King Arthur was a legendary British leader who, according to medieval histories and romances, led the defence of Britain against Saxon invaders in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. The details of Arthur's story are composed of folklore and literary invention, his historical existence is debated and disputed by modern historians; the sparse historical background of Arthur is gleaned from various sources, including the Annales Cambriae, the Historia Brittonum, the writings of Gildas. Arthur's name occurs in early poetic sources such as Y Gododdin. Arthur is a central figure in the legends making up the Matter of Britain; the legendary Arthur developed as a figure of international interest through the popularity of Geoffrey of Monmouth's fanciful and imaginative 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae. In some Welsh and Breton tales and poems that date from before this work, Arthur appears either as a great warrior defending Britain from human and supernatural enemies or as a magical figure of folklore, sometimes associated with the Welsh otherworld Annwn.
How much of Geoffrey's Historia was adapted from such earlier sources, rather than invented by Geoffrey himself, is unknown. Although the themes and characters of the Arthurian legend varied from text to text, there is no one canonical version, Geoffrey's version of events served as the starting point for stories. Geoffrey depicted Arthur as a king of Britain who established a vast empire. Many elements and incidents that are now an integral part of the Arthurian story appear in Geoffrey's Historia, including Arthur's father Uther Pendragon, the magician Merlin, Arthur's wife Guinevere, the sword Excalibur, Arthur's conception at Tintagel, his final battle against Mordred at Camlann, final rest in Avalon; the 12th-century French writer Chrétien de Troyes, who added Lancelot and the Holy Grail to the story, began the genre of Arthurian romance that became a significant strand of medieval literature. In these French stories, the narrative focus shifts from King Arthur himself to other characters, such as various Knights of the Round Table.
Arthurian literature thrived during the Middle Ages but waned in the centuries that followed until it experienced a major resurgence in the 19th century. In the 21st century, the legend lives on, not only in literature but in adaptations for theatre, television and other media; the historical basis for King Arthur has long been debated by scholars. One school of thought, citing entries in the Historia Brittonum and Annales Cambriae, sees Arthur as a genuine historical figure, a Romano-British leader who fought against the invading Anglo-Saxons some time in the late 5th to early 6th century; the Historia Brittonum, a 9th-century Latin historical compilation attributed in some late manuscripts to a Welsh cleric called Nennius, contains the first datable mention of King Arthur, listing twelve battles that Arthur fought. These culminate in the Battle of Badon. Recent studies, question the reliability of the Historia Brittonum; the other text that seems to support the case for Arthur's historical existence is the 10th-century Annales Cambriae, which link Arthur with the Battle of Badon.
The Annales date this battle to 516–518, mention the Battle of Camlann, in which Arthur and Medraut were both killed, dated to 537–539. These details have been used to bolster confidence in the Historia's account and to confirm that Arthur did fight at Badon. Problems have been identified, with using this source to support the Historia Brittonum's account; the latest research shows that the Annales Cambriae was based on a chronicle begun in the late 8th century in Wales. Additionally, the complex textual history of the Annales Cambriae precludes any certainty that the Arthurian annals were added to it that early, they were more added at some point in the 10th century and may never have existed in any earlier set of annals. The Badon entry derived from the Historia Brittonum; this lack of convincing early evidence is the reason many recent historians exclude Arthur from their accounts of sub-Roman Britain. In the view of historian Thomas Charles-Edwards, "at this stage of the enquiry, one can only say that there may well have been an historical Arthur the historian can as yet say nothing of value about him".
These modern admissions of ignorance are a recent trend. The historian John Morris made the putative reign of Arthur the organising principle of his history of sub-Roman Britain and Ireland, The Age of Arthur. So, he found little to say about a historical Arthur. In reaction to such theories, another school of thought emerged which argued that Arthur had no historical existence at all. Morris's Age of Arthur prompted the archaeologist Nowell Myres to observe that "no figure on the borderline of history and mythology has wasted more of the historian's time". Gildas' 6th-century polemic De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae, written within living memory of Badon, mentions the battle but does not mention Arthur. Arthur is not mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle or named in any surviving manuscript written between 400 and 820, he is absent from Bede's early-8th-century Ecclesiastical History of the English People, another major early source for post-Roman history that mentions Badon. The historian David Dumville wrote: "I think.
He owes his place in our history books to a'no smoke without fire' school of thought... The f
Sir Lancelot du Lac, alternatively written as Launcelot and other spellings, is one of the Knights of the Round Table in the Arthurian legend. He features as King Arthur's greatest companion, the lord of Joyous Gard and the greatest swordsman and jouster of the age – until his adulterous affair with Queen Guinevere is discovered, causing a civil war, exploited by Mordred and brings about the end of Arthur's kingdom, his first appearance as a main character is in Chrétien de Troyes' poem Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, written in the 12th century. His exploits were expanded upon in the Prose Lancelot, further expanded upon for the vast Lancelot-Grail cycle. There and Lady Elaine's son, becomes an more perfect knight. Roger Sherman Loomis suggested that Lancelot is related to either the character Llenlleog the Irishman from Culhwch and Olwen or the Welsh hero Llwch Llawwynnauc via a now-forgotten epithet like "Lamhcalad". Traditional scholars thought that they are the same figure due to the fact that their names are similar and that they both wield a sword and fight for a cauldron in Preiddeu Annwn and in Culhwch.
Modern scholars are less certain, as the name may have been just an invention by the 12th-century French poet Chrétien de Troyes. Another theory is. Lancelot may be a variant of the name Lancelin. Lancelot or Lancelin may instead have been the hero of an independent folk tale which had contact with and was absorbed into the Arthurian tradition; the theft of an infant by a water fairy, the appearance of the hero at a tournament on three consecutive days in three different disguises, the rescue of a queen or princess from an Otherworld prison are all features of a well-known and widespread tale, variants of which are found in numerous examples collected by Theodore Hersart de la Villemarqué in his Barzaz Breiz, by Emmanuel Cosquin in his Contes Lorrains, by John Francis Campbell in his Tales of the West Highlands. In Chrétien de Troyes's earliest known work and Enide, the name Lancelot appears as third on a list of knights at King Arthur's court; the fact that Lancelot's name follows Gawain and Erec indicates the presumed importance of the knight at court though he did not figure prominently in Chrétien's tale.
Lancelot reappears in Chrétien's Cligès, in which he takes a more important role as one of the knights that Cligès must overcome in his quest. It is not until Chrétien's poem Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart, that Lancelot becomes the protagonist, it is Chrétien who first gives Lancelot the name Lancelot du Lac, picked up by the French authors of the Lancelot-Grail and by Thomas Malory. He is presented as the most formidable and the bravest knight at King Arthur's court, one whom everyone is forced to describe as uniquely perfect: his deeds are recounted for their uniqueness, not only among living knights but of all men who have lived. However, this supposed saint-like perfection stands at stark contrast with his adulterous relationship with King Arthur's wife Queen Guinevere, which motif too has been introduced in this text, their affair can be seen as parallel to that of Tristram and Iseult, with him identified with the tragedy of chance and human failing, responsible for the downfall of the Round Table.
The theme of Lancelot's adulterous passion for Guinevere is absent from another early work, Lanzelet, a Middle High German epic poem by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven dating from the end of the 12th century. Ulrich asserts that his poem is a translation from an earlier French work, the provenance of, given and which must have differed markedly in several points from Chretien's Le Chevalier de la Charrette. In Lanzelet, the abductor of Ginover is named as King Valerin, whose name does not appear to derive from the Welsh Melwas. Furthermore, her rescuer is not Lancelot, instead, ends by finding happiness in marriage with the fairy princess Iblis, it has been suggested that Lancelot was the hero of a story independent of the adulterous love triangle and very similar to Ulrich's version. If this is true the adultery motif might either have been invented by Chrétien for his Chevalier de la Charrette or been present in the source provided him by his patroness, Marie de Champagne, a lady well known for her keen interest in matters relating to courtly love.
Lancelot is tied to the Christian motifs associated with Arthurian legend. Lancelot's quest for Guinevere in Lancelot, the Knight of the Cart is similar to Christ's quest for the human soul; this becomes intensified. His adventure among the tombs is described in terms that suggest Christ's "harrowing of Hell" and resurrection: he effortlessly lifts the lid off the sarcophagus, which bears an inscription foretelling his freeing of the captives. Lancelot was associated with the Grail Quest, but Chrétien does not include him at all in his final romance Perceval, le Conte du Graal; this story introduces the Holy Grail motif in medieval literature, Perceval is the sole seeker of the Grail in Chrétien's treatment. Lancelot's involvement in the Grail legend is first recorded in the romance Perlesvaus written between 1200 and 1210. Lancelot's character is most developed during the 13th century in the Old French Vulgate Cycle, where he a
St Cuthbert's Church, Holme Lacy
St Cuthbert's Church is a redundant Anglican church about 1 mile to the southeast of the village of Holme Lacy, England. It stands in an isolated position at the end of a lane in a bend of the River Wye, it is designated in the National Heritage List for England as a Grade I listed building, is under the care of the Churches Conservation Trust. The land on which the church stands was given to Walter de Lacy by William the Conqueror, after the Norman conquest; the estate passed by marriage to the Scudamore family, who became its patrons. It remained in their possession until 1909–10, when it was bought by Sir Robert Lucas-Tooth, 1st Baronet; the Domesday Book records a priest at Holme Lacy, which implies that a church was present at that time. The church is now in an isolated position, but earthworks in its vicinity suggest that a village existed nearby, subsequently deserted; the fabric of the present church originates from the 13th century. The tower was added in the 14th century, a north chapel and south porch in the 16th century.
In 1833 a gallery was built and an organ installed. By 1924 the gallery had been removed and the old organ replaced by a new one. During this year extensive repairs to the roof and floors were carried out, at a cost of about £1,000. St Cuthbert's is constructed in sandstone with tiled roofs, its plan consists of a six-bay nave with two-bay chancel, a north chapel. It has a south aisle extending to a south chapel at its east end, a south porch. At the west end is a tower; the tower is in the upper two being separated by a string course. There are diagonal buttresses at southwest corners. On the west wall in the bottom stage is an arched doorway over, a small arched window. Above this in the middle stage is another window, this one being square-headed; the upper stage contains an louvred bell opening on each side of the tower. Above each bell opening is a pair of trefoil windows; the parapet is plain. Along the north wall of the nave are three pairs of windows. There is a pair of similar windows on the north wall of the chancel.
The east window of the chancel has three lights, there is a buttress between this and the two-light east window of the south chapel. There is a gable cross on the apex of the chancel. Along the south wall is a variety including two lancet windows; the west window of the aisle has two lights. The south porch contains benches along each side; the ceilings of the body of the church are plastered, while the wagon roof of the north chapel is open. Between the nave and the north chapel is a carved wooden screen. There is a piscina in the chancel, another in the south chapel; the font dates from the 17th century, consists of a round bowl on a cylindrical stem. It is carved with cherubs. On the floor near the entry to the north chapel is a round stone bowl; the chancel contains a communion table dating from the 17th century, on its east wall is panelling from the same period. In the church are two sets of choirs stalls dating from the 15th century with misericords carved with such features as a grotesque head and a bird.
There are other items including carved benches, a chest and chairs. The lectern consists of a gilded eagle on an oak plinth dated 1914. On the walls are four hatchments, near the south door is a benefactions board dated 1790. At the west end of the church is a two-manual organ; this was built in 1912 at a cost of £300, was moved to the west end in 1924 at a cost of £36. There is a ring of eight bells; these were all cast by Rudhall of Gloucester, six of them in 1709 and the other two in 1808 and 1829. Most of the memorials in the church are to the Scudamore family. Between the chancel and the south chapel is a chest tomb dating from around 1550 bearing the alabaster effigies of John Scudamore and his wife Sibell. John Scudamore is dressed in armour, his feet rest on a lion. Along the sides of the tomb are shields containing coats of arms. On the north wall of the chancel is the white marble monument in Baroque style to James Scudamore who died in 1668, it contains a sculpture representing James Scudamore in a sitting position, wearing Roman dress.
Above his head are two cherubs, the whole is framed between two pilasters. To the left of this monument is one to his widow, Jane in Baroque style. In the south aisle is a wall monument to James Scudamore, 3rd Viscount Scudamore who died in 1716; this consists of a sarcophagus on, an urn and two seated putti. Lower down, on each side of the sarcophagus, are two wreathed skulls; the whole is surrounded by a broken segmental pediment. On the east wall of the south chapel is a monument to Mary Scudamore Stanhope, wife of Sir Edwyn Francis Scudamore Stanhope of Holme Lacy, who died in 1859; this was sculpted by Matthew Noble in white marble, depicts a female figure standing in a niche. In the north chapel is another marble wall monument by Noble; this was to Chandos Scudamore Stanhope, a captain in the Royal Navy who died in 1871 and consists of an angel above an anchor. The glass in the east window of the south chapel depicts Cornelius and the angel, is to the memory of Francis Brydges Scudamore Stanhope who died in 1855.
In the east window of the chancel is a depiction of the Archangel Michael weighing souls and is to the memory of Sir Robert Lucas-Tooth who died in 1915. The north window of the chancel contains fragments of medieval glass; the east window of the south wall of the south aisle depicts the Good Samaritan and is a memorial to William Pitt Scudamore
The Once and Future King
The Once and Future King is a work by T. H. White based upon Le Morte d'Arthur by Sir Thomas Malory, it was first published in 1958. It collects and revises shorter novels published from 1938 to 1941, with much new material; the Once and Future King contains much deliberately anachronistic humour, affectionate mockery of the source text and commentary on totalitarianism. The work explores human nature regarding power and justice; as the young Arthur becomes king, he attempts to quell the prevalent "might makes right" attitude with his idea of chivalry as he foresees the ascendancy of another form of might, namely legal prowess in the courtroom, a form of fascism outside the courtroom. White's title derives from the inscription that, according to Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur, was written upon King Arthur's tomb: Hic iacet Arthurus, rex quondam, rexque futurus or "Here lies Arthur, king once, king to be." Most of the book takes place in "Gramarye", the name White gives to Britain, chronicles the youth and education of King Arthur, his rule as a king, the romance between Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere.
Though Arthur, if he existed at all, would have ruled some time around the 6th century, the book is set around the 14th century, the actual monarchs of that period are referred to as "mythical". The book ends before Arthur's final battle against his illegitimate son Mordred. Though White admits his book's source material is loosely derived from Le Morte d'Arthur, he reinterprets the epic events, filling them with renewed meaning for a world recovering from World War II; the book is divided into four parts: The Sword in the Stone, detailing the youth of Arthur The Queen of Air and Darkness, published separately in somewhat different form as The Witch in the Wood The Ill-Made Knight, dealing with the character of Lancelot The Candle in the Wind, first published in the composite edition, 1958A final part, called The Book of Merlyn, was published separately following White's death. It chronicles Arthur's final lessons from Merlyn before his death, although some parts of it were incorporated into the final editions of the previous books.
Much of the contents of this book appears in the first part of The Once and Future King. The story starts in the final years of the rule of King Uther Pendragon; the first part, "The Sword in the Stone", chronicles Arthur's upbringing by his foster father Sir Ector, his rivalry and friendship with his foster brother Kay, his initial training by Merlyn, a wizard who lives through time backwards. Merlyn, knowing the boy's destiny, teaches Arthur what it means to be a good king by turning him into various kinds of animals: fish, ant and badger; each of the transformations is meant to teach Wart a lesson, which will prepare him for his future life. Merlyn instills in Arthur the concept that the only justifiable reason for war is to prevent another from going to war and that contemporary human governments and powerful people exemplify the worst aspects of the rule of Might. Neither the ant nor goose episodes were in the original Sword in the Stone when it was published as a stand-alone book; the original novel contains a battle between Merlyn and sorceress Madam Mim, not included in The Once and Future King but was included in the Disney film.
In part two, "The Queen of Air and Darkness", White sets the stage for Arthur's demise by introducing the Orkney clan and detailing Arthur's seduction by their mother, his half-sister Queen Morgause. While the young king suppresses initial rebellions, Merlyn leads him to envision a means of harnessing destructive Might for the cause of Right: the chivalric order of the Round Table; the third part, "The Ill-Made Knight", shifts focus from King Arthur to the story of Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere's forbidden love, the means they go through to hide their affair from the King, its effect on Elaine, Lancelot's sometime lover and the mother of his son Galahad. "The Candle in the Wind" unites these narrative threads by telling how Mordred's hatred of his father and Sir Agravaine's hatred of Lancelot caused the eventual downfall of Arthur, Guinevere and the entire ideal kingdom of Camelot. The book begins as a quite light-hearted account of the young Arthur's adventures, King Pellinore's interminable search for the Questing Beast.
Parts of "The Sword in the Stone" read as a parody of the traditional Arthurian legend by virtue of White's prose style, which relies on anachronisms. However, the tale changes tone until "Ill-Made Knight" becomes more meditative and "The Candle in the Wind" finds Arthur brooding over death and his legacy. Most striking about White's work is how he reinterprets the traditional Arthurian characters giving them motivations or traits more complex than or contradictory to those in earlier versions of the legend. For example: Arthur evolves from a fallible but inquisitive and enthusiastic youth to an individualised and psychologically complex man. Lancelot is no longer the handsome knight typical in the romantic legends but is instead portrayed as the ugliest of Arthur's knights, he is intensely introspective and obsessively insecure, traits which lead to bouts of self-loathing. He seeks to overcome his flaws through full devotion towards becoming Arthur's greatest knight. Merlyn lives through time backwards, making him a bumbling yet wise old man, getting younger.
Sir Galahad is not well liked by many of the knights as he is perfect – to the point of being'inhuman'. Sir Bors is depic
Henry Justice Ford
Henry Justice Ford was a prolific and successful English artist and illustrator, active from 1886 through to the late 1920s. Sometimes known as H. J. Ford or Henry J. Ford, he came to public attention when he provided the numerous beautiful illustrations for Andrew Lang's Fairy Books, which captured the imagination of a generation of British children and were sold worldwide in the 1880s and 1890s. After education at Repton School and Clare College, Cambridge - where he gained a first class in the Classical Tripos in 1882 - Ford returned to London to study at the Slade School of Fine Art and at the Bushey School of Art, under the German-born Hubert von Herkomer. In 1892, Ford began exhibiting paintings of historical subjects and landscapes at the Royal Academy of Art exhibitions; however it was his illustrations for such books as The Arabian Nights Entertainments, Kenilworth and A School History of England by C. R. L. Fletcher and Rudyard Kipling that provided Ford with both income and fame.
His parents were William Augustus Ford. His father, many of his family were cricketers, his father wrote a number of articles and books on the subject and Ford's brother, Francis Ford played for England in an Ashes series in Australia. At the age of 61, Ford surprised his friends by marrying a woman some thirty-five years younger, she was Emily Amelia Hoff, a widow whose first husband had been killed in the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in March 1915. Following the marriage in Kensington Register Office in February 1921, Henry and Emily Ford settled down in Bedford Gardens, Kensington for several years and, in 1927, the couple adopted a child, June Mary Magdelene Ford; the seated model in Henry Justice Ford's painting'Remembering Happier Times', now in the collection of the Russell-Cotes Art Gallery, bears a strong resemblance to Ford's wife, Emily. His love of the game led Henry Justice Ford to play cricket with the playwright JM Barrie's Allahakbarrie Cricket Club; this in turn led to Ford providing the well-known map of Kensington Gardens in Barrie's'The Little White Bird.'
He designed the costume for the character of Peter Pan when Barrie's play was staged in the West End for the first time in 1904. Ford's wide-ranging interests brought him into contact and friendship with many well-known figures of his time, including the writers PG Wodehouse, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle and AEW Mason.'Doing Justice to Henry: a biographical study of Henry Justice Ford', by Caroline Hares-Stryker (Imaginative Book Illustration Society,Studies in Illustration, Number 43, Winter 2009. SurLaLune Fairy Tales: Illustrations of Henry J. Ford Henry J Ford biography at The Wee Web Works by Henry Justice Ford at Project Gutenberg Works by Henry Justice Ford at Faded Page Works by or about Henry Justice Ford at Internet Archive H. J. Ford at Library of Congress Authorities, with 38 catalogue records
Terrence Vance Gilliam is an American-born British screenwriter, film director, actor and former member of the Monty Python comedy troupe. Gilliam has directed 13 feature films, including Time Bandits, The Adventures of Baron Munchausen, The Fisher King, 12 Monkeys and Loathing in Las Vegas, The Brothers Grimm and The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus; the only "Python" not born in Britain, he became a naturalised British subject in 1968 and formally renounced his American citizenship in 2006. Gilliam spent his high school and college years in Los Angeles, he started his career as an strip cartoonist. He joined Monty Python as the animator of their works, but became a full member and was given acting roles, he became a feature film director in the 1970s. Most of his films explore the theme of imagination and its importance to life, express his opposition to bureaucracy and authoritarianism, feature characters facing dark or paranoid situations, his own scripts feature black tragicomedy elements, combined with surprise endings.
Gilliam was born in Minneapolis, the son of Beatrice and James Hall Gilliam. His father was a travelling salesman for Folgers before becoming a carpenter. Soon after, they moved to nearby Medicine Minnesota; the family moved to the Los Angeles neighbourhood of Panorama City in 1952. Gilliam attended Birmingham High School, where he was the president of his class and senior prom king, he was achieved straight A's. During high school, he began to avidly read Mad magazine edited by Harvey Kurtzman, which would influence Gilliam's work. Gilliam graduated from Occidental College in 1962 with a Bachelor of Arts in political science. Gilliam told Salman Rushdie about defining experiences in the 1960s that, he said, set the foundations for his views on the world: I became terrified that I was going to be a full-time, bomb-throwing terrorist if I stayed because it was the beginning of bad times in America, it was'66–'67, it was the first police riot in Los Angeles.... In college my major was political science, so my brain worked that way....
And I drove around this little English Hillman Minx—top down—and every night I'd be hauled over by the cops. Up against the wall, all this stuff, they had this monologue with me. It was, and I said, "No, I work in advertising. I make twice as much as you do." Which is a stupid thing to say to a cop.... And it was like an epiphany. I felt what it was like to be a black or Mexican kid living in L. A. Before that, I thought I knew what the world was like, I thought I knew what poor people were, suddenly it all changed because of that simple thing of being brutalized by cops, and I got more and more angry and I just felt, I've got to get out of here—I'm a better cartoonist than I am a bomb maker. That's why so much of the U. S. is still standing. Gilliam began his career as an strip cartoonist. One of his early photographic strips for Help! magazine featured future Python cast member John Cleese. When Help! folded, Gilliam went to Europe, jokingly announcing in the last issue that he was "being transferred to the European branch" of the magazine, which, of course, did not exist.
Moving to England, he animated sequences for the children's series Do Not Adjust Your Set, which featured Eric Idle, Terry Jones, Michael Palin. Gilliam was a part of Monty Python's Flying Circus from its outset, credited at first as an animator and as a full member, his cartoons linked the show's sketches together and defined the group's visual language in other media, such as LP and book covers and the title sequences of their films. His animations mix his own art, characterised by soft gradients and odd, bulbous shapes, with backgrounds and moving cutouts from antique photographs from the Victorian era. In 1978, Gilliam published Animations of Mortality, an illustrated, tongue-in-cheek, semi-autobiographical how-to guide to his animation techniques and the visual language in them. 15 years between the release of the CD-ROM game Monty Python's Complete Waste of Time in 1994, which used many of Gilliam's animation templates, the making of Gilliam's film Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Gilliam was in negotiations with Enteractive, a software company, to tentatively release in the autumn of 1996 a CD-ROM under the same title as his 1978 book, containing all of his thousands of 1970s animation templates as license-free clip arts for people to create their own flash animations, but the project hovered in limbo for years because Enteractive was about to downsize in mid-1996 and changed its focus from CD-ROM multimedia presentations to internet business solutions and web hosting in 1997.
Around the time of Gilliam's film The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus, the project had changed into the idea of releasing his 1970s animation templates as a license-free download of Adobe After Effects or similar files. Besides creating the animations, Gilliam appeared in several sketches, though he had main roles and did less acting in the sketches, he did, have some notable sketch roles, such as Cardinal Fang o