A given name is a part of a person's personal name. It identifies a person, differentiates that person from the other members of a group who have a common surname; the term given name refers to the fact that the name is bestowed upon a person to a child by their parents at or close to the time of birth. A Christian name, a first name, given at baptism, is now typically given by the parents at birth. In informal situations, given names are used in a familiar and friendly manner. In more formal situations, a person's surname is more used—unless a distinction needs to be made between people with the same surname; the idioms "on a first-name basis" and "being on first-name terms" refer to the familiarity inherent in addressing someone by their given name. By contrast, a surname, inherited, is shared with other members of one's immediate family. Regnal names and religious or monastic names are special given names bestowed upon someone receiving a crown or entering a religious order; such a person typically becomes known chiefly by that name.
The order given name – family name known as the Western order, is used throughout most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by European culture, including North and South America. The order family name – given name known as the Eastern order, is used in East Asia, as well as in Southern and North-Eastern parts of India, in Hungary; this order is common in Austria and Bavaria, in France, Belgium and Italy because of the influence of bureaucracy, which puts the family name before the given name. In China and Korea, part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation within a family and extended family or families, in order to differentiate those generations from other generations; the order given name – father's family name – mother's family name is used in Spanish-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. Today the order can be changed in Spain and Uruguay using given name – mother's family name – father's family name.
The order given name – mother's family name – father's family name is used in Portuguese-speaking countries to acknowledge the families of both parents. In many Western cultures, people have more than one given name. One of those, not the first in succession might be used as the name which that person goes by, such as in the cases of John Edgar Hoover and Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland. A child's given name or names are chosen by the parents soon after birth. If a name is not assigned at birth, one may be given at a naming ceremony, with family and friends in attendance. In most jurisdictions, a child's name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on a birth certificate, or its equivalent. In western cultures, people retain the same given name throughout their lives. However, in some cases these names may be changed by repute. People may change their names when immigrating from one country to another with different naming conventions. In certain jurisdictions, a government-appointed registrar of births may refuse to register a name that may cause a child harm, considered offensive or which are deemed impractical.
In France, the agency can refer the case to a local judge. Some jurisdictions, such as Sweden, restrict the spelling of names. Parents may choose a name because of its meaning; this may be a personal or familial meaning, such as giving a child the name of an admired person, or it may be an example of nominative determinism, in which the parents give the child a name that they believe will be lucky or favourable for the child. Given names most derive from the following categories: Aspirational personal traits. For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith and August. Occupations, for example George means "earth-worker", i.e. "farmer". Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas meaning "twin" or the Latin name Quintus, traditionally given to the fifth male child. Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear". Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Variations on another name to change the sex of the name or to translate from another language.
Surnames, for example Winston and Ross. Such names can honour other branches of a family, where the surname would not otherwise be passed down. Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine. Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday", or the holiday on which one was born, for example, the name Natalie meaning "born on Christmas day" in Latin. Tuesday, May, or June. Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose". In many cultures, given names are reused to commemorate ancestors or those who are admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography; the most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were ideals or abstractions
Borovichi is the second largest town in Novgorod Oblast, located on the Msta River in the northern spurs of the Valdai Hills, 194 kilometers east of Veliky Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 53,690; the Msta River was an important waterway since at least the 10th century, since it connected Novgorod with the basins of the Volga and the Northern Dvina Rivers. The settlement was first mentioned in 1495, it was granted town status in 1770 by Catherine the Great. The main occupation of the town's inhabitants was piloting ships through the rapids of the Msta River that used to be a part of an important waterway connecting Central Russia with the Baltic Sea. However, by the mid-19th century, after opening of the Volga–Baltic Waterway and the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Railway, the significance of the Msta River as a transport route has decreased. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate.
In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. In 1773, Borovichsky Uyezd was established. In 1776, the area was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty. In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished and Borovichsky Uyezd was transferred to Novgorod Governorate. Sources of fire clay were discovered near the town in the 19th century, the first fire brick manufacturing plant opened in the region in 1855. In 1878, a railway branch connected the town to Uglovka station of the Moscow-Saint Petersburg Railway, which allowed to establish several large fire brick plants in 1880. Now about half of the town's population is employed in the fire brick industry. In 1905, the first arch bridge in Russia was built in Borovichi across the Msta. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished, Borovichsky District was established, with the administrative center in Borovichi; the district was a part of Borovichi Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. The town of Borovichi belonged to the district, but from 1930 it was elevated in status to that of a town of oblast significance.
On July 5, 1944, Borovichsky District was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast and remained there since. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Borovichi serves as the administrative center of Borovichsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Borovichi—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Borovichi is incorporated within Borovichsky Municipal District as Borovichi Urban Settlement. In Borovichi, there are enterprises of construction material production, timber industry, food industry. There is production of woodworking machines and of engines. Borovichi is connected by a railroad with Uglovka and thus with the railway between Moscow and Saint Petersburg. There are road connections to Tikhvin and Pestovo. Borovichi is a local bus transportation hub; the town of Borovichi contains one cultural heritage monument of federal significance—the arch bridge across the Msta—and additionally ninety-nine objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance.
The town is home to the Borovichi Regional Museum. The famous rapids of the Msta River popular among tourists are located just upstream from Borovichi. Bandy Club Borovichi is the only professional sports team in Novgorod Oblast. In 2010, it was playing in the High Division of the Russian Bandy Super League, but in 2011 due to financial difficulties it was relegated to the First Division, their home arena has the capacity of 5,000. Alexey Kuznetsov, Soviet official Sergei Gennadyevich Yegorov, Russian association football player Borovichi is twinned with: Binghamton, New York, United States Haapsalu, Estonia Pereira, Colombia Suolahti, Finland Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №559-ОЗ от 11 ноября 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области», в ред. Областного закона №730-ОЗ от 26 февраля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Областной закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №75, 23 ноября 2005 г..
Администрация Новгородской области. Постановление №121 от 8 апреля 2008 г. «Об реестре административно-территориального устройства области», в ред. Постановления №408 от 4 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориального устройства области». Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №49–50, 16 апреля 2008 г.. Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №373-ОЗ от 22 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Боровичского муниципального района, наделении их статусом городского и сельских поселений, определении административных центров и перечня населённых пунктов
Karel Havlíček Borovský
Karel Havlíček Borovský was a Czech writer, critic, politician and publisher. He lived and studied at the Gymnasium in Německý Brod, his house on the main square is today the Havlíček Museum. In 1838 he moved to Prague to study philosophy at Charles University and, influenced by the revolutionary atmosphere before the Revolutions of 1848, decided on the objective of becoming a patriotic writer, he devoted himself to studying literature. After graduating he began studying theology because he thought the best way to serve the nation would be as a priest, he was expelled after one year for "showing too little indication for spiritual ministry". After failing to find a teacher's job in Bohemia, he left for Moscow to work as a tutor in a Russian teacher's family: with a recommendation by Pavel Josef Šafařík, he became a Russophile and a Pan-Slav, but after recognizing the true reality of the Russian society he took the pessimistic view that "Pan-Slavism is a great, attractive but feckless idea". His memories of the Russian stay were published first in magazines and as a book Obrazy z Rus.
He returned to Bohemia in 1844, aged 24 and used his writing skills to criticize the fashion of embracing anything written in the reborn Czech language. He aimed at a novel by Josef Kajetán Tyl. In 1846 Havlíček attained a position as editor of the Pražské noviny newspaper with the help of František Palacký. In April 1848 he changed the name of the newspaper to Národní noviny and it became one of the first newspapers of the Revolutionary-era Czech liberals, one of the most influential publications of 1848-1849. Národní noviny became popular for his sharp-tongued epigrams and its wit. Havlíček was concerned with the preparations of the Congress of the Slavs in Prague. In July 1848 he was elected as a member of the Austrian Empire Constituent Assembly in Vienna and in Kroměříž, he relinquished his seat to focus on journalism. Havlíček was a "liberal nationalist" politically, but refused to allow a "party line" to inform his opinions, he would criticize those that agreed with him as much as those that disagreed.
He excoriated revolutionaries for their radicalism, but advocated ideas like universal suffrage-a concept altogether too radical for most of his fellow liberals. He was a pragmatist, had little patience for those that spent their time romanticizing the Czech nationality without helping it achieve political or cultural independence, he used much of the space in his newspapers to educate the people on important issues-stressing areas like economics, which were sorely neglected by other nationalist writers. The Bohemian revolution was defeated in March 1849 with the dissolution of the Kroměříž assembly, but Havlíček continued to criticize the new regime, he was found not guilty by a sympathetic jury. Národní noviny had to cease publication in January 1850. In May 1850 he began publishing the magazine Slovan in Kutná Hora; the magazine was a target of censorship from the start. It had to stop publication in August 1851, Havlíček stood again at the court to answer on charges of dissent. Again, he was found not guilty by a sympathetic jury of Czech commoners.
Havlíček translated and introduced some satirical and critical authors into the Czech language culture including Nikolai Gogol and Voltaire. In the night of December 16, 1851, he was arrested by the police and forced into exile in Brixen, Austria, he was depressed from the exile, but continued writing and wrote some of his best work: Tyrolské elegie, Křest svatého Vladimíra and Král Lávra. When he returned from Brixen in 1855, he learned. Most of his former friends, afraid of the Bach system, stood aloof from him. Only a few publicly declared support for him. In 1856, Havlíček died of tuberculosis, aged 35. Božena Němcová put a crown of thorns on his head in the coffin, his funeral was attended by about 5,000 Czechs. In 1911, a monument was raised to Havlicek in Chicago by Czech residents of the city in Douglas Park; the bronze statue by Joseph Strachovsky was cast by V. Mašek in Prague and shows Havlicek in a revolutionary pose, dressed in a full military uniform and a draped cape with his outstretched arm motioning the viewer to join him.
The statue was moved to Solidarity Drive on today's Museum Campus in the vicinity of the Adler Planetarium in 1981. In 1925 a biographical film was released. In 1945, the 20 Czechoslovak koruna banknote bore Havlicek's portrait. Statue of Karel Havlíček Borovský, Prague Reinfeld, Barbara. "Karel Havlíček: A National Liberation Leader of the Czech Renaissance." East European monographs no. 98, New York: Columbia University Press, 1982. ISBN 0914710923 Masaryk T. G. Karel Havlíček, Praha 1896. Chalupný E. Havlíček - prostředí, osobnost, dílo, Praha 1929. Procházka V. Karel Havlíček Borovský, Praha 1961. Nejtek V. M. Karel Havlíček Borovský, Praha 1979. Czech Who is who
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Borovsk is a town and the administrative center of Borovsky District of Kaluga Oblast, located on the Protva River just south from the oblast's border with Moscow Oblast. Population: 12,283 , it is known to have existed since 1356 as a part of the Principality of Ryazan. In the 14th century, it was owned by Vladimir the Bold, but passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow when his granddaughter Maria of Borovsk married Vasily II. In 1444, the St. Paphnutius Monastery was founded near Borovsk, its strong walls, a massive cathedral survive from the reign of Boris Godunov. Two famous Old Believers—archpriest Avvakum Petrovich and boyarynya Feodosiya Morozova—were incarcerated at this monastery in the second half of the 17th century; the town was liberated by the Red Army on January 4, 1942. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Borovsk serves as the administrative center of Borovsky District, to which it is directly subordinated; as a municipal division, the town of Borovsk is incorporated within Borovsky Municipal District as Borovsk Urban Settlement.
Among the monuments of Borovsk are the oldest wooden church in the region and a museum of Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, who lived and worked there as a teacher in 1880–1891. Borovsk has been known for painted façades of its down-town buildings, resulting from a work of one local painter. Pafnutyevo-Borovsky monastery, an ensemble of architectural monuments of the 16th-17th centuries. Church of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin Apartment Museum Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Gallery of wall paintings created by self-taught artist Vladimir Ovchinnikov Monument to Konstantin Tsiolkovsky Chapel-monument to the alleged place of detention and the death of Boyar Morozova Законодательное Собрание Калужской области. Закон №7-ОЗ от 28 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред.
Закона №620-ОЗ от 29 сентября 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Калужской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории административно-территориальных единиц "Бабынинский район", "Боровский район", "Дзержинский район", "Жиздринский район", "Жуковский район", "Износковский район", "Козельский район", "Малоярославецкий район", "Мосальский район", "Ферзиковский район", "Хвастовичский район", "город Калуга", "город Обнинск", и наделении их статусом городского поселения, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района"». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования, за исключением положений о муниципальном образовании "Город Калуга", для которых установлены иные сроки вступления в силу. Опубликован: "Весть", №402–404, 29 декабря 2004 г.. Official website of Borovsk Borovsk and the world of art Photos from Borovsk History of Borovsk
Havlíčkova Borová just Borová is a market town in Havlíčkův Brod District in the Vysočina Region of the Czech Republic. The town covers an area of 22.79 square kilometres, has a population of 949. Havlíčkova Borová lies 16 kilometres east of Havlíčkův Brod, 31 km north-east of Jihlava, 111 km south-east of Prague. Czech Statistical Office: Municipalities of Havlíčkův Brod District