A boxing ring is the space in which a boxing match occurs. A modern ring, set on a raised platform, is square with a post at each corner. Four parallel rows of ropes are attached to the posts with a turnbuckle. Unlike its cousin the wrestling ring, the ropes in a boxing ring are connected together between the posts; as there are a number of professional boxing organizations, the standards of construction vary. A standard ring is between 20 feet to a side between the ropes with another 2 feet outside; the platform of the ring is 3 to 4 feet from the ground and is covered by about 1 inch of padding topped by stretched canvas. The ropes are 1 inch in diameter and at heights of 18, 30, 42, 54 inches above the mat, held up on posts rising around 5 feet above the mat, Construction of the ring environment extends to maximization of lighting in the ring, minimization of heat of the lighting, a complete as possible cut-off of illumination at the ringside; the name "ring" is a relic from when contests were fought in a drawn circle on the ground.
The name ring continued with the London Prize Ring Rules in 1743, which specified a small circle in the centre of the fight area where the boxers met at the start of each round. The first square ring was introduced by the Pugilistic Society in 1838; that ring was bound by two ropes. For these and other reasons, the boxing ring is referred to as the "squared circle"; the term "ringside seat" dates as far back as the 1860s. Ring girl "Equipment–Ring". AIBA. Retrieved January 10, 2013
An athlete is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The application of the term to those who participate in other activities, such as horse riding or driving, is somewhat controversial. Athletes may be amateurs. Most professional athletes have well-developed physiques obtained by extensive physical training and strict exercise accompanied by a strict dietary regimen; the word "athlete" is a romanization of the Greek: άθλητὴς, athlētēs, one who participates in a contest. The primary definition of "sportsman" according to Webster's Third Unabridged Dictionary is, "a person, active in sports: as: one who engages in the sports of the field and in hunting or fishing." Athletes involved in isotonic exercises have an increased mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume and are less to be depressed. Due to their strenuous physical activities, athletes are far more than the general population to visit massage salons and pay for services from massotherapists and masseurs.
Athletes whose sport espouses endurance more than strength have a lower calorie intake than other athletes. An "all-around athlete" is a person. Examples of people who played more than one sport professionally include Jim Thorpe, Lionel Conacher, Deion Sanders, Danny Ainge, Babe Zaharias and Erin Phillips. Others include Ricky Williams, Bo Jackson, Damon Allen, each of whom was drafted both by Major League Baseball and by professional gridiron football leagues such as the NFL and the CFL. Another female example is Heather Moyse, a multiple Winter Olympic gold medalist in bobsled and member of the World Rugby Hall of Fame who represented Canada internationally in track cycling and competed at university level in basketball and track and field. Japanese athletes such as Kazushi Sakuraba, Kazuyuki Fujita, Masakatsu Funaki and Naoya Ogawa have performed in professional wrestling and competed in mixed martial arts; the title of "World's Greatest Athlete" traditionally belongs to the world's top competitor in the decathlon and heptathlon in track and field.
The decathlon consists of 10 events: 100 meters, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400 meters, 110 m hurdles, pole vault, 1500 m. The heptathlon consists of seven events: the 100 m hurdles, high jump, shot put, 200 meters, long jump, 800 meters; these competitions require an athlete to possess the whole spectrum of athletic ability in order to be successful including speed, coordination, jumping ability, endurance. Although the title "World's Greatest Athlete" seems a natural fit for these two events, its traditional association with the decathlon/heptathlon began with Jim Thorpe. During the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm, Thorpe won the gold medal in the Decathlon. Thorpe notably competed professionally in soccer, American Football, basketball. King Gustav V of Sweden, while awarding Thorpe the decathlon gold said: "You, are the greatest athlete in the world." That title has become associated with the decathlon event since. Sportswear Outdoor enthusiast Jock Athlete of the Year Women's sports
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Li Lianjie, better known by his stage name Jet Li, is a Chinese film actor, film producer, martial artist, retired Wushu champion, born in Beijing. He is a naturalized Singaporean citizen. After three years of training with acclaimed Wushu teacher Wu Bin, Li won his first national championship for the Beijing Wushu Team. After retiring from competitive Wushu at age 19, he went on to win great acclaim in China as an actor, making his debut with the film Shaolin Temple, he went on to star in many critically acclaimed martial arts epic films, most notably as the lead in Zhang Yimou's Hero, Fist of Legend, the first three films in the Once Upon a Time in China series, in which he portrayed folk hero Wong Fei-hung. Li's first role in a non-Chinese film was as a villain in Lethal Weapon 4, his first leading role in a Hollywood film was as Han Sing in Romeo Must Die, he has gone on to star in many international action films, including in French cinema with the Luc Besson-produced films Kiss of the Dragon and Unleashed.
He co-starred in The One and War with Jason Statham, The Forbidden Kingdom with Jackie Chan, all three of The Expendables films with Sylvester Stallone, as the title character villain in The Mummy: Tomb of the Dragon Emperor. Li was born in Beijing and was the youngest of two boys and two girls; when he was two years old, his father died and his family lived in poverty. Li was eight, he attended a non-sparring wushu event, followed by joining the Beijing Wushu Team which did a martial art display at the All China Games. Renowned coaches Li Junfeng and Wu Bin, made extra efforts to help the talented boy develop. Wu Bin bought food for Li's family because they could not afford to buy meat, essential for an athletes physical condition. A young Li competed against adults, in the Chinese Wushu Championships and won fifteen gold medals and one silver medal. My winning first place caused quite a sensation. I was 12 years old, the other two medalists were in their mid- to late twenties. During the awards ceremony, as I stood on the top step of the podium, I was still shorter than the 2nd and 3rd place medalists.
It must have been quite a sight. According to Li, once, as a child, when the Chinese National Wushu Team went to perform for President Richard Nixon in the United States, he was asked by Nixon to be his personal bodyguard. Li replied, "I don't want to protect any individual; when I grow up, I want to defend my one billion Chinese countrymen!"Li is a master of several styles of wushu Chángquán and Fānziquán. He has studied other arts including Baguazhang, Xing Yi Quan, Zui Quan, Ying Zhao Quan and Tanglangquan, he did not learn Nanquan. He has mastered wushu's main weapons, such as Sanjiegun, Gùn, Jian. Jet Li's martial arts prowess contributed to his international fame; the fame gained by his sports winnings led to a career as a martial arts film star, beginning in mainland China and continuing into Hong Kong. Li acquired his screen name in 1982 in the Philippines when a publicity company thought his real name was too hard to pronounce, they likened his career to an aircraft, which "takes-off" as so they placed the name Jet Li on the movie posters.
Soon everybody was calling him by this new name, based on the nickname, "Jet," given to him as a young student, due to his speed and grace when training with the Beijing Wushu team. He made his debut with the 1982 film Shaolin Temple; some of his more famous Chinese films include: The Shaolin Temple series, which are considered to be the films which sparked the rebirth of the real Shaolin Temple in Dengfeng, China. Fist of Legend, a remake of Bruce Lee's Fist of Fury; the Fong Sai Yuk films about another Chinese folk hero. Li starred in the 1995 film High Risk, where Jet Li plays a Captain who becomes disillusioned after his wife is murdered by crime lords. Along the way, he pairs up with a wacky sell-out actor and proceeds to engage in a series of violent battles in a high-rise building; the setting is similar to both their Chinese film titles. This movie is notable in that director Wong Jing had such a terrible experience working with Jackie Chan in Jing's previous film City Hunter that he chose to make Cheung's character a biting satire of Chan.
Jet Li would publicly apologise to Chan for taking part in it. Li had two wuxia feature films released in 2011, The Sorcerer and the White Snake and Flying Swords of Dragon Gate. To promote tai chi, in 2012 Jet Li starred in a film titled Tai Chi and co-produced the movie with Chen Kuo-Fu. Li portrayed Tai Chi master Yang Luchan. In 1998, he made his American film debut in Lethal Weapon 4 which marked the first time he had played a villain in a film, he agreed to do Lethal Weapon 4 after the producer Joel Silver promised to give him the leading role in his next film, Romeo Must Die, alongside late singer Aaliyah. The film became. Though Li spoke little English at the time of production, his performance as Chinese mafia hi
Stage combat or fight choreography is a specialised technique in theatre designed to create the illusion of physical combat without causing harm to the performers. It is employed in live stage plays as well as ballet productions. With the advent of cinema and television the term has widened to include the choreography of filmed fighting sequences, as opposed to the earlier live performances on stage, it is related to the practice of stunts and is a common field of study for actors. Actors famous for their stage fighting skills have backgrounds in dance or martial arts training; the history of stage fighting and mock combat can be traced to antiquity, with Aristotle quoted as noting that tragedy is conflict between people or indeed it may be traced to the origins of the human species and primate display behaviour. Display of martial aptitude is a natural occurrence in warrior societies, ritualized forms of mock combat evolve into war dances. Whether it is the struggle between the men and women of Aristophanes' Lysistrata in Ancient Greece or Ancient Egypt where Herodotus in his Histories talks about a religious festival in which they beat each other with staves but no one dies, staged combat has always existed.
As it doesn't make sense to sacrifice citizens in rituals, many ancient civilizations turned to symbolic gestures of combat through dancing or bringing a weapon to someone's throat or neck without touching them to symbolize death or an act of violence. Fights staged for entertainment may be in earnest for the combatants, as was the case with the Roman gladiators, any public duel, such as the judicial duel of the European Middle Ages; the medieval tournament and joust are a classical examples of competitive ritualised mock combat. The joust from the time of Maximilian I developed into a sport with enormous cost involved for each knight and correspondingly high prestige attached, comparable to contemporary Formula One races, while at the same time minimizing the danger of injury with specialized equipment. In the Late Middle Ages, staged fencing bouts, with or without choreography, became popular with fencing schools; some German fechtbuch have sections dedicated to flamboyant techniques to be employed in such Klopffechten, which would be impractical in serious combat, the Late Medieval German masters distinguish mock fights and real combat.
The history of European theatrical combat has its roots in medieval theatre, becomes tangible in Elizabethan drama. Richard Tarleton, a member of both William Shakespeare's acting company and of the London Masters of Defence weapons guild, was among the first fight directors in the modern sense. Sword duels depicted in plays showed. Before 1615 in England, many plays featured duels and the duels were regarded as highlights of the show; as opposed to after 1615, when dueling was publicly condemned by King James and the duels were used as a last resort in regards to the plot. During the late 17th and early 18th centuries, stylized stage combat has been a staple feature of traditional performing arts for centuries, such as in Japanese Kabuki theater, Chinese Beijing Opera and Indian theater. Fencing masters in Europe began to research and experiment with historical fencing techniques, with weapons such as the two-handed sword and smallsword, to instruct actors in their use. Notable amongst these were George Dubois, a Parisian fight director and martial artist who created performance fencing styles based on gladiatorial combat as well as Renaissance rapier and dagger fencing.
Egerton Castle and Captain Alfred Hutton of London were involved both in reviving antique fencing systems and in teaching these styles to actors. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, scenes of swordplay in touring theatrical productions throughout Europe, the British Commonwealth and the United States were created by combining several known, generic routines known as "standard combats", identified by names such as the "Round Eights" and the "Glasgow Tens". Cinematic fencing has its roots with the movies of Douglas Fairbanks. One of the more celebrated fight directors who emerged in this time was Paddy Crean who revolutionized stage combat sword play, for the silver screen and theater. Paddy created the flamboyant style of sword play that can be seen in Errol Flynn movies, among others, he promoted the use of safety above all things and focused on story of the fight. B. H. Barry and J. Allen Suddeth, students of Paddy Crean, are two fight masters who have continued developing Paddy's legacy.
Barry helped found the Society of British Fight Directors and came to the United States to give fight direction a more specific shape. J. Allen Suddeth founded the National Fight Directors Training Program in the United States and wrote the book "Fight Direction for the Theater". Martial arts movies emerge as a distinct genre from the 1940s, popularized by Bruce Lee and Sonny Chiba from the 1960s. Informal guilds of fight choreographers began to take shape in the 1970s with the establishment of The Society of British Fight Directors, 1969 to 1996. Training was established in the United States with the formation of the Society of American Fight Directors in 1977. Following this, further academies and associations worldwide have been established to uphold the craft and quality of work in the art-form of stage combat nationally and internationally, including: The British Academy Of Stage & Screen Combat and Fight Directors Canada in 1993.
Traditional Chinese characters
Traditional Chinese characters are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946. They are most the characters in the standardized character sets of Taiwan, of Hong Kong and Macau, in the Kangxi Dictionary; the modern shapes of traditional Chinese characters first appeared with the emergence of the clerical script during the Han Dynasty, have been more or less stable since the 5th century. The retronym "traditional Chinese" is used to contrast traditional characters with Simplified Chinese characters, a standardized character set introduced by the government of the People's Republic of China on Mainland China in the 1950s. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau. In contrast, Simplified Chinese characters are used in mainland China and Malaysia in official publications. However, several countries – such as Australia, the US and Canada – are increasing their number of printed materials in Simplified Chinese, to better accommodate citizens from mainland China.
The debate on traditional and simplified Chinese characters has been a long-running issue among Chinese communities. A large number of overseas Chinese online newspapers allow users to switch between both character sets. Although simplified characters are taught and endorsed by the government of China, there is no prohibition against the use of traditional characters. Traditional characters are used informally in regions in China in handwriting and used for inscriptions and religious text, they are retained in logos or graphics to evoke yesteryear. Nonetheless, the vast majority of media and communications in China is dominated by simplified characters. In Hong Kong and Macau, Traditional Chinese has been the legal written form since colonial times. In recent years, simplified Chinese characters in Hong Kong and Macau has appeared to accommodate Mainland Chinese tourists and immigrants; this has led to concerns by many residents to protect their local heritage. Taiwan has never adopted simplified characters.
The use of simplified characters in official documents is prohibited by the government of Taiwan. Simplified characters are understood to a certain extent by any educated Taiwanese, learning to read them takes little effort; some stroke simplifications that have been incorporated into Simplified Chinese are in common use in handwriting. For example, while the name of Taiwan is written as 臺灣, the semi-simplified name 台灣 is acceptable to write in official documents. In Southeast Asia, the Chinese Filipino community continues to be one of the most conservative regarding simplification. While major public universities are teaching simplified characters, many well-established Chinese schools still use traditional characters. Publications like the Chinese Commercial News, World News, United Daily News still use traditional characters. On the other hand, the Philippine Chinese Daily uses simplified. Aside from local newspapers, magazines from Hong Kong, such as the Yazhou Zhoukan, are found in some bookstores.
In case of film or television subtitles on DVD, the Chinese dub, used in Philippines is the same as the one used in Taiwan. This is because the DVDs belongs to DVD Region Code 3. Hence, most of the subtitles are in Traditional Characters. Overseas Chinese in the United States have long used traditional characters. A major influx of Chinese immigrants to the United States occurred during the latter half of the 19th century, before the standardization of simplified characters. Therefore, United States public notices and signage in Chinese are in Traditional Chinese. Traditional Chinese characters are called several different names within the Chinese-speaking world; the government of Taiwan calls traditional Chinese characters standard characters or orthodox characters. However, the same term is used outside Taiwan to distinguish standard and traditional characters from variant and idiomatic characters. In contrast, users of traditional characters outside Taiwan, such as those in Hong Kong and overseas Chinese communities, users of simplified Chinese characters, call them complex characters.
An informal name sometimes used by users of simplified characters is "old characters". Users of traditional characters sometimes refer them as "Full Chinese characters" to distinguish them from simplified Chinese characters; some traditional character users argue that traditional characters are the original form of the Chinese characters and cannot be called "complex". Simplified characters cannot be "standard" because they are not used in all Chinese-speaking regions. Conversely, supporters of simplified Chinese characters object to the description of traditional characters as "standard," since they view the new simplified characters as the contemporary standard used by the vast majority of Chinese speakers, they point out that traditional characters are not traditional as many Chinese characters have been made more elaborate over time. Some people refer to traditional characters as "proper characters" and modernized characters as "simplified-stroke characters" (sim