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Borland Software Corporation was founded in 1983 by Niels Jensen, Ole Henriksen, Mogens Glad and Philippe Kahn. It's main business was the development and sale of software development and software deployment products. Borland was first headquartered in Scotts Valley, California in Cupertino, California and in Austin, Texas. In 2009 the company became a full subsidiary of the British firm Micro Focus International plc. Three Danish citizens, Niels Jensen, Ole Henriksen, Mogens Glad, founded Borland Ltd. in August 1981 to develop products like Word Index for the CP/M operating system using an off-the-shelf company. However, response to the company's products at the CP/M-82 show in San Francisco showed that a U. S. company would be needed to reach the American market. They met Philippe Kahn, who had just moved to Silicon Valley, and, a key developer of the Micral; the three Danes had embarked, at first on marketing software first from Denmark, from Ireland, before running into some challenges at the time when they met Philippe Kahn.

Kahn was chairman, CEO of Borland Inc. from its inception in 1983 until 1995. Main shareholders at the incorporation of Borland were Niels Jensen, Ole Henriksen, Mogens Glad, Kahn. Borland developed a series of well-regarded software development tools, its first product was Turbo Pascal in 1983, developed by Anders Hejlsberg and before Borland acquired the product sold in Scandinavia under the name of Compas Pascal. 1984 saw the launch of Borland Sidekick, a time organization and calculator utility, an early and popular terminate and stay resident program for DOS operating systems. By the mid-1980s the company had become so successful that it had the largest exhibit at the 1985 West Coast Computer Faire other than IBM or AT&T. Bruce Webster reported that "the legend of Turbo Pascal has by now reached mythic proportions, as evidenced by the number of firms that, in marketing meetings, make plans to become'the next Borland'". After Turbo Pascal and Sidekick the company launched other applications such as SuperKey and Lightning, all developed in Denmark.

While the Danes remained majority shareholders, board members included Kahn, Tim Berry, John Nash, David Heller. With the assistance of John Nash and David Heller, both British members of the Borland Board, the company was taken public on London's Unlisted Securities Market in 1986. Schroders was the lead investment banker. According to the London IPO filings, the management team was Philippe Kahn as President, Spencer Ozawa as VP of Operations, Marie Bourget as CFO, Spencer Leyton as VP of sales and business development, while all software development was continuing to take place in Denmark and London as the Danish co-founders moved there. A first US IPO followed in 1989 after Ben Rosen joined the Borland board with Goldman Sachs as the lead banker and a second offering in 1991 with Lazard as the lead banker. All offerings were successful and over-subscribed. In 1985 Borland acquired its Reflex database product; the engineering team of Analytica, managed by Brad Silverberg and including Reflex co-founder Adam Bosworth, became the core of Borland's engineering team in the USA.

Brad Silverberg was VP of engineering until he left in early 1990 to head up the Personal Systems division at Microsoft. Adam Bosworth initiated and headed up the Quattro project until moving to Microsoft in 1990 to take over the project which became Access. In 1987 Borland purchased Wizard Systems and incorporated portions of the Wizard C technology into Turbo C. Bob Jervis, the author of Wizard C became a Borland employee. Turbo C was released on May 18, 1987, an estimated 100,000 copies were shipped in the first month of its release; this drove a wedge between Borland and Niels Jensen and the other members of his team, working on a brand new series of compilers at their London development centre. An agreement was reached and they spun off a company called Jensen & Partners International TopSpeed. JPI first launched a MS-DOS compiler named JPI Modula-2, that became TopSpeed Modula-2, followed up with TopSpeed C, TopSpeed C++ and TopSpeed Pascal compilers for both the MS-DOS and OS/2 operating systems.

The TopSpeed compiler technology exists today as the underlying technology of the Clarion 4GL programming language, a Windows development tool. In September 1987 Borland purchased Ansa-Software, including their Paradox database management tool. Richard Schwartz, a cofounder of Ansa, became Borland's Ben Rosen joined the Borland board; the Quattro Pro spreadsheet was launched in 1989 with, at the time, a notable improvement and charting capabilities. Lotus Development, under the leadership of Jim Manzi sued Borland for copyright infringement; the litigation, Lotus Dev. Corp. v. Borland Int'l, Inc. brought forward Borland's open standards position as opposed to Lotus' closed approach. Borland, under Kahn's leadership took a position of principle and announced that they would defend against Lotus' legal position and "fight for programmer's rights". After a decision in favor of Borland by the First Circuit Court of Appeals, the case went to the United States Supreme Court; because Justice John Paul Stevens had recused himself, only eight Justices heard the case, it ended in a 4–4 tie.

As a result, the First Circuit decision remained standing, but the Supreme Court result, being a tie, did not bind any other court and set no national precedent. Additionally, Borland was known for its practical and creative approach towards software piracy and intellectual property, introducing its "Borland no-nonse

Great Britain at the 2002 Winter Olympics

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland competed as Great Britain at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, United States. Alain Baxter came third in the Men's slalom but was subsequently disqualified for use of a stimulant. Baxter's claim that a mix up in the ingredients of the same branded cold medication between the UK and the US was the cause of the ingestion of the stimulant was accepted, as a result he received the minimum ban of 3 months. MenMen's combined WomenWomen's combined MenMen's 4 × 7.5 km relay MenWomen Top four teams advanced to semi-finals. Contestants * Hammy McMillan was replaced by Warwick Smith as skip after Draw 4. Top four teams advanced to semi-finals. Tie-breaker 1 Tie-breaker 2 Semi-final Gold medal game Contestants Ice Dancing MenWomen Men MenWomen MenWomen Women's halfpipe Official Olympic Reports International Olympic Committee results database Olympic Winter Games 2002, full results by

Palms of Victory

The gospel song, Palms of Victory called “Deliverance Will Come,” and “The Way-worn Traveler,” was evidently written in 1836 by the Rev. John B. Matthias, a Methodist Episcopal minister in New York state; this attribution is not well documented, Matthias had no known history of song-writing, but there is no other author to whom it can be attributed. “Palms of Victory” has not been used in church circles. It seems to have been published in only four “standard” hymnals published it between 1900 and 1966: the Mennonite Church and Sunday-school Hymnal of 1902, Glorious Gospel Hymns of 1931, the African Methodist Episcopal hymnal of 1954, the National Baptist Convention hymnal of 1924. In 1893, it had been included in the Seventh-day Adventist hymnal as #1145. An informal survey of late nineteenth century and early twentieth century gospel song books found the song included in a small number of collections. More recent research shows that it was included in 96 hymnals between 1875 and 1965. In the early 1920s, the song was recorded by Uncle Dave Macon.

In 1962 or 1963, Bob Dylan picked it up, changed the words, wrote “Paths of Victory” which he sang on a Westinghouse television special. Dylan’s version was published in Broadside Magazine, recorded by other artists. In 1995 the "Bloodwashed Pilgrim" version of the song was recorded by Crystal Lewis and included in her album entitled Hymns: My Life; the University of California has several fight songs, one of, sometimes called "Palms of Victory," and includes the words "Palms of victory we will win for Alma Mater true." This is not the gospel song, but instead takes its melody from a minstrel song known as "Springtime in Dixieland" or "Happy Days in Dixieland." In recent years, "Palms of Victory," under various titles, has been recorded by various country singers. Wayne Erbsen notes that the tune was used for a protest song called "Pans of Biscuits," with the chorus lyrics being "Pans of biscuits, bowls of gravy/Pans of biscuits we shall have."It has been recorded by Guy Penrod when he was a member of the Gaither Vocal Band, a Southern Gospel Group led by Bill Gaither.

The song was featured in at least one Gaither Homecoming Video Title: The Hawaiian Homecoming. It is possible, it is clear that “Palms of Victory” had to be written by someone in particular, rather than having been the development of a community of folk singers, because it is a sophisticated song with complex verses that tell a consistent story. Jackson notes that spiritual folk songs arising from a community feature a “progressive simplification of the text.” The song is based on the story of John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, a book, read in the 19th Century, that had a profound influence on the Christian world-view among all denominations. If “Palms of Victory” was written in 1836, John B. Matthias was at that time serving congregations at Huntington South and Islip, New York, a rural circuit that might have welcomed this song. John B. Matthias scored it. John B. Matthias was well known for singing the anonymous religious ballad or folk hymn, so received credit for writing it. One might think that there has been a confusion between John B.

Matthias and his son, John J. Matthias. In 1836, John J. Matthias, the son, was serving a “city church,” Nazareth Methodist Episcopal Church in Philadelphia. One wonders if the homespun melody and message of “Palms of Victory” would have been appropriate for such a congregation. In 1886, the Rev. William McDonald published Songs of Joy and Gladness, which included "Deliverance Will Come" as hymn #214. In 1909 the song was included in New Songs of the Gospel, hymn #267, that publication claimed that they had received permission from McDonald, some other song books have credited McDonald with authorship. However, it is clear that McDonald did not write the song, because it had been published prior to his book. Ten years before New Songs of the Gospel the song had been published in an independent gospel song book and seven years earlier the song had been published in a Mennonite song book and Sunday-school Hymnal, hymn #132. In both the 1899 and 1902 books, credit for words and music are given to John B.

Matthias, with no mention of McDonald’s arrangement. There is hardly any difference in the music between the 1902 and 1909 publications, the only difference in the words is that the 1909 publication omits stanza 3 as found in the 1902 publication. Wayne Erbsen refers to research done by Gus Meade concluding, it is possible that “Palms of Victory” was written by someone else, there seems to be no way to determine how the song came to be

Tragedy in a Temporary Town (1956)

"Tragedy In A Temporary Town" is a dramatic teleplay written by Reginald Rose. It was produced for The Alcoa Hour in the US directed by Sidney Lumet and sparked media attention for its portrayal of race and for Lloyd Bridges ad libbed profanity during its live broadcast. Bridges was nominated for the Emmy Award for Best Single Performance by an Actor for 1957 but did not win. In 1959 the same script was produced as the third episode of the Australian anthology drama show Shell Presents starring Michael Pate. In a small town, a group of migrant workers are employed at an aircraft factory and live in a trailer park; when 15 year-old Dotty Fisher claims she has been attacked, a group of men, led by Frank Doran, attempt to find out, possible. They seize a boy, Raphael Infante, threaten to lynch him. Only a tolerant man called. For the 1956 Alcoa Hour Production: Edward Binns as Anderson Lloyd Bridges as Alec Beggs Rafael Campos as Raphael Infante Robert Dryden as Sankey Robert Emhardt as Matt Fisher Pete Gumeny as Reynolds Donald Harron as Mickey Doran Betty Lou Keim as Dotty Fisher Will Kuluva as Julio Infante Vivian Nathan as Grace Beggs Milton Selzer as Pike Clifford Tatum Jr. as Buddy Beggs Jack Warden as Frank Doran Jane White as Dolores Infante The US production garnered press in February 1956 for actor Lloyd Bridges' emotional performance during which Bridges inadvertently slipped some profanity in while ad-libbing.

Although the slip of the lip and the racial content generated some complaints, most of the public feedback was positive. The episode won a Robert E. Sherwood Television Award, with Bridges' slip being defended by some members of the clergy; the episode, during which an innocent Puerto Rican man is targeted by a mob for a sexual crime, was cited by the Anti-Defamation League as "the best dramatic program of the year dealing with interethnic group relations."


Akseløya is a long, narrow island at the mouth of Van Mijenfjorden, separating Van Mijenfjorden from Bellsund. It is separated from the mainland by Akselsundet to the north, another narrow strait to the south; the islands are named after the schooner Aksel Thordsen, chartered by Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld for an expedition to Svalbard in 1864. List of lighthouses in Svalbard Conway, W. M. 1906. No Man's Land: A History of Spitsbergen from Its Discovery in 1596 to the Beginning of the Scientific Exploration of the Country. Cambridge: At the University Press. Norwegian Polar Institute Place Names of Svalbard Database Picture of Akseløya Lighthouse

Wilhelm Kühne (aviator)

Offizierstellvertreter Wilhelm Kühne was a World War I flying ace credited with seven confirmed aerial victories and five unconfirmed ones. See Aerial victory standards of World War I Wilhelm Kühne was born on 11 December 1888, though his birthplace is unknown. On 13 October 1909, he began his military service in Fusilier Regiment No. 10 of the German Army. In late 1913, he transferred to aviation service. At some point, he trained as a pilot, as he flew for Flieger-Abteilung 14, he attended the Jastaschule in Warsaw to convert to piloting single seat fighters. On 15 February 1917, he was posted to Jagdstaffel 29 as a fighter pilot, he staked his first victory claim there, for 12 May 1917. In January 1918, he was transferred to Jagdstaffel 15. On 20 March, he moved to Jagdstaffel 18. Five days he scored his first confirmed aerial victory, he continued to score and submit claims, but several of his claims were awarded to other pilots under the German confirmation system. By 28 August 1918, he was credited with seven confirmed victories, with six more denied.

On 30 August 1918, he engaged Airco DH.4s from No. 55 Squadron RAF of the Independent Air Force and was killed in action. By the time of his death, he had won both classes of the Iron Cross and been credited with destroying four enemy observation balloons and three enemy airplanes. However, he had not been commissioned. Franks, Norman. Above the Lines: The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918. Grub Street, 1993. ISBN 0-948817-73-9, ISBN 978-0-948817-73-1