Dance is a performing art form consisting of purposefully selected sequences of human movement. This movement has aesthetic and symbolic value, is acknowledged as dance by performers and observers within a particular culture. Dance can be categorized and described by its choreography, by its repertoire of movements, or by its historical period or place of origin. An important distinction is to be drawn between the contexts of theatrical and participatory dance, although these two categories are not always separate. Other forms of human movement are sometimes said to have a dance-like quality, including martial arts, cheerleading, figure skating, synchronized swimming, marching bands, many other forms of athletics. Theatrical dance called performance or concert dance, is intended as a spectacle a performance upon a stage by virtuoso dancers, it tells a story using mime and scenery, or else it may interpret the musical accompaniment, specially composed. Examples are western ballet and modern dance, Classical Indian dance and Chinese and Japanese song and dance dramas.
Most classical forms are centred upon dance alone, but performance dance may appear in opera and other forms of musical theatre. Participatory dance, on the other hand, whether it be a folk dance, a social dance, a group dance such as a line, chain or square dance, or a partner dance such as is common in western Western ballroom dancing, is undertaken for a common purpose, such as social interaction or exercise, of participants rather than onlookers; such dance has any narrative. A group dance and a corps de ballet, a social partner dance and a pas de deux, differ profoundly. A solo dance may be undertaken for the satisfaction of the dancer. Participatory dancers all employ the same movements and steps but, for example, in the rave culture of electronic dance music, vast crowds may engage in free dance, uncoordinated with those around them. On the other hand, some cultures lay down strict rules as to the particular dances in which, for example, men and children may or must participate. Archeological evidence for early dance includes 9,000-year-old paintings in India at the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures, dated c. 3300 BC.
It has been proposed that before the invention of written languages, dance was an important part of the oral and performance methods of passing stories down from one generation to the next. The use of dance in ecstatic trance states and healing rituals is thought to have been another early factor in the social development of dance. References to dance can be found in early recorded history; the Bible and Talmud refer to many events related to dance, contain over 30 different dance terms. In Chinese pottery as early as the Neolithic period, groups of people are depicted dancing in a line holding hands, the earliest Chinese word for "dance" is found written in the oracle bones. Dance is further described in the Lüshi Chunqiu. Primitive dance in ancient China was associated with shamanic rituals. During the first millennium BCE in India, many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. Bharata Muni's Natyashastra is one of the earlier texts, it deals with drama, in which dance plays an important part in Indian culture.
It categorizes dance into four types – secular, abstract, interpretive – and into four regional varieties. The text elaborates various hand-gestures and classifies movements of the various limbs, steps and so on. A strong continuous tradition of dance has since continued in India, through to modern times, where it continues to play a role in culture, and, the Bollywood entertainment industry. Many other contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical, traditional and ethnic dance. Dance is though not performed with the accompaniment of music and may or may not be performed in time to such music; some dance may provide its own audible accompaniment in place of music. Many early forms of music and dance were created for each other and are performed together. Notable examples of traditional dance/music couplings include the jig, tango and salsa; some musical genres have a parallel dance form such as baroque dance. Rhythm and dance are linked in history and practice; the American dancer Ted Shawn wrote.
A musical rhythm requires two main elements. The basic pulse is equal in duration to a simple step or gesture. Dances have a characteristic tempo and rhythmic pattern; the tango, for example, is danced in 24 time at 66 beats per minute. The basic slow step, called a "slow", lasts for one beat, so that a full "right–left" step is equal to one 24 measure; the basic forward and backward walk of the dance is so coun
Toyin Omoyeni Falola is a Nigerian historian and professor of African Studies. He is the Jacob and Frances Sanger Mossiker Chair in the Humanities at the University of Texas at Austin. Falola earned his B. A. and Ph. D. in History at the University of Ife, Ile-Ife, in Nigeria. He is a Fellow of of the Nigerian Academy of Letters. Falola is author and editor of more than one hundred books, he is the general editor of the Cambria African Studies Series, his research interest is African History since the 19th century in the tradition of the Ibadan School. Recent courses he has taught include Introduction to Traditional Africa, an interdisciplinary course on the peoples and cultures of Africa, designed for students with varied backgrounds in African Studies, Epistemologies of African/Black Studies, a course on the rise and evolution of African/Black Studies, with a focus on pedagogy and the historical development of scholarship in the field. Falola began his academic career as a schoolteacher in Pahayi in 1970 and by 1981 he was a lecturer at the University of Ife.
He joined the faculty at the University of Texas at Austin in 1991, has held short-term teaching appointments at the University of Cambridge in England, York University in Canada, Smith College of Massachusetts in the United States, The Australian National University in Canberra and the Nigerian Institute of International Affairs in Lagos, Nigeria. Falola has received several honorary doctorates, lifetime career awards and honors in various parts of the world, including The Lincoln Award, Nigerian Diaspora Academic Prize, Cheikh Anta Diop Award, Amistad Award, SIRAS Award for Outstanding Contribution to African Studies, Africana Studies Distinguished Global Scholar Lifetime Achievement Award, Fellow of the Nigerian Academy of Letters, Fellow of the Historical Society of Nigeria, The Distinguished Africanist Award. At the University of Texas at Austin, he received the Jean Holloway Award for Teaching Excellence, The Texas Exes Teaching Award, The Chancellor's Council Outstanding Teaching Award, Outstanding Graduate Teaching Award, the Career Research Excellence Award.
He has received honorary degree of doctors of letters from Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta during FUNAAB 26th convocation ceremony in November 2018. Africa and Globalization. Essays in Honor of A. G. Hopkins, with Emily Brownell. Carolina Academic Press, Durham, NC The Atlantic World, 1450-2000, with Kevin David Roberts, ISBN 0-253-21943-4 Yoruba Creativity: Fiction, Language and Songs, with Ann Genova, ISBN 1-59221-336-7 A History of Nigeria, with Matthew M. Heaton Britain and Nigeria: Exploitation or Development? Pawnship and Colonialism in Africa, with Paul E. Lovejoy, ISBN 1-59221-039-2 African Urban Spaces in Historical Perspective, with Steven J. Salm, ISBN 0-89089-558-9 Historical Dictionary of Nigeria, with Ann Genova Mouth Sweeter than Salt: An African Memoir 978-0-472-03132-0 Yoruba Warlords of the Nineteenth Century Yoruba Gurus: Indigenous Production of Knowledge in Africa The Power of African Cultures The Foundations of Nigeria, with Adebayo Oyebade, ISBN 1-59221-120-8 African Politics in Postimperial Times, with Richard L. Sklar, ISBN 0-86543-985-0 Counting the Tiger's Teeth: An African Teenager's Story, ISBN 978-0-472-11948-6 Africa: An Encyclopedia of Culture and Society 3 vols.
Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio, 2016 In Nigeria, there is a conference named after Toyin Falola by the Ibadan Cultural Studies Group. The conference, called The Toyin Falola International Conference on Africa and the African Diaspora, was first held in the Nigerian Premier University in Ibadan, the second was hosted in Lagos by the Centre for Black African Arts and Civilization under the watch of the director general of the centre Professor Tunde Babawale. Toyin Falola website. Sam Saverance, biography of Dr. Toyin Falola, The University of Texas at Austin, 2005. "Episode 96: Creativity and Decolonization: Nigerian Cultures and African Epistemologies" Africa Past and Present podcast. Toyin Falola speaking to Peter Alegi & Peter Limb Toyin Falola, CV
Harare is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe. The city proper has an area of 960.6 km2 and an estimated population of 1,606,000 in 2009, with 2,800,000 in its metropolitan area in 2006. Situated in north-eastern Zimbabwe in the country's Mashonaland region, Harare is a metropolitan province, which incorporates the municipalities of Chitungwiza and Epworth; the city sits on a plateau at an elevation of 1,483 metres above sea level and its climate falls into the subtropical highland category. The city was founded in 1890 by the Pioneer Column, a small military force of the British South Africa Company, named Fort Salisbury after the British prime minister Lord Salisbury. Company administrators demarcated the city and ran it until Southern Rhodesia achieved responsible government in 1923. Salisbury was thereafter the seat of the Southern Rhodesian government and, between 1953 and 1963, the capital of the Central African Federation, it retained the name Salisbury until 1982, when it was renamed Harare on the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence.
Harare is Zimbabwe's leading political, financial and communications centre, as well as a trade centre for tobacco, maize and citrus fruits. Manufacturing, including textiles and chemicals, are economically significant, as is local gold mining; the University of Zimbabwe, the country's oldest university, is located in Harare, as are several other colleges and universities. The city is home to Harare Sports Club, the country's main Test cricket ground, as well as Dynamos F. C. the country's most successful association football team. Harare's infrastructure and government services have worsened in recent years, the city has been ranked as one of the least livable cities out of 140 assessed; the Pioneer Column, a military volunteer force of settlers organised by Cecil Rhodes, founded the city on 12 September 1890 as a fort. They named the city Fort Salisbury after The 3rd Marquess of Salisbury British prime minister, it subsequently became known as Salisbury; the Salisbury Polo Club was formed in 1896.
It was declared to be a municipality in 1897 and it became a city in 1935. The area at the time of founding of the city was poorly drained and earliest development was on sloping ground along the left bank of a stream, now the course of a trunk road; the first area to be drained was near the head of the stream and was named Causeway as a result. This area is now the site of many of the most important government buildings, including the Senate House and the Office of the Prime Minister, now renamed for the use of the President after the position was abolished in January 1988. Salisbury was the capital of the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia from 1923, of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland from 1953 to 1963. Ian Smith's Rhodesian Front government declared Rhodesia independent from the United Kingdom on 11 November 1965, proclaimed the Republic of Rhodesia in 1970. Subsequently, the nation became the short-lived state of Zimbabwe Rhodesia, it was not until 18 April 1980 that the country was internationally recognised as independent as the Republic of Zimbabwe.
The name of the city was changed to Harare on 18 April 1982, the second anniversary of Zimbabwean independence, taking its name from the village near Harare Kopje of the Shona chief Neharawa, whose nickname was "he who does not sleep". Prior to independence, "Harare" was the name of the black residential area now known as Mbare. In the early 21st century Harare has been adversely affected by the political and economic crisis, plaguing Zimbabwe, after the contested 2002 presidential election and 2005 parliamentary elections; the elected council was replaced by a government-appointed commission for alleged inefficiency, but essential services such as rubbish collection and street repairs have worsened, are now non-existent. In May 2006 the Zimbabwean newspaper the Financial Gazette, described the city in an editorial as a "sunshine city-turned-sewage farm". In 2009, Harare was voted to be the toughest city to live in according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's livability poll; the situation was unchanged in 2011, according to the same poll, based on stability, healthcare and environment, infrastructure.
In May 2005 the Zimbabwean government demolished shanties and backyard cottages in Harare and the other cities in the country in Operation Murambatsvina. It was alleged that the true purpose of the campaign was to punish the urban poor for supporting the opposition Movement for Democratic Change and to reduce the likelihood of mass action against the government by driving people out of the cities; the government claimed it was necessitated by a rise of disease. This was followed by Operation Garikayi/Hlalani Kuhle a year which consisted of building concrete housing of poor quality. In late March 2010, Harare's Joina City Tower was opened after 14 years of on-off construction, marketed as Harare's new Pride. Uptake of space in the tower was low, with office occupancy at only 3% in October 2011. By May 2013, office occupancy had risen to around half; the Economist Intelligence Unit rated Harare as the world's least liveable city out of 140 surveyed in February 2011, rising to 137th out of 140 in August 2012.
During late 2012, plans to build a new capital district in Mt. Hampden, about twenty kilometres north-west of Harare's central business district, were announced and illustrations shown in Harare's daily newspapers; the location of this new district woul
Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir