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In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics. Bosons make up one of the two classes of the other being fermions; the name boson was coined by Paul Dirac to commemorate the contribution of Satyendra Nath Bose, Indian physicist and professor of physics at University of Calcutta and at University of Dhaka in developing, with Albert Einstein, Bose–Einstein statistics—which theorizes the characteristics of elementary particles. Examples of bosons include fundamental particles such as photons, W and Z bosons, the discovered Higgs boson, the hypothetical graviton of quantum gravity; some composite particles are bosons, such as mesons and stable nuclei of mass number such as deuterium, helium-4, or lead-208. An important characteristic of bosons is that their statistics do not restrict the number of them that occupy the same quantum state; this property is exemplified by helium-4. Unlike bosons, two identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum space. Whereas the elementary particles that make up matter are fermions, the elementary bosons are force carriers that function as the'glue' holding matter together.

This property holds for all particles with integer spin as a consequence of the spin–statistics theorem. When a gas of Bose particles is cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero the kinetic energy of the particles decreases to a negligible amount, they condense into the lowest energy level state; this state is called a Bose–Einstein condensate. This property is the explanation for superfluidity. Bosons may be composite, like mesons. While most bosons are composite particles, in the Standard Model of Particle Physics there are five bosons which are elementary: the Standard Model requires one scalar boson H0 Higgs bosonthe four vector bosons that are the gauge bosons for the Standard Model:γ Photon g Gluons Z Neutral weak boson W± Charged weak bosons There may be a sixth tensor boson, the graviton, that would be the force-carrier for gravity, it remains a hypothetical elementary particle since all attempts so far to incorporate gravitation into the Standard Model have failed. If the graviton does exist, it must be a boson, could conceivably be a gauge boson.

Composite bosons, such as helium nuclei, are important in superfluidity and other applications of Bose–Einstein condensates. Bosons differ from fermions. Two or more identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state, they are sometimes said to be the constituents of ordinary "rigid" matter. Unlike those, instances of a boson have no quantum-mechanical obstruction to occupy the same state. Bosons are force carrier particles, including composite bosons such as mesons. Force carriers are said to be the particles that transmit interactions, or the constituents of radiation; the Bose–Einstein statistics implies that, when one swaps two bosons, the wavefunction of the system is unchanged. The quantum fields of bosons are bosonic fields; the properties of lasers and masers, superfluid helium-4 and Bose–Einstein condensates are all consequences of statistics of bosons. Another result is that the spectrum of a photon gas in thermal equilibrium is a Planck spectrum, one example of, black-body radiation.

Interactions between elementary particles are called fundamental interactions. The fundamental interactions of virtual bosons with real particles result. All known elementary and composite particles are bosons or fermions, depending on their spin: Particles with half-integer spin are fermions. In the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, this is a purely empirical observation. In relativistic quantum field theory, the spin–statistics theorem shows that half-integer spin particles cannot be bosons and integer spin particles cannot be fermions. In large systems, the difference between bosonic and fermionic statistics is only apparent at large densities — when their wave functions overlap. At low densities, both types of statistics are well approximated by Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, described by classical mechanics. All observed elementary particles bosons; the observed elementary bosons are all gauge bosons: photons, W and Z bosons, except the Higgs boson, a scalar boson. Photons are the force carriers of the electromagnetic field.

W and Z bosons are the force carriers. Gluons are the fundamental force carriers underlying the strong force. Higgs bosons give Z bosons mass via the Higgs mechanism, their existence was confirmed by CERN on 14 March 2013. Many approaches to quantum gravity postulate a force carrier for gravity, the graviton, a boson of spin plus or minus two. Composite particles can be fermions depending on their constituents. More because of the relation between spin and statistics, a particle containing an number of fermions is a boson, since it has integer spin. Examples include the following: Any meson, since mesons contain one antiquark; the nucleus of a carbon-12

Robert McConnell Hatch

Robert McConnell Hatch was a suffragan bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Connecticut and fourth bishop of the Episcopal Diocese of Western Massachusetts. Hatch was born in Brooklyn, New York City on July 6, 1910, the son of the Reverend William Henry Paine Hatch and Marion Louise Townsend, he was educated at St Mark's School in Southboro and Harvard University. He studied at Columbia University where he graduated with a master's in history in 1935, he studied at the Episcopal Theological Seminary from where he earned his Bachelor of Divinity in 1939. Hatch was ordained deacon in 1939 and a priest in May 1940 by Bishop Henry Knox Sherrill of Massachusetts, he was appointed curate of Trinity Church, Boston where he remained until 1941 when he became rector of St John's Church in Arlington, Massachusetts. He transferred to Wilmington, Delaware where he became Dean of the Cathedral of St John in 1945. In 1946 he was deputy of the General Convention and between 1947 and 1948 he served as president of the standing committee of the Diocese of Delaware.

In 1948 he became rector of St John's Church in Connecticut. For seven years, Hatch served as Suffragan Bishop of Connecticut, he was elected on January 30, 1951 at a special diocesan convention which took place in Hartford, Connecticut. He was consecrated by the Presiding Bishop Henry Knox Sherrill on April 17, 1951 in St John's Church in Waterbury, Connecticut. In 1957 he was elected Bishop of Western Massachusetts where he remained until 1970. After retirement he served as an Interim in New Hampshire. Hatch is known for his writings on'What is meant by Christian Marriage' and'What is meant by Christian Burial', he wrote two books related to the American War for Independence. Hatch married Helen Crocker Addison in 1940 and together had two children. Major John André: A Gallant in Spy's Clothing. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1986. ISBN 0-395-35324-6. List of bishops of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America "Robert McConnell Hatch: Obituary". Logan Herald Journal. Logan, UT. July 28, 2009 – via

"Robert McConnell Hatch - Person". National Portrait Gallery

Dick Daniels

Richard Bernard Daniels is a former American football defensive back in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys and Chicago Bears. He played college football at Pacific University. Daniels attended Jefferson High School, where he was an honorable-mention All-PIL halfback and a part of two football championship teams, he contributed to his school winning a track championship team. He accepted a scholarship from Pacific University, where he practiced track, he was a two-time conference champion in the long jump. In 1995, he was inducted into the Pacific University Athletic Hall of Fame. Daniels was signed as an undrafted free agent by the Dallas Cowboys after the 1966 NFL Draft. On September 29, he was placed before being activated to play in 4 games, he was a part of the 1967 NFL Championship Game known as the "Ice Bowl". In 1968, he was out for 4 weeks after being injured in pre-season, but came back to move Mel Renfro to right cornerback and start 6 games at free safety, he was waived on September 18, 1969.

In 1969, he was signed to the Chicago Bears taxi squad, before being promoted to the active roster on November 1. The next year, he started 13 games at free safety. On August 26, 1971, he was released after being passed on the depth chart by Jerry Moore. August 26, 1971, he was claimed off waivers by the Miami Dolphins, he was placed on the injured reserve list on September 13. Daniels was a scout for the Miami Dolphins for over three years. In 1975, he was hired as the Tampa Bay Buccaneers Chief Talent Scout. In 1984, he was vice president for personnel for the Los Angeles Express, he was the director of player personnel for the Washington Redskins. In 1996, he was named director of football operations for the Philadelphia Eagles, he has been a consultant with Football Operations and NFL Ventures

Hajjah, Qalqilya

Hajjah is a Palestinian village in the northern West Bank, located eighteen kilometers west of Nablus in the Qalqilya Governorate. Hajjah is an Aramaic word translated as "market" or "society". According to the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, the town had a population of 2,500 inhabitants in mid-year 2006. Hajja is located 15.9 kilometers east of Qalqiliya City. It is bordered by Kafr Qaddum and Immatin to the east, Al Funduq and Jinsafut to the south, Kafr ‘Abbush, Kafr Laqif and Baqat al Hatab to the west, Kur to the north. Ceramics from the Byzantine era have been found here. In a Samaritan text, the town was known to be inhabited by Samaritan High Priests. During the reign of the Mamluk sultan An-Nasir Muhammad, in 722 AH/1322 CE, a mosque was constructed in the village. A minaret was added to it in 735 AH/1334-1335 CE; these building were done in the name of Muhammed bin Musa bin Ahmed, a local imam, whose grave stone is by the mosque, dating his death to 749 AH/1348 CE. Hajja was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, in 1596 it appeared in the tax registers as being in the Nahiya of Bani Sa'b of the Liwa of Nablus.

It had a population of all Muslims. The villagers paid a fixed tax rate of 33.3% on various agricultural products, such as wheat, summer crops, olive trees, goats and/or beehives, in addition to "occasional revenues", a press for olive oil or grape syrup, a tax for people of the Nablus region. All of the revenues went to a waqf. In 1838, Robinson noted Kuryet Hajja as a village in Beni Sa'ab district, west of Nablus, while in 1870 Victor Guérin noted it from Fara'ata. In 1882 the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine noted about Kuryet Hajja: "A good-sized village on high ground, supplied by wells, it has a rock-cut tomb on the west, appears to be an ancient place." In the 1922 census of Palestine conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Qariyet Hajjeh had a population of 642 inhabitants, all Muslims, increasing in the 1931 census to 731 Muslims, with 206 houses. In the 1945 statistics the population was 960 Muslims, with 13,119 dunams of land, according to an official land and population survey.

Of this, 4 dunams were for citrus and bananas, 1,226 dunams were for plantations or irrigated land, 5,045 were for cereals, while 36 dunams were built-up land. In the wake of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, after the 1949 Armistice Agreements, Hajjah came under Jordanian rule, it was annexed by Jordan in 1950. The Jordanian census of 1961 found 1,093 inhabitants. Since the Six-Day War in 1967, Hajjah has been held under Israeli occupation. After the 1995 accords, 37.2% of village land was assigned as Area B land, while the remaining 62.8% is assigned Area C. Israel has confiscated 216 dunums of land from Hajja to establish two Israeli settlements, Karne Shomron and Neve Oramin with the remainder of the land for these two settlement taken from Jinsafut, Kafr Laqif and Deir Istiya). Israel has confiscated land from Hajja to build bypass roads and the Israeli West Bank barrier

Donji Petrovci

Donji Petrovci is a village in Serbia. It is situated in Srem District, Vojvodina province; the village has a population of 991 people. There is a significant ancient Roman archaeological site near the village - the remains of large city Bassianae, which in the 3rd century had the highest status of colonia. In Serbian the village is known as Donji Petrovci or sometimes Petrovci. In ancient times, an important Roman town known as Bassianae existed at this location. Today only small amount of this ancient settlement have been preserved. Bassianae was existed until the 6th century, it obtained the municipium status in 124 AD. The town was part of Pannonia province, but due to the subsequent divisions of this province, Bassianae was included into Pannonia Inferior and into Pannonia Secunda. Bassianae was devastated during Barbarian invasions in the 5th-6th century. Modern village of Donji Petrovci was mentioned first under this name in 1520, during administration of medieval Kingdom of Hungary. Since 1526, the village is part of the Ottoman Empire and from 1527 to 1530 it belonged to vassal Serb duchy in Syrmia, ruled by Radoslav Čelnik.

The village was included into Ottoman Sanjak of Syrmia, part of the Budin Eyalet. Following the Treaty of Passarowitz from 1718, the village was transferred from Ottoman Empire to Habsburg Monarchy; until 1745, the village was under military administration, since 1745, it was part of the Syrmia County of the Habsburg Kingdom of Slavonia. In 1828, village was populated by Orthodox Christians. In 1848-1849, the village was part of autonomous Serbian Vojvodina and from 1849 to 1860 it was part of the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar, a separate Habsburg crownland. After abolishment of the voivodeship in 1860, the village was again included into Syrmia County of the Kingdom of Slavonia. Following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement from 1868, the Kingdom of Slavonia and the Kingdom of Croatia were joined into newly formed Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia, which administratively was part of the Kingdom of Hungary and Austria-Hungary. In 1910, the village had Hungarian minority. Following the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918, the village firstly became part of the State of Slovenes and Serbs part of the Kingdom of Serbia, part of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes.

From 1918 to 1922, the village was part of the Syrmia County, from 1922 to 1929 part of the Syrmia Oblast, from 1929 to 1941 part of Danube Banovina. From 1941 to 1944, the village was occupied by Axis troops and was attached to the Pavelić's Independent State of Croatia. In 1944, Soviet Red Army and Yugoslav partisans expelled Axis troops from the region and village was included into Autonomous Province of Vojvodina within new socialist Yugoslavia. Since 1945, Vojvodina is part of the People's Republic of Serbia within Yugoslavia. In 2002, population of the village included: Serbs = 902 Romani = 55 others = 34 1961: 1,015 1971: 944 1981: 842 1991: 843 2002: 991 Archaeological Sites of Exceptional Importance List of places in Serbia List of cities and villages in Vojvodina Slobodan Ćurčić, Broj stanovnika Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 1996. Slobodan Ćurčić, Naselja Srema - geografske karakteristike, Novi Sad, 2000. Dr Nikola Vulić, Vojvodina u rimsko doba, Zbornik "Vojvodina", knjiga I, PROMETEJ, Novi Sad, 2008.

Petar Milošević, Arheologija i istorija Sirmijuma, Novi Sad, 2001. Prof. dr Radmilo Petrović, Vojvodina - petnaest milenijuma kulturne istorije, Beograd, 2003. Dr Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 1, Novi Sad, 1990


Armou is a village in the Paphos District of Cyprus, located 4 kilometres south-east of Mesogi. It has a panoramic view of Paphos. Armou is located 363m above sea level; the area has been inhabited since pre-Christian times, according to the findings now exhibited at the Archaeological Museum of Paphos. The name of the community emerged from its first settler called Armos, while another version speaks of the “armos “ because of its location. A third version refers to the “arma ” of the goddess Aphrodite, which the goddess used in order to visit these places. Due to the village's location and environment, the village has attracted many Cypriot and foreign residents; the Tsada Golf CourseMinthis Hills is a 7 km drive from Armou. The Agia Varvara church is the only church in the village