elizabeth died in 1685 and in 1689 he married Ann, whose surname is not known, he was buried at St Mary's. He worked in partnership with his father, was sheriff of Chester in 1705–06 and deputy herald, he married Margaret Lloyd from Llanarmon and had five children who all died young.
He himself was buried at St Mary's. Monuments to family members are in the church of St Mary on the Chester; the family manuscript collection is held in the British Library. All four Randle Holmes were collectors of legal and other documents and the collection forms one of the principal sources for Cheshire history. Memorial boards dated in the years the Randle Holmes were flourishing are present in many churches in Cheshire. However, as these never contain the name of the painter we cannot be sure which are by members of the Randle Holme family. Many of the boards painted by Randle Holme III were destroyed by Sir William Dugdale in visits to Cheshire and surrounding counties in 1667, 1668 and 1670; however Dugdale's diary contains details of the destruction of memorial boards in only eight churches. There are no other known individuals or schools of heraldic painting in the Chester area during the time the Randle Holme family was flourishing. Identification rests on the style of the paintings and their dates.
Suggested examples of existing memorial boards by Randle Holme III and other members of the family are four in St James' Church, three in St Boniface's Church, one in St James' Church, two in St John the Baptist's Church, seven in St Mary's Church, Thornton-le-Moors, 13 in St Lawrence's Church, five in St Andrew's Church, two in St Margaret's Chu
4D film or 4-D film is a marketing term for an entertainment presentation system combining a 3D film with physical effects that occur in the theatre in synchronization with the film. Effects simulated in a 4D film may include rain, temperature changes, strobe lights, vibration. Seats in 4D venues may move a few centimeters during the presentations. Other common chair effects include air jets, water sprays, leg and back ticklers. Auditorium effects may include smoke, lightning and smell; because physical effects can be expensive to install, 4D films are most presented in custom-built theatres at special venues such as theme parks, amusement parks and zoos. However, some movie theatres have the ability to present 4D versions of wide-release 3D films; the films Journey to the Center of the Earth and Avatar are among the films that have received a 4D treatment in certain theatres. There are mobile 4D theaters, which are mounted inside vehicles such as enclosed trailers and trucks. 4D films are distinct from four-dimensional space.
Notable historical formats for providing different aspects of a "fourth dimension" to films include Sensurround, Smell-O-Vision. As of June 2015, about 530 screens worldwide have installed some 4-D technology; the precursors of the modern 4-D film presentation include Smell-O-Vision, used only once, in 1960, Sensurround, which debuted in 1974 with the film Earthquake. Only a few films were presented in Sensurround, it was supplanted by Dolby Stereo in 1977, which featured extended low frequencies, made subwoofers a common addition to cinema. Other notable efforts at pushing the boundaries of the film viewing experience include Fantasound, the first use of stereo sound and Cinerama, both widescreen formats utilizing multiple projectors; the 3-D film is always included in the 4-D experience. 3-D has been used in some form in film since 1915, but did not become seen until the 1950s. However, it was a niche format, was not successful. Beginning is the late 1980s, 3-D experienced a resurgence on the strength of IMAX presentations.
It has continued to expand, albeit slowly, to the present. The Sensorium is regarded the world's first commercial 4-D film and was first screened in a Six Flags theme park in Baltimore in 1984, it was produced in partnership with Landmark Entertainment. As of 2017, by far the most common 4-D titles are attraction films located in theme parks. However, there seems to be a trend toward the installation of 4-D equipment in more traditional cinemas, with developers such as 4DX, D-Box Technologies, Mediamation competing for venues; the following is a list of 4D presentation systems developed for traditional film theatres. High quality stereoscopic HFR 3D,4D,5D rides for cinema and attractions
CD-43 was a C Type class escort ship of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Second World War. She was laid down by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries at their Kobe Shipyard on 10 April 1944, launched on 22 June 1944, completed and commissioned on 31 July 1944. During the war CD-43 was busy on escort duties. On 12 January 1945, off Cape Paderan in the South China Sea, CD-43 was strafed by aircraft from the USS Lexington, USS Hancock and USS Hornet which were part of Vice Admiral John S. McCain, Sr.'s Task Force 38 29 of her crew were killed and the steering compartment flooded. Being inoperable, the captain beached the ship on an uninhabited island and using its own munitions, destroyed the ship. CD-43 was struck from the Navy List on 10 March 1945. "Escort Vessels of the Imperial Japanese Navy special issue". Ships of the World. Vol. 45. Kaijinsha. February 1996. Model Art Extra No.340, Drawings of Imperial Japanese Naval Vessels Part-1. Model Art Co. Ltd. October 1989; the Maru Special, Japanese Naval Vessels No.49, Japanese submarine chasers and patrol boats.
Ushio Shobō. March 1981
Alexander Wood was a Scottish professional football inside forward who played in the Scottish League for Airdrieonians. An inside forward, Wood began his career with high-flying Scottish League Division One side Airdrieonians, spending four years with the club. Wood moved to England to sign for Division Three South side Brentford prior to the beginning of the 1928–29 season, he had to wait until 23 February 1929 for his only appearance, filling in for the injured Jack Lane in a 1–1 draw with Northampton Town. He departed the Bees at the end of the season. Wood made a single appearance for Division Two side Charlton Athletic. Wood moved to Division Three South club Fulham, but failed to make a first team appearance
Ari Pieti Uolevi Vatanen is a Finnish rally driver turned politician and a Member of the European Parliament from 1999 to 2009. Vatanen won the World Rally Championship drivers' title in 1981 and the Paris Dakar Rally four times. Since 2013 Vatanen has been the President of the Estonian Autosport Union. Vatanen grew up in rural Tuupovaara in Eastern Finland, his debut year in rallying was 1970, he debuted in the World Rally Championship at the 1974 1000 Lakes Rally. In that year he won the Nortti Rally in an Opel Ascona, beating Hannu Mikkola in the process, which brought him to wider attention, his first international rally was the 1975 Rothmans 747 Rally in Jamaica driving a Datsun 120Y. He placed 12th with co-driver Gerry Phillips. At the end of that season he was offered his first professional drive, in a Ford Escort RS1800, on the RAC Rally, he crashed out on the second day, but by he had impressed Ford team manager Stuart Turner sufficiently for him to be offered a seat in the team for the British Rally Championship the following year.
He duly won the championship, a feat he repeated in 1980, co-driven by David Richards, who went on to become chairman of Prodrive, the Banbury based motorsport team and one of the most influential figures in British motorsport. Between 1977 and 1980 he competed on selected World Championship events for the official Ford team and after its withdrawal from the sport at the end of 1979, for the semi-private Rothmans Rally Team, he took his debut win at the 1980 Acropolis Rally and became the World Rally Champion in 1981. He remains the only privateer driver to have achieved this feat. Vatanen and Richards parted ways for the 1982 season, for the next few years Vatanen was co-driven by Terry Harryman, he did not defend his world title in 1982, competing instead in the British Championship in a Ford Escort, before moving to the Opel team for 1983. The Opel Ascona and Opel Manta were only two-wheel-drive and not competitive, but Vatanen still managed to win the Safari Rally. In 1984, Vatanen signed to drive the Peugeot 205 T16 for Peugeot's factory team.
From the 1984 1000 Lakes Rally to 1985 Swedish Rally, Vatanen won five world rallies in a row. He was tipped to win the 1985 world title, but at mid-season was trailing his teammate Timo Salonen after a series of accidents and mechanical problems, he had a serious accident on the Rally Argentina, when his car somersaulted at over 120 mph. His seat broke, he was thrown around inside the car, suffering severe injuries to his legs and torso and life-threatening internal bleeding, he spent 18 months recovering first from his physical injuries, from severe depression. He went on to make a complete recovery and his return to motorsport in 1987 saw him go on to win the Paris-Dakar Rally four times, he became the centre of controversy when his car was stolen whilst leading the same rally in 1988. With Peugeot, Vatanen won the Pikes Peak International Hillclimb, after Peugeot stopped participating in the World Rally Championship in 1986, due to the demise of Group B rallying. Peugeot used the lessons learnt from its 205 T16 to create the 405 T16.
With at least 600 bhp, large aerofoils, four-wheel drive and four-wheel steering, Vatanen took the car up the hill in record time, his efforts being captured in the award-winning short film Climb Dance. Vatanen's autobiography Every Second Counts, detailing his life and career up until that point, was published in 1988 and became a best seller. Vatanen continued competing in the World Rally Championship more or less until the 1998 season, he drove for Mitsubishi Ralliart Europe in four events in 1989 and in five events in 1990. His best result with the Mitsubishi Galant VR-4 was second at the 1990 1000 Lakes Rally. From 1992 to 1993, he competed for Subaru in 11 events, finishing second three times, including on the debut event of the first Subaru Impreza in Finland. Vatanen led the event before being overhauled by eventual winner Juha Kankkunen. So, he was dropped by the Subaru team at the end of the 1993 season in favour of Carlos Sainz; the following year he returned to the wheel of a Ford, driving the Ford Escort RS Cosworth for a semi-private team, being co-opted into the Ford factory team where he stood in for the injured Francois Delecour.
His most notable result that year was a podium finish on Rally Argentina, the first time he had contested the event since his accident there nine years previously. The 1995 and 1996 seasons were quiet for Vatanen, whose career as a top-line driver was drawing to a close. At the time there was a surplus of drivers and those late in their careers, such as Vatanen, tended to lose out in favour of younger talents, he continued to contest a few events and in subsequent years, his best result being a podium finish at the 1998 Safari Rally. He briefly returned to a works Subaru for the season-ending Rally of Great Britain, marking his 100th World Rally Championship event. Although he became much less active in rallying, his hunger for motorsport had not left him however, Vatanen joined Nissan in the Paris-Dakar in 2003, finishing seventh, he made an appearance at the 2003 Rally Finland with a Bozian Racing-prepared Peugeot 206 WRC, finished eleventh. In 2004 and 2005, Vatanen drove the Dakar for Nissan as well, in 2007 he made another attempt with Volkswagen, but retired on the seventh stage.