Borough (Pennsylvania)

In the U. S. commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a borough is a self-governing municipal entity, best thought of as a town smaller than a city, but with a similar population density in its residential areas. Sometimes thought of as "junior cities", boroughs have fewer powers and responsibilities than full-fledged cities. All municipalities in Pennsylvania are classified as boroughs, or townships; the only exception is the town of Bloomsburg, recognized by the state government as the only incorporated town in Pennsylvania. Boroughs tend to have more developed business districts and concentrations of public and commercial office buildings, including court houses. Boroughs are larger, less spacious, more developed than the rural townships, which have the greater territory and surround boroughs of a related or the same name. There are 56 cities in Pennsylvania. Many home rule municipalities remain classified as boroughs or townships for certain purposes if the state's Borough and Township Codes no longer apply to them.

Borough List of towns and boroughs in Pennsylvania


Matrix metalloproteinase-20 known as enamel metalloproteinase or enamelysin is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MMP20 gene. Proteins of the matrix metalloproteinase family are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix in normal physiological processes, such as embryonic development and tissue remodeling, as well as in disease processes, such as arthritis and metastasis. Most MMP's are secreted as inactive proproteins which are activated when cleaved by extracellular proteinases. MMP-20 known as enamelysin, appears to be the only MMP, tooth-specific and it is expressed by cells of different developmental origin; the human MMP-20 gene contains 10 exons and is part of a cluster of matrix metalloproteinase genes that localize to human chromosome 11q22.3. A mutation in this gene, which alters the normal splice pattern and results in premature termination of the encoded protein, has been associated with amelogenesis imperfecta. Enamel in the absence of MMP-20 is hypoplastic, contains less mineral, contains more protein and water.

In general, MMP-20 functions in enamel are to cleave enamel matrix proteins at specific cleavage sites. The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: M10.019 Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: O60882 at the PDBe-KB

J. E. Meyers

J. Edward Meyers was an insurance salesman and the 27th mayor of Minneapolis. Meyers was born in Dayton and moved to Minneapolis to attend the University of Minnesota Law School. After a brief period in Duluth, Minnesota, he returned to Minneapolis in 1888 and began a career in the insurance business with Aetna. In 1918, Meyers ran for mayor on a patriotic platform supporting America's soldiers in World War I dubbed the "Loyalty Party." He defeated socialist incumbent Thomas Van Lear and served for a single term, working hard to ensure returning military veterans were able to find housing and jobs. He did not run for re-election but became involved in the city's board of education and board of estimate. Meyers died in 1944. Just a month before his death, it was revealed that Meyers has been the anonymous benefactor behind a Minneapolis-based group called "Youth, Incorporated" which provided Americanist materials to Minneapolis children, he is buried in Lakewood Cemetery in Minneapolis