There is a Seaforth Island in the Whitsunday Islands of Queensland, AustraliaSeaforth Island is an uninhabited island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Unlike many other islands of the Outer Hebrides which are surrounded by open sea, Seaforth Island lies in a narrow fjord-like sea loch named Loch Seaforth, 8 kilometres from the open waters of The Minch. There are two different Gaelic names for the island. Mulag is from the Old Norse name Múli, which describes its geographical location, the other is after the family of Francis Mackenzie, 1st Baron Seaforth, who inherited the island in 1783; the island has poor soil. There are no census records indicating inhabitation in the recent past, although the loch area was the subject of border disputes in the 19th century. In 1851 these were resolved by the unusual decision to allocate the whole of Seaforth Island to both counties, Ross-shire and Inverness-shire, which at the time controlled Lewis and Harris respectively; this situation continued until the 1975 county reorganisation
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Harris, Outer Hebrides
Harris is the southern and more mountainous part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland. Although not an island itself, Harris is referred to as the Isle of Harris, the former postal county and the current post town for Royal Mail postcodes starting HS3 or HS5. St Kilda, an uninhabited small archipelago, located 40 miles west-northwest of North Uist is considered part of the civil parish of Harris; the same is true for the remote uninhabited rock islet Rockall, 230 miles west of North Uist. According to the 2011 Census, there are 1,212 Gaelic speakers in Harris. Harris is most to be the island referred to as Adru on Ptolemy's map of the British Isles. In Old Norse, a Hérað was a type of administrative district, the name may derive from that. An alternative origin is the Norse Hærri, meaning "higher" - a reference to the high hills in comparison with the much flatter Lewis lying to the north. Most of the place names on Harris are Gaelicized Old Norse; the Gaelic name "Na Hearadh" was an earlier term for the Rinns of Islay.
Harris divides into northern and southern parts which are separated by West and East Loch Tarbert. These halves are joined by a narrow isthmus at the main settlement of Tarbert; the bedrock of Harris is Lewisian gneisses, which were laid down in the Precambrian period, interspersed with igneous intrusions. One of these intrusions forms the summit plateau of the mountain Roinebhal; the rock here is anorthosite, is similar in composition to rocks found in the mountains of the Moon. Harris is a part of historic Inverness-shire, was administered as such under older administrative divisions. In the 2001 census, Harris had a resident population of 1,916, it is part of the South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area, one of 40 in Scotland. North Harris, adjoining Lewis, contains Clisham, the highest mountain in the Outer Hebrides at 799 metres; the area is sparsely populated. Beyond Tarbert, the furthest settlement is Hushinish on the west coast. A bridge from the east coast links Harris to the island of Scalpay.
In March 2003 the 25,300-hectare North Harris Estate was purchased by the North Harris Trust, a development trust, on behalf of the local community. In April 2006 the Trust hosted the Highlands and Islands Community Energy Company conference "Community Energy: Leading from the Edge" in Tarbert. In early 2008 the Trust received planning consent for three 86 metre wind turbines to be located at Monan. In 2008 Mike Russell, the Scottish environment minister announced that the North Harris Trust had begun canvassing local opinion about a proposal to create Scotland's third national park in the area; the southern part of Harris is less mountainous, with numerous unspoilt, white sandy beaches on the west coast. Its main settlements are Rodel, known for its medieval kirk of St. Clement, the most elaborate surviving medieval church in the Hebrides after Iona Abbey, Leverburgh. A ferry sails from the latter to Berneray, an island off the coast of North Uist, to which it is joined by a causeway; the east coast of south Harris is known as the Bays.
The best known section called the "Golden Road" as it cost so much money to build, when it was built in 1897. It runs from Miavaig via Drinishader, Grosebay and Cluer to Stockinish. From Stockinish the road is the Bays and meanders through the coastal townships of Lickisto, Manish, Ardvay and Lingerbay; the beaches of Luskentyre and Scarista are amongst the most spectacular. From the former the island of Taransay, where the BBC Television series Castaway 2000 was recorded, is seen most from Harris. At Scarista the beach is a venue for kite buggying. Nearby the Harris Golf Club offers well kept greens and views of the hills, but there is no play on Sundays. Scarista is the birthplace of the author Finlay J. MacDonald, who wrote about growing up on Harris in the 1930s, his books: Crowdie and Cream and White and The Corncrake and the Lysander paint a vivid and humorous picture of Hebridean life. Tarbert is the main port and main settlement of Harris, with a population of about 550; the name Tarbert comes from the Norse tairbeart meaning "portage" or "isthmus".
It is located on an isthmus between West Loch Tarbert. The village has a ferry terminal, local tourist information and some small shops, including a Harris Tweed shop overlooking the main access road to the CalMac ferry terminal and a general grocery store; the island of Scalpay is located at the mouth of East Loch Tarbert. It was known for its fishing industry, though little of that remains; the island was linked to Harris when the Scalpay Bridge was opened in 1997, connecting Scalpay to the settlement of Kyles on Harris. Media attention has been drawn to angling on Harris, Tarbert in particular. Local fishermen have been targeting large Common Skate in the area and have had prolific catches from West Loch Tarbert, in autumn and winter. There is an application for the Scottish shore record of 183 pounds although a fish estimated at 204 pounds was landed; these catches have attracted the attention of the local and national press and sea angling's leading magazines. In common with many parts of the Highlands and Islands, Harris has numerous single-track roa
Pabbay is an uninhabited island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland which lies in the Sound of Harris between Harris and North Uist. The name comes from Papey, Norse for "Island of the papar"; the island was once fertile, supporting a three-figure population and exporting corn and illicit whisky. Most of the stewards of St. Kilda were Pabbay men; the island was cleared for sheep in 1846. Pabbay lies within the South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection from inappropriate development
Rona is a remote Scottish island in the North Atlantic. Rona is referred to as North Rona in order to distinguish it from South Rona, it has a maximum elevation of 108 metres. The island lies 71 kilometres north-west of Cape Wrath, the same distance north north-east of the Butt of Lewis and 18 kilometres east of Sula Sgeir. More isolated than St Kilda, it is the most remote island in the British Isles to have been inhabited on a long-term basis, it is the closest neighbour to the Faroe Islands. Because of the island's remote location and small area, it is omitted from many maps of the United Kingdom; the name "Rona" may come from hraun-øy, Old Norse for "rough island", a combination of ròn and øy, Gaelic and Old Norse for "seal" and "island" or it may have been named after Saint Ronan. The English language qualifier "North" is sometimes used to distinguish the island from Rona off Skye. In Gaelic it is known as Rònaigh an Daimh, "Rona of the stag" but may be derived from Rònaigh an Taibh, containing the Norse word tabh, meaning "ocean" and convey the meaning "Rona of the Atlantic".
Rona is said to have been the residence of Saint Ronan in the eighth century. A tiny early Christian oratory which may be as early as this date, built of unmortared stone, survives complete on the island – the best-preserved structure of this type in Scotland. A number of simple cross-slabs of early medieval date are preserved within the structure the grave-markers of Dark Age monks or hermits from Scotland or Ireland; the island continued to be inhabited until the entire population of thirty died shortly after 1685 after an infestation by rats the black rat, which reached the island after a shipwreck. The rats raided the food stocks of barley meal and it is possible the inhabitants starved to death, although plague may have been a contributory factor; this occurred in a year in which it is reported that no further ships reached the isolated island to supply or trade. The rats themselves starved to death, the huge swells the island experiences preventing their hunting along the rocky shores.
It was resettled, but again depopulated by around 1695 in some sort of boating tragedy, after which it remained home to a succession of shepherds and their families. It had a population of nine in 1764."On one occasion... a crew from Ness in Lewis had their boat wrecked in landing at Sula Sgeir in the month of June, lived on the island for several weeks, sustaining themselves on the flesh of birds. Captain Oliver, who commanded the Revenue cruiser Prince of Wales, visited Sula Sgeir in the month of August to look for the lost boat, he found the wreck of it an oar on end with an old pair of canvas trousers on it, over the remains of a fire a pot containing birds' flesh. Nothing more was heard of them until the month of October following, when a Russian vessel on her homeward voyage met a Stornoway craft in the Orkneys, informed the crew of the latter that they had taken the men off Sula Sgeir and landed them in Rona. Captain Oliver at once went to Rona, found the crew consuming the last barrel of potatoes which the poor shepherd had.
He took away the former, left the latter sufficient provision for the winter." Captain Benjamin Oliver commanded the above vessel from 1811 until 1847."The last family which lived upon Rona was that of a shepherd named Donald M'Leod, otherwise the'King of Rona,' who returned to Lewis in 1844." Sir James Matheson, who bought Lewis in 1844, offered the island to the Government for use as a penal settlement. The offer was refused. Although farmers from Lewis have continued to graze sheep on Rona since, the island has remained uninhabited, apart from one brief and tragic episode in 1884–85. In June 1884, two men from Lewis, Malcolm MacDonald and Murdo Mackay, having had a dispute with the minister of their local church, went to stay on Rona to look after the sheep. In August, boatmen who had called at the island reported that the men were well and in good spirits, had refused offers to take them back to Lewis. In April 1885, the next people to visit Rona found. During World War I, the commander of German U-boat U-90, Walter Remy, stopped his submarine at North Rona during each of his wartime patrols, weather permitting, sent crewmen onto the island to shoot sheep to obtain mutton for on-board consumption.
The island was occupied temporarily in 1938–39 by author and conservationist Frank Fraser Darling with his wife Bobbie and their son Alasdair, while they studied the grey seals and the breeding seabirds. North Rona, with Sula Sgeir formed part of the Barvas estate on Lewis, but a community buy-out of the estate in 2016 did not include the two islands, which would have increased the purchase price by £80,000; the island still boasts the Celtic ruins of St Ronan's Chapel. Together with Sula Sgeir, the island was managed by Scottish Natural Heritage as a nature reserve, for its important grey seal and seabird colonies; these include the European storm-petrel and the larger Leach's storm-petrel, for which North Rona is an important breeding locality. It remains a protected area for nature and is a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Protection Area. In "Island at the edge of the world", the poet Kathleen Jamie describes a visit to the island, as well as in an essay in her collection Sightlines.
The island hosts an automatic light beacon, remotely monitored by the Northern Lighthouse Board. List of lighthouses in Scotl
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Great Bernera known just as Bernera, is an island and community in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. With an area of just over 21 km2, it is the thirty-fourth largest Scottish island. Great Bernera lies in Loch Roag on the north-west coast of Lewis and is linked to it by a road bridge. Built in 1953, the bridge was the first pre-stressed concrete bridge in Europe; the main settlement on the island is Breaclete. The island, under the name of "Borva", was the setting for A Princess of Thule by the Scottish novelist William Black; the novel is notable for its descriptions of the local scenery. The island's name is Norse in origin and is derived in honour of Bjarnar, father of the Norse Chieftain of Lewis Ketil Bjarnarson; the vast majority of placenames in the district are Norse, implying extensive Viking settlement. The most common name on Great Bernera is MacDonald, these are said to be descended from a watchman of the Macaulays of Uig, who gave him the island in return for his services. Since 1962, the island has been owned by Robin de la Lanne-Mirrlees, a former Queen's Herald, recognised as Laird of Bernera.
He inherited the title Prince of Coronata and died in 2012. His home Bernera Lodge was at Kirkibost. In the south east of the island is the first planned crofting township in the Outer Hebrides, it was created in 1805 by the regular allotting of individual crofts by the Earl of Seaforth's land surveyor, James Chapman. The tenants of this planned village were all evicted in 1823 and the publication of the first edition of the Ordnance Survey rather poignantly showed the deserted village and the original parallel croft boundaries; the village was re-settled in 1878 and the original boundaries are still in use today. Callanish VIII is a unique standing stone arrangement near the bridge between Lewis and Bernera, set out in a semicircle, it is known locally as Tursachan, which means "Standing Stones". The ruins of Dun Barraglom broch are nearby. Bernera is known for its Iron Age settlement at Bostadh, discovered in 1992 and now covered by sand so that it is preserved. A replica Iron Age house matching those now buried is sited nearby.
Bostadh Beach is the location of a Time and Tide Bell, one of a series of installations by Marcus Vergette. The island was the location of the Bernera Riot of 1874, when crofters resisted the Highland clearances; this was a peasant revolt and subsequent legal case which resulted in a victory for oppressed small-tenants against the heavy-handed evictions and treatment by Donald Munro, the factor of Sir James Matheson. The islanders refused to agree to an ever-increasing diminishing grazings allowance in favour of expanding sporting estates, were in turn threatened with a military visit; this did not occur, but more eviction notices were handed out, the visitors were pelted with clods of earth. The legal case was the first recorded victory for small-tenants at will and the evidence, heard at the eleven-hour trial paved the way for land reform in Scotland; the island is 8 kilometres long by 3 kilometres wide, the length being oriented from north west to south east. The coast is much indented and there are numerous fresh water bodies such as Loch Barabhat, Loch Breacleit and Loch Niocsabhat.
The highest point is the eminence of Sealabhal Bhiorach south of Bostadh and north of Tobson that reaches 87 metres. There are deposits of tremolite asbestos. An example of a rock of tremolite on muscovite from Great Bernera is shown in the photograph to the right; the western side of the island is included in the South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area. There are many islands in Loch Roag. To the west, from north to south are Pabaigh Mòr, Fuaigh Mòr, Fuaigh Beag. To the north, the island of Bearnaraigh Beag, a number of islets. To the east, there are not so many islands. Sea life is rich where there is tidal run between the Caolas Bhalasaigh and the inner sea-loch of Tòb Bhalasaigh. There are numerous molluscs, sponges and sea stars, the latter growing noticeably larger in size than normal. Cup coral, snakelocks anemone and dead man's fingers coral, may be found here. Common fish include shanny and butterfish and Atlantic and common seals are regular off-shore visitors. Great Bernera hosts numerous seabird species, including gulls and ducks such as goldeneye.
More unusually, a jack snipe was observed on the island in 2007. Great Bernera's population is dependent on lobster fishing and tourism. There is a Primary school located in Breacleit. Fertile machair pasture permits sheep and cattle grazing. A processing plant was built at Kirkibost in 1972. There are still some weavers but this is no longer one of the main industries. Breacleit is home to a small museum, mini-mart & off licence, school, a post office, community centre with café, petrol station, fire station and doctor's surgery. Communications were much improved during the 20th century; the first telephone was installed on Lewis in 1897 and outlying villages were connected. Great Bernera was the last exchange to link to Lewis with an earth return; the bridge to the island from Lewis was built in 1953. It is said to be the first one of pre-stressed concrete in Europe, it was constructed after the islanders threatened to dynamite the hillside to create a causeway of their own making.. The bridge is sometimes referred to