House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry is the Catholic cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, founded after the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág. Among its descendants were the last four kings of Portugal and the last three Tsars of Bulgaria. After the marriage of Prince Ferdinand and Princess Maria Antonia in January 1816 and the death of his father-in-law, Prince Ferencz József Koháry de Csábrág, in 1826, Prince Ferdinand inherited the Hungarian princely estate of Koháry and converted to Roman Catholicism; the descendants of this branch managed to marry a queen-regnant of Portugal, an imperial princess of Brazil, an archduchess of Austria, a French royal princess, a royal princess of Belgium, a royal princess of Saxony. A scion of this branch named Ferdinand, became ruling Prince, Tsar, of Bulgaria, his descendants continued to rule there until 1946; the current head of the House of Bulgaria, the former Tsar Simeon II, deposed and exiled after World War II, goes by the name Simeon Sakskoburggotski.
He served as Bulgaria's prime minister from 2001 to 2005, which makes him one of the only two former monarchs, who have become heads of government through democratic elections. The Bulgarian director Andrey Paounov dedicated a documentary titled The Boy Who Was a King, covering the returning of Simeon II to Bulgaria, his election as prime minister and his years in government. Prince Ferdinand and Princess Maria Antonia had four children, all of whom were raised Catholic: Ferdinand, the husband of Queen Maria II of Portugal. August, the father of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria. Victoria, married Louis, Duke of Nemours. Leopold. Prince Ferdinand Prince Ferdinand Eldest Son of Prince Ferdinand co founder of House of Braganza-Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Prince August Second Son of Prince Ferdinand Prince Philipp Eldest Son of Prince August Prince Leopold Clement Only Son of Prince Phillipp Prince Pedro Augusto Nephew of Prince Phillipp Prince Rainer Nephew of Prince Pedro Augusto Prince Johannes Heinrich Only Son of Prince Rainer Prince Johannes Only Son of Prince Johannes Heinrich Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria Cousin of Prince Johannes Heinrich Princess Marie Louise of Bulgaria Sister of Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria After the death of Prince Ferencz József Koháry, Prince Ferdinand re-organised the family fortune in two Fideicommisses and adopted the title of duke for himself and his heirs as Fideikommissherr.
Upon Ferdinand's death in 1851, he was succeeded as head of the family by his second son, Prince August. After Prince August died, his eldest son Prince Philipp became the third head of the family; as Philipp's only son, Prince Leopold Clement, had died before him, he was succeeded by his grand-nephews Rainer and Philipp. The office of Fideikommissherr was abolished in 1938 after the Anschluss; this line was founded by Prince Ludwig August, second son of Prince August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Princess Clémentine of Orléans, who on 15 December 1864 married in Rio de Janeiro Princess Leopoldina of Brazil. They had four sons. After the fall of the Brazilian monarchy in 1889, the family returned to Europe. Prince Rainer, appointed head of the house in 1921, was son of Prince August Leopold and grandson of Prince Ludwig August; this branch was founded by the future King Fernando II of Portugal and his wife, Queen Maria II of the House of Braganza. It ruled Portugal until the deposition of King Manuel II in 1910, after which it became extinct upon his death in 1932.
This branch was founded by Prince August's youngest son Ferdinand, elected as monarch of Bulgaria in 1887. The current Bulgarian royal family descends from him. Princess Maria Antonia Koháry inherited over 150000 hectares of land in Lower Austria and Slovakia, including estates, forests and factories. According to a list of assets appended to the marriage contract of her son, Prince August, at the time of his marriage to Princess Clémentine in 1843, the Koháry properties included the enormous Palais Koháry in the center of Vienna and several Viennese manors, a summer home and lands at Ebenthal, Lower Austria, estates in Austria at Velm, Walterskirchen and Althoflein, as well as a dozen manors in Hungary, the domaine of Kiralytia, a mansion at Pest; as late as 1868, when Antónia's grandson Prince Ferdinand, Duke of Alencon, married, it was estimated that he and his three siblings stood to inherit a total of a million francs just from their share of their late grandmother's estate. Until the first world war, her descendants were among the three largest landowners in Hungary.
Prinz Ferdinand Coburgsches Fideikommiss Gräflich Kohárysches FideikomissThe two fideicommisses allowed to hold the family property in foundations owned by the whole family, but governed by the head of the family alone, the Fideicommissherr. Aristocratic families had used this instrument to finance the representative household of the head of the family as well as to maintain palaces and castles, to pay allowances to family members without personal wealth. In 1851, a committee headed by Prince August of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha set out to plan the construction of a Roman Catholic church in Coburg with a burial vault underneath. St. Augustin was opened on 28 August 1
El Mundo (Spain)
El Mundo, formally El Mundo del Siglo Veintiuno is the second largest printed daily newspaper in Spain. The paper is considered one of the country's newspapers of record along with El País and ABC. El Mundo was first published on 23 October 1989; the best known of its founders was Pedro J. Ramírez, who served as editor until 2014. Ramirez had risen to prominence as a journalist during the Spanish transition to democracy; the other founders, Alfonso de Salas, Balbino Fraga and Juan González, shared with Ramírez a background in Grupo 16, the publishers of the newspaper Diario 16. Alfonso de Salas, Juan Gonzales and Gregorio Pena launched El Economista in 2006. El Mundo, along with Marca and Expansión, is controlled by the Italian publishing company RCS MediaGroup through its Spanish subsidiary company Unidad Editorial S. L, its former owner was Unedisa which merged with Grupo Recoletos in 2007 to form Unidad Editorial, current owner of the paper. The paper maintains several news bureaus in other cities.
The daily has a national edition and ten different regional editions, including those for Andalusia, Castile and León, the Balearic Islands and Bilbao. It is published in tabloid format. In 2005 El Mundo started a supplement for women, Yo Donna, modelled on IO Donna, a supplement of the Italian daily Corriere della Sera. In January 2014 Pedro J. Ramírez, editor of the paper, was fired from his post, he argued that reporting on corruption scandals involving Spanish Prime Minister Mariano Rajoy led to his sacking. Casimiro García-Abadillo served as editor until April 2015, when he was replaced in turn by David Jiménez. Editorially, El Mundo expresses the mainstream views of the centre-right with independent and liberal overtones. El Mundo has played a key role in uncovering a number of scandals, among them embezzlement by the commander of the Guardia Civil, accusations of insider trading and tax fraud by the governor of the Central Bank of Spain and aspects of the Bárcenas affair. Investigative reporting by the staff of El Mundo revealed connections between the terrorist Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación and the Socialist administration of Felipe González, revelations that contributed to his defeat in the 1996 elections.
In October 2005, El Mundo revealed that Nazi Aribert Heim had been living in Spain for 20 years with help from the ODESSA network, in collaboration with Otto Skorzeny, who had helped set up one of the most important ODESSA bases of operation in Spain, during the rule of Francisco Franco. After the 11 March 2004 Madrid train bombings, the newspapers El Mundo and La Razón, the regional television channel Telemadrid and the COPE radio network alleged that there had been inconsistencies in the explanations given by the Spanish judiciary about the bombings. Other Spanish media, such as El País, ABC and the Cadena SER radio network, accused El Mundo and the other media of manipulation over this issue; the bombings and the results of the subsequent judicial inquiry are still debated in Spain today. The circulation of El Mundo rose in the 1990s, it was 209,992 copies in 1993 268,748 copies in 1994In 2001 El Mundo had a circulation of 291,000 copies and it was 312,366 copies next year. The paper had a circulation of 300,000 copies in 2003, making it the third best selling newspaper in the country.
Based on the findings of the European Business Readership Survey El Mundo had 11,591 readers per issue in 2006. Its circulation between June 2006 and July 2007 was 337,172 copies; the 2007 circulation of the paper was 337,000 copies. It was 338,286 copies in 2008 and had 200,000 readers for the printed edition in 2009; the circulation of the paper was 266,294 copies in 2011. El Mundo is the second digital newspaper in Spanish, it was in the lead after El País introduced a payment system for access to the contents of its electronic version. It had 24 million unique web visitors per month in 2009. Many online readers are in Latin America, the website has an edition for the Americas. However, digital expansion has done little to offset the decline in revenues from Spanish advertisers since 2008; the newspaper aims to increase digital profits via a subscription model. It launched a current affairs outlet only accessible to subscription customers, named ORBYT. Spanish newspapers Controversies about the 2004 Madrid train bombings Official website
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes appearing in elective republics. Alternative terms for "dynasty" may include "family" and "clan", among others; the longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house", which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital" etc. depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of numerous nations and civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties; as such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which a family reigned, to describe events and artifacts of that period. The word "dynasty" itself is dropped from such adjectival references; until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to expand the wealth and power of his family members.
Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house; this has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For instance, the House of Windsor will be maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, as it did with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant; the earliest such example among major European monarchies was in the Russian Empire in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through Grand Duchess Anna Petrovna. In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
Less a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multi-dynastic system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession. Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Throughout history, there were monarchs. Dynasties ruling subnational monarchies do not possess sovereign rights; the word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team; the word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to "power", "dominion", "rule" itself. It was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, "power" or "ability", from dýnamai, "to be able". A ruler from a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne.
For example, King Edward VIII ceased to be a dynast of the House of Windsor following his abdication. In historical and monarchist references to reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Duchess Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Duke Maximilian was bypassed for the Austro-Hungarian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Since the abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Duke Maximilian and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position; the term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown.
On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover, a male-line descendant of King George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles. He was born in the line of succession to the British throne and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015. Thus, he requested and obtained formal permission from Queen Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco in 1999. Yet, a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who
La Razón (Madrid)
La Razón is a daily newspaper based in Madrid, Spain. It has the sixth-highest circulation among general-interest Spanish dailies, the fourth-highest among those based in Madrid; the newspaper has satellite news bureaux, local editions, in Barcelona, Seville and Valladolid. La Razón was founded in 1998 by Luis Maria Ansón; the paper is based in Madrid. The newspaper's editorial stances are liberal economically and conservative socially; the paper has a rightist stance. La Razón had a circulation of 140,000 copies in 2003; the 2008 circulation of the paper was 153,024 copies. It was 124,284 copies in 2009, 118,466 copies in 2010 and 103,789 copies in 2011. Between July 2010 and June 2011 the paper had a circulation of 109,166 copies. Francisco Marhuenda is the editor of the daily. Leading contributors include Alfonso Ussía, César Vidal, Carmen Gurruchaga and Carlos Rodríguez Braun. La Razón has been a focus of attention for the intentionality in the design of the front pages, appearing in other media and causing big debates in the social networks.
In Internet it is possible to find competitions to vote and decide which front page is the most controversial. The edition of 9 May 2012 caused a big aversion in some sectors, it was criticized by the Le Monde newspaper, where it appeared photos of five students with names and surnames and a text below describing them as bad students and stirrers to make a call for participation on a protest against the cutbacks on education; the student union decided to report the newspaper. In the aftermath of the November 2015 Paris attacks, the paper published a doctored image of Veerender Jubbal, a Canadian Sikh, falsely labelling him as “one of the terrorists”
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha is a German dynasty that ruled the duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, one of the Ernestine duchies. It is a cadet branch of the Saxon House of Wettin. Founded by Ernest Anton, the sixth duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, it has been the royal house of several European monarchies. Agnatic branches reign in Belgium through the descendants of Leopold I and in the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms through the descendants of Prince Albert. Due to anti-German sentiment in the United Kingdom during World War I, George V changed the name of his branch from "Saxe-Coburg and Gotha" to "Windsor" in 1917; the same happened in 1920 in Belgium, where the name was changed to "de Belgique" or "van België" or "von Belgien", meaning "of Belgium". The first duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was Ernest I, who reigned from 1826 until his death in 1844, he had been Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld from 1806 until the duchy was reorganized in 1826. Ernest's younger brother became King of the Belgians in 1831, his descendants continue to serve as Belgian heads of state.
Léopold's only daughter, Princess Charlotte of Belgium, was the consort of Maximilian I of Mexico, she was known as Empress Carlota of Mexico in the 1860s. Ernest I's second son, Prince Albert, married Queen Victoria in 1840, thus is the progenitor of the United Kingdom's current royal family, called Windsor since 1917. In 1826, a cadet branch of the house inherited the Hungarian princely estate of the Koháry family, converted to Roman Catholicism, its members managed to marry a queen-regnant of Portugal, an imperial princess of Brazil, an archduchess of Austria, a French royal princess, a royal princess of Belgium and a royal princess of Saxony. A scion of this branch named Ferdinand, became ruling Prince, Tsar, of Bulgaria, his descendants continued to reign there until 1946; the current head of the House of Bulgaria, the former Tsar Simeon II, deposed and exiled after World War II, goes by the name of Simeon Sakskoburggotski and served as Bulgaria's prime minister from 2001 to 2005. The ducal house consisted of all male-line descendants of John Ernest IV, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld legitimately born of an equal marriage and females, their wives in equal and authorised marriages, their widows until remarriage.
According to the House law of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the full title of the Duke was: There were two official residences, in Gotha and Coburg. Therefore, the whole ducal court, including the court theatre, had to move twice a year: from Gotha to Coburg for the summer and from Coburg to Gotha for the winter. For the Court Theater, two identical buildings had to be built in 1840 in Gotha and Coburg and thereafter maintained at the same time. In addition to the residential castles, Friedenstein in Gotha and Ehrenburg in Coburg, the ducal family used the Schloss Reinhardsbrunn in Gotha, as well as the Rosenau and Callenberg Castles in Coburg, a hunting lodge in Grein, Austria. Ernest I 1826–1844 Ernest II 1844–1893 Alfred 1893–1900 Charles Edward 1900–1918 Charles Edward 1918–1954 Friedrich Josias 1954–1998 Andreas 1998–presentAlthough the ducal branch is eponymous with the dynasty, its head is not the senior member of the family genealogically or agnatic. In 1893, the reigning duke Ernest II died childless, whereupon the throne would have devolved, by male primogeniture, upon the descendants of his brother Prince Albert.
However, as heirs to the British throne, Albert's descendants consented and the law of the duchy ratified that the ducal throne would not be inherited by the British monarch or heir apparent. Therefore, the German duchy became a secundogeniture, hereditary among the younger princes of the British royal family who belonged to the House of Wettin, their male-line descendants. Instead of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales inheriting the duchy, it was diverted to his next brother, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh. Upon the latter's death without surviving sons, it went to the youngest grandson of Prince Albert and Queen Victoria, Prince Charles Edward, Duke of Albany. Charles Edward's uncle Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and his male line had renounced their claim. Although senior by birth, they were either not acceptable to the German Emperor as either a member of the British military or unwilling to move to Germany; the current head of the ducal branch is the grandson of Charles Edward. Since the duchy was abolished in 1918, the heads use the title Prince rather than Duke.
The House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha-Koháry is a Catholic cadet branch of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. It was founded with the marriage of Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, second son of Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, with Princess Maria Antonia Koháry de Csábrág, their second son Prince August inherited the estates of the House of Koháry in Austria. August's youngest son became Ferdinand I of Bulgaria; the Portuguese line was founded by Prince Ferdinand's eldest son, Ferdinand the younger, who married Queen Maria II of the House of Braganza and became king himself. It was overthrown in the Revolution of 1910, after which it became extinct in 1932 upon the death of Manuel II. Duarte Nuno of Braganza and his successors were descendants of the banished Miguelist line. Pedro V Luís I Carlos I Manuel II Ferdinand I Boris III Simeon II In 2001, elected Prime Minister of Bulgaria as Simeon Saxe-Coburg-Gotha—also known as
Prince of Tarnovo
Prince of Tarnovo is the title held by the first-born son of the Bulgarian monarch. This title is held only by the heir to the throne. Tarnovo was an old Bulgarian capital and the strongest Bulgarian fortification of the Middle Ages between the 12th and 14th century and the most important political, economic and religious centre of the empire. In the 14th century as the Byzantine Empire weakened Tarnovo claimed to be the Third Rome based on its pre-eminent cultural influence in the Balkans and the Slavic Orthodox world. In 1393 after vigorous resistance to a 3-month siege Turnovo was seized and the whole Bulgarian Tsardom was destroyed by the invading Ottoman Empire; the Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman moved his residence to the castle of Nikopol but took the title Prince of Tarnovo. In 1593 a Bulgarian noble and a descendant of the medieval Shishman dynasty, Theodore Ballina of Nikopol took the title'Prince of Tarnovo', he was the leader of the First Tarnovo Uprising against the Ottoman Empire.
In 1686 Rostislav Stratimirovic, another descendant of the dynasty and the leader of the Second Tarnovo Uprising took the title. During the Third Tarnovo Uprising in 1835, the title was taken by the leader of the uprising, Velcho Atanasov. After his abdication from the Bulgarian throne, Prince Alexander Batenberg claimed the title Prince of Tarnovo and used it until his death. In 1894 the first son of Ferdinand I of Bulgaria, Boris was given the old title'Prince of Tarnovo' as a title for the Crown Prince, the heir apparent to the Bulgarian throne; the use of the title was continued by the royal family after the abolition of the monarchy in 1946. The wife of a Prince of Tarnovo is titled Princess of Tarnovo; as of 2015, the current Prince of Tarnovo is son of Prince Kardam. People who to have held the title Prince of Tarnovo: Since the monarchy's abolition, these are the people who have held the title Prince of Tarnovo in pretense