Spartak (sports society)
Spartak is an international fitness and sports society that unites some countries of the former Soviet Union. Spartak sports society was supported by the Komsomol, it was founded in 1921 in Moscow as the "Moscow Sports Circle" by footballer Nikolai Starostin and others. In 1926 it came under the sponsorship of the food worker's union. In 1934, it adopted the name of Spartak, after the ancient Roman slave and athlete Spartacus and became the sports society for all unions, it was dissolved in 1987 and reformed in 1991 as an international society among six nations of the former Soviet Union. Spartak was the first and the largest All-Union Voluntary Sports Society of workers of state trade, producers' cooperation, light industry, civil aviation, culture, health service etc. Originated in 1925-26 as several physical culture groups by small producers' artels as an all-union physical culture and sports society it was established on April 19, 1935 on the resolution of the Soviet government when its statute was approved by the All-Union Council of Physical Culture.
In 1936 Spartak organized and conducted a sports parade at the Moscow's Red Square. In 1987 Spartak was abolished and all its assets were transferred back to trade unions. In 1991 the society was reorganized as an international; the society has affiliation in six countries of the former Soviet Union: Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Azerbaijan. Each society's affiliation is subordinated to their respective country's government and trade unions committees, while participating in collective events organized by the Spartak Central Council. Nikolai Starostin Semyon Privis Gennadiy Mikhalchuk Pyotr Sobolev Yevgeniy Arkhipov Vladimir Vekshin Nikolai Ozerov Anna AlyoshinaVSS Spartak was awarded Order of Lenin. Since the revival in 1991. Azerbaijan Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russia Ukraine Nellie Kim Vladimir Golubnichy Aleksandr Belov Anatoly Alyabyev Boris Lagutin Garry Kasparov Nikolay Zimyatov Marina Klimova Nikolai Starostin Tetyana Hlushchenko Alexander Yakushev Vitaly Abalakov Klara Guseva Elena Dementieva Website, dedicated to the 70th anniversary of the society Sport Flags of the USSR Official website Statute
1964 Summer Olympics
The 1964 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Tokyo, from 10 to 24 October 1964. Tokyo had been awarded the organization of the 1940 Summer Olympics, but this honour was subsequently passed to Helsinki because of Japan's invasion of China, before being cancelled because of World War II; the 1964 Summer Games were the first Olympics held in Asia, the first time South Africa was barred from taking part due to its apartheid system in sports. Tokyo was chosen as the host city during the 55th IOC Session in West Germany, on 26 May 1959; these games were the first to be telecast internationally without the need for tapes to be flown overseas, as they had been for the 1960 Olympics four years earlier. The games were telecast to the United States using Syncom 3, the first geostationary communication satellite, from there to Europe using Relay 1; these were the first Olympic Games to have color telecasts, albeit partially. Certain events like the sumo wrestling and judo matches, sports huge in Japan, were tried out using Toshiba's new colour transmission system, but only for the domestic market.
History surrounding the 1964 Olympics was chronicled in the 1965 documentary film Tokyo Olympiad, directed by Kon Ichikawa. The games were scheduled for mid-October to avoid the city's midsummer heat and humidity and the September typhoon season; the previous Olympics in Rome in 1960 experienced hot weather. The following games in 1968 in Mexico City began in October; the 1960's Olympics were the last to use a traditional cinder track for the track events. A smooth, all-weather track was used for the first time at the 1968 Olympics and at every Olympiad thereafter. Tokyo won the rights to the Games on 26 May 1959, at the 55th IOC Session in Munich, West Germany, over bids from Detroit and Vienna. Toronto was an early bidder again in 1964 after the failed attempt for 1960 and failed to make the final round. Yūji Koseki composed the theme song of the opening ceremony. Yoshinori Sakai, who lit the Olympic flame, was born in Hiroshima on 6 August 1945, the day an atomic bomb was dropped on that city.
Kumi-daiko was first exhibited to a worldwide audience at the Festival of Arts presentation. Judo and volleyball, both popular sports in Japan, were introduced to the Olympics. Japan won gold medals in three judo events; the Japanese women's volleyball team won the gold medal, with the final being broadcast live. The women's pentathlon was introduced to the athletics events. Reigning world champion Osamu Watanabe capped off his career with a gold medal for Japan in freestyle wrestling, surrendering no points and retiring from competition as the only undefeated Olympic champion to date at 189–0. Soviet gymnast Larisa Latynina won a silver medal and two bronze medals, she had held the record for most Olympic medals at 18 which stood until broken by American swimmer Michael Phelps in 2012. Czechoslovakian gymnast Věra Čáslavská wins three gold medals, including the individual all-around competition, crowning her the new queen over the reigning champion Larisa Latynina. Australian swimmer Dawn Fraser won the 100 m freestyle event for the third time in a row, a feat matched by Vyacheslav Ivanov in rowing's single scull event.
Don Schollander won four gold medals in swimming. Abebe Bikila became the first person to win the Olympic marathon twice. New Zealand's Peter Snell won a gold medal in both 1500 metre. American Billy Mills, an unfancied runner, won the gold in the men's 10,000 m. No American had won it before and or since. British runner Ann Packer set a world record in becoming the surprise winner of the 800 metre, having never run the distance at international level before the Games. Bob Hayes won the 100 metre title in a time of 10.0 seconds. He had run a wind-assisted 9.9 seconds in the semifinal, but this was not recognized as a world record. He won a Super Bowl ring as a wide receiver for the Dallas Cowboys and was the second gold medalist elected to the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Joe Frazier, future heavyweight champion of the world, won a gold medal in heavyweight boxing; this was the last Summer Olympics to use a cinder running track for athletic events, the first to use fiberglass poles for pole vaulting.
The nation of Malaysia, which had formed the previous year by a union of Malaya, British North Borneo and Singapore, competed for the first time in the Games. Zambia declared its independence on the day of the closing ceremony of the 1964 Summer Olympics, thereby becoming the first country to have entered an Olympic games as one country, left it as another; the start of operations for the first Japanese "bullet train" between Tokyo Station and Shin-Ōsaka Station was scheduled to coincide with the Olympic games. The first scheduled train ran on 1 October 1964, just nine days before the opening of the games, transporting passengers 515 kilometres or 320 miles in about four hours, connecting the three major metropolitan areas of Tokyo and Osaka; the 1964 Summer Olympics featured 19 different sports encompassing 25 disciplines, medals were awarded in 163 events. In the list below, the number of events in each discipline is noted in parentheses. Note: In the Japan Olympic Committee report, sailing is listed as "yacht
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
1960 Summer Olympics
The 1960 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event, held from August 25 to September 11, 1960, in Rome, Italy. The city of Rome had been awarded the administration of the 1908 Summer Olympics, but following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 1906, Rome had no choice but to decline and pass the honour to London. On June 15, 1955, at the 50th IOC Session in Paris, Rome won the rights to host the 1960 Games, having beaten Brussels, Mexico City, Detroit and Lausanne. Tokyo and Mexico City would subsequently host the proceeding 1964 and 1968 Summer Olympics respectively. Toronto was interested in the bidding, but appears to have dropped out during the final phase of the bid process; this was the first of five unsuccessful attempts by Toronto to secure the Summer Olympics from until the 2008 games. Swedish sprint canoeist Gert Fredriksson won his sixth Olympic title. Fencer Aladár Gerevich of Hungary won his sixth consecutive gold medal in the team sabre event.
The Japanese men's gymnastics team won the first of five successive golds. The United States men's national basketball team—led by promising college players Walt Bellamy, Jerry Lucas, Oscar Robertson and Jerry West—captured its fifth straight Olympic gold medal. Danish sailor Paul Elvstrøm won his fourth straight gold medal in the Finn class. Others to emulate his performance in an individual event are Al Oerter, Carl Lewis, Michael Phelps, Kaori Icho and, if the Intercalated Games of 1906 are included, Ray Ewry. German Armin Hary won the 100 metres in an Olympic record time of 10.2 seconds. Wilma Rudolph, a former polio patient, won three gold medals in sprint events on the track, she was acclaimed as "the fastest woman in the world". Jeff Farrell won two gold medals in swimming, he underwent an emergency appendectomy six days before the Olympic Trials. Abebe Bikila of Ethiopia won the marathon barefooted to become the first black African Olympic champion. Cassius Clay known as Muhammad Ali, won boxing's light-heavyweight gold medal.
Ramon "Buddy" Carr was one of the coaches. Herb Elliott, AUS, won the men's 1500 meters in one of the most dominating performances in Olympic history. Rafer Johnson defeated his rival and friend C. K. Yang in one of the greatest Decathlon events in Olympic history. Lance Larson, US, was controversially denied a 100 metres freestyle swimming gold, despite showing the best time; the future Constantine II, last King of Greece won his country a gold in sailing: dragon class. The Pakistani Men's Field Hockey team broke a run of Indian team victories since 1928, defeating India in the final and winning Pakistan's first Olympic gold medal. Wrestlers Shelby Wilson, Doug Blubaugh, who wrestled together growing up, won gold medals in their respective weight classes. Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed during his race under the influence of Roniacol and died in the hospital, it was the second time an athlete died in competition at the Olympics, after the death of Portuguese marathon runner Francisco Lázaro at the 1912 Summer Olympics.
South Africa appeared in the Olympic arena for the last time under its apartheid regime. It would not be allowed to return until 1992, by. Singapore competed for the first time under its own flag, to become its national flag after independence, as the British had granted it self-government a year earlier. Tan Howe Liang won silver in the Weightlifting lightweight category, the first time that an athlete from Singapore won an Olympic medal. Finnish Vilho Ylönen, a field shooter, shot a bullseye to a wrong target, in so doing he dropped from second place to fourth. Peter Camejo, a 2004 American vice-presidential candidate for the Green Party, competed in yachting for Venezuela; the future Queen Sofía of Spain represented her native Greece in sailing events. CBS paid US$394,000 in today's dollars for the exclusive right to broadcast the Games in the United States; this was the first Summer Olympic games to be telecast in North America. In addition to CBS in the United States, the Olympics were telecast for the first time in Canada and in Mexico.
Since television broadcast satellites were still two years into the future, CBS, CBC, TSM shot and edited videotapes in Rome, fed the tapes to Paris where they were re-recorded onto other tapes which were loaded onto jet planes to North America. Planes carrying the tapes landed at Idlewild Airport in New York City, where mobile units fed the tapes to CBS, to Toronto for the CBC, to Mexico City for TSM. Despite this arrangement, many daytime events were broadcast in North America on CBS and CBC, the same day they took place. Olympic Stadium² - opening/closing ceremonies, equestrian events Flaminio Stadium¹ - football finals Swimming Stadium¹ - swimming, water polo, modern pentathlon Sports Palace¹ - basketball, boxing Olympic Velodrome¹ - cycling, field hockey Small Sports Palace¹ - basketball, weightlifting Marble Stadium² - field hockey preliminaries Baths of Caracalla - gymnastics Basilica of Maxentius - wrestling Palazzo dei Congressi - fencing Umberto I Shooting Range¹ - modern pentathlon, shooting Roses Swimming Pool¹ - water polo Lake Albano, Castelgandolfo - rowing, canoeing Piazza di
1968 Summer Olympics
The 1968 Summer Olympics known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Mexico City, from October 12th to the 27th. These were the first Olympic Games to be staged in Latin America and the first to be staged in a Spanish-speaking country, they were the first Games to use an all-weather track for track and field events instead of the traditional cinder track. The 1968 Games were the third to be held in the last quarter of the year, after the 1956 Games in Melbourne and the 1964 Games in Tokyo; the Mexican Student Movement of 1968 happened concurrently and the Olympic Games were correlated to the government's repression. On October 18, 1963, at the 60th IOC Session in Baden-Baden, West Germany, Mexico City finished ahead of bids from Detroit, Buenos Aires and Lyon to host the Games; the 1968 torch relay recreated the route taken by Christopher Columbus to the New World, journeying from Greece through Italy and Spain to San Salvador Island, on to Mexico. American sculptor James Metcalf, an expatriate in Mexico, won the commission to forge the Olympic torch for the 1968 Summer Games.
In the medal award ceremony for the men's 200 meter race, black American athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos took a stand for civil rights by raising their black-gloved fists and wearing black socks in lieu of shoes. The Australian Peter Norman, who had run second, wore an American "civil rights" badge as support to them on the podium. In response, the IOC banned Smith and Carlos from the Olympic Games for life, Norman's omission from Australia's Olympic team in 1972 was as punishment. George Foreman won the gold medal in heavyweight boxing division by defeating Soviet Ionas Chepulis via a second-round TKO. After the victory, Foreman waved a small American flag; the high elevation of Mexico City, at 2,240 m above sea level, influenced many of the events in track and field. No other Summer Olympic Games before or since have been held at high elevation. In addition to high elevation, this was the first Olympics to use a synthetic all-weather surface for track and field events; the tracks at previous Olympics were conventional cinder.
For the first time and West Germany competed as separate teams, after being forced by the IOC to compete as a combined German team in 1956, 1960, 1964. Al Oerter won his fourth consecutive gold medal in the discus to become only the second athlete to achieve this feat in an individual event, the first in track & field. Bob Beamon leapt 8.90 m in the long jump, an incredible 55 cm improvement over the previous world record. It remained the Olympic record and stood as the world record for 23 years, until broken by American Mike Powell in 1991. Jim Hines, Tommie Smith and Lee Evans set long-standing world records in the 100 m, 200 m and 400 m, respectively. In the triple jump, the previous world record was improved five times by three different athletes. Winner Viktor Saneev won in 1972 and 1976, won silver in 1980. Dick Fosbury won the gold medal in the high jump using his unconventional Fosbury flop technique, which became the dominant technique in the event. Věra Čáslavská of Czechoslovakia won four gold medals in gymnastics and protested the Soviet invasion of her country.
Debbie Meyer became the first swimmer to win three individual gold medals, in the 200, 400 and 800 m freestyle events. The 800 m was a new long-distance event for women. Meyer was only 16 years old, a student at Rio Americano High School in California. Meyer was the first of several American teenagers to win the 800 m. American swimmer Charlie Hickcox won three gold medals and one silver medal; the introduction of doping tests resulted in the first disqualification because of doping: Swedish pentathlete Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall was disqualified for alcohol use. John Stephen Akhwari of Tanzania became internationally famous after finishing the marathon, in the last place, despite a dislocated knee; this was the first of three Olympic participation by Jacques Rogge. He competed in yachting and would become the president of the IOC. Norma Enriqueta Basilio de Sotelo of Mexico became the first woman to light the Olympic cauldron with the Olympic flame, it was the first games. Africans won at least one medal in all running events from 800 meters to the marathon, in so doing they set a trend for future games.
Most of these runners came from high-altitude areas of countries like Kenya and Ethiopia, they were well-prepared for the 2240 m elevation of Mexico City. Kipchoge Keino of Kenya, competing in spite of unexpected bouts of severe abdominal pain diagnosed as a gall bladder infection, finished the 10,000 meters in spite of collapsing from pain with two laps to go, won silver in the 5000, won gold in the 1500 meters, it was the first Olympic games in which the closing ceremony was transmitted in color to the world, as well as the events themselves. South Africa was provisionally invited to the Games, on the understanding that all segregation and discrimination in sport would be eliminated by the 1972 Games. However, African countries and African American athletes promised to boycott the Games if South Africa was present, Eastern Bloc countries threatened to do likewise. In April 1968 the IOC conceded that "it would be most unwise for South Africa to participate". Responding to growing social unrest and protests, the government of Me
Yermakhan Ibraimov is a Kazakh boxer who competed in the Light Middleweight at the 2000 Summer Olympics and won the gold medal. Four years earlier, at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, he captured the bronze medal, he won the bronze medal at the 1999 World Amateur Boxing Championships in Houston, a silver one at the previous edition in Budapest. His first coach is Bakshar Karsybaev. 1996 Defeated Nick Farrell 15–4 Defeated Hendrik Simangunsong RSC 1 Defeated Markus Beyer 19–9 Lost to Alfredo Duvergel 19–282000 Defeated Yousif Massas RSC 3 Defeated Hely Yánes RSC 3 Defeated Juan Hernández Sierra 16–9 Defeated Jermain Taylor RSC 4 Defeated Marian Simion 25–23 profile sports-reference
Armando Martínez (boxer)
Armando Martínez Limendu is a Cuban boxer. At 18 years of age he won the gold medal in the Light Middleweight category at the 1980 Summer Olympics, beating Aleksandr Koshkyn in the final. In 1982 he won the silver medal at the World Championships in Munich, West Germany, this time losing to Koshkyn, he had won a silver medal at the 1978 World Championships. Below are the results of Armando Martinez, a Cuban light middleweight boxer who competed at the 1980 Moscow Olympics: Round of 32: Defeated Zygmunt Gosiewski on points, 5-0 Round of 16: Defeated George Kabuto referee stopped contest in first round Quarterfinal: Defeated Francisco de Jesus on points, 5-0 Semifinal: Defeated Jan Franek referee stopped contest in second round Final: Defeated Aleksandr Koshkyn on points, 4-1 Evans, Hilary. "Armando Martínez". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC