Alfred Ernest Jones was a Welsh neurologist and psychoanalyst. A lifelong friend and colleague of Sigmund Freud from their first meeting in 1908, he became his official biographer. Jones was the first English-speaking practitioner of psychoanalysis and became its leading exponent in the English-speaking world; as President of both the International Psychoanalytical Association and the British Psycho-Analytical Society in the 1920s and 1930s, Jones exercised a formative influence in the establishment of their organisations and publications. Ernest Jones was born in Gowerton, Wales, an industrial village on the outskirts of Swansea, the first child of Thomas and Ann Jones, his father was a self-taught colliery engineer who went on to establish himself as a successful business man, becoming accountant and company secretary at the Elba Steelworks in Gowerton. His mother, Mary Ann, was from a Welsh-speaking Carmarthenshire family which had relocated to Swansea. Jones was educated at Swansea Grammar School, Llandovery College, Cardiff University in Wales.
Jones studied at University College London and meanwhile he obtained the Conjoint diplomas LRCP and MRCS in 1900. A year in 1901, he obtained an M. B. degree with honours in medicine and obstetrics. Within five years he received an MD degree and a Membership of the Royal College of Physicians in 1903, he was pleased to receive the University's gold medal in obstetrics from his distinguished fellow-Welshman, Sir John Williams. After obtaining his medical degrees, Jones specialised in neurology and took a number of posts in London hospitals, it was through his association with the surgeon Wilfred Trotter that Jones first heard of Freud's work. Having worked together as surgeons at University College Hospital, he and Trotter became close friends, with Trotter taking the role of mentor and confidant to his younger colleague, they had in common a wide-ranging interest in philosophy and literature, as well as a growing interest in Continental psychiatric literature and the new forms of clinical therapy it surveyed.
By 1905 they were sharing accommodation above Harley Street consulting rooms with Jones's sister, installed as housekeeper. Trotter and Elizabeth Jones married. Appalled by the treatment of the mentally ill in institutions, Jones began experimenting with hypnotic techniques in his clinical work. Jones first encountered Freud's writings directly in 1905, in a German psychiatric journal in which Freud published the famous Dora case-history, it was thus he formed "the deep impression of there being a man in Vienna who listened with attention to every word his patients said to him...a revolutionary difference from the attitude of previous physicians..."Jones's early attempts to combine his interest in Freud's ideas with his clinical work with children resulted in adverse effects on his career. In 1906 he was arrested and charged with two counts of indecent assault on two adolescent girls whom he had interviewed in his capacity as an inspector of schools for "mentally defective" children. At the court hearing Jones maintained his innocence, claiming the girls were fantasising about any inappropriate actions by him.
The magistrate concluded that no jury would believe the testimony of such children and Jones was acquitted. In 1908, employed as a pathologist at a London hospital, Jones accepted a colleague’s challenge to demonstrate the repressed sexual memory underlying the hysterical paralysis of a young girl’s arm. Jones duly obliged but, before conducting the interview, he omitted to inform the girl’s consultant or arrange for a chaperone. Subsequently, he faced complaints from the girl’s parents over the nature of the interview and he was forced to resign his hospital post. Jones's first serious relationship was with Loe Kann, a wealthy Dutch émigré referred to him in 1906 after she had become addicted to morphine during treatment for a serious kidney condition, their relationship lasted until 1913. It ended with Kann in analysis with Freud and Jones, at Freud's behest, undergoing analysis with Sándor Ferenczi. A tentative romance with Freud's daughter, did not survive the disapproval of her father. Before her visit to Britain in the autumn of 1914, which Jones chaperoned, Freud advised him: She does not claim to be treated as a woman, being still far away from sexual longings and rather refusing man.
There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets 2 or 3 years older. In 1917 Jones married the Welsh musician Morfydd Llwyn Owen, they were holidaying in South Wales the following year when Morfydd became ill with acute appendicitis. Emergency surgery was carried out at her parents-in-law's Swansea home but Jones and the surgeon who operated were unable to save her from the effects of chloroform poisoning, she was buried in Oystermouth Cemetery on the outskirts of Swansea where her gravestone bears the inscription, chosen by Jones from Goethe's Faust, "Das Unbeschreibliche, hier ist's getan". Following some inspired matchmaking by his Viennese colleagues, in 1919 Jones met and married Katherine Jokl, a Jewish economics graduate from Moravia, she had been at school in Vienna with Freud's daughters. They had four children in what proved to be a long and happy marriage, though both struggled to overcome the loss of their eldest child, Gwenith, at the age of 7, during the interwar influenza epidemic.
Their son Mervyn Jones became a writer. Whilst attending a congress of neurologists in Amsterdam in 1907, Jones met Carl Jung, from whom he received a first-hand account of the work of Freud and his circle in Vienna. Confirmed in his judgement of the importance of Freud's work, Jones joined Jung in Zurich to plan the inaugural P
Id, ego and super-ego
The id, super-ego are three distinct, yet interacting agents in the psychic apparatus defined in Sigmund Freud's structural model of the psyche. The three parts are the theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction our mental life is described. According to this Freudian model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; as Freud explained:The functional importance of the ego is manifested in the fact that control over the approaches to motility devolves upon it. Thus in its relation to the id it is like a man on horseback, who has to hold in check the superior strength of the horse; the analogy may be carried a little further. A rider, if he is not to be parted from his horse, is obliged to guide it where it wants to go. Although the model is structural and makes reference to an apparatus, the id, ego and super-ego are purely psychological concepts and do not correspond to structures of the brain such as the kind dealt with by neuroscience; the super-ego is observable in how someone can view themselves as guilty, shameful and feel compelled to do certain things.
Freud in The Ego and the Id discusses "the general character of harshness and cruelty exhibited by the ideal – its dictatorial'Thou shalt.'" Freud hypothesizes different levels of ego ideal or superego development with greater ideals:...nor must it be forgotten that a child has a different estimate of parents at different periods of life. At the time at which the Oedipus complex gives place to the super-ego they are something quite magnificent. Identifications come about with these parents as well, indeed they make important contributions to the formation of character; the earlier in development, the greater the estimate of parental power. When one defuses into rivalry with the parental imago one feels the'dictatorial thou shalt' to manifest the power the imago represents. Four general levels are found in Freud's work: the auto-erotic, the narcissistic, the anal, the phallic; these different levels of development and the relations to parental imagos correspond to specific id forms of aggression and affection.
For example, aggressive desires to decapitate, to dismember, to cannibalize, to swallow whole, to suck dry, to make disappear, to blow away, etc. animate myths, are enjoyed in fantasy and horror movies, are observable in the fantasies and repressions of patients across cultures. The concepts themselves arose at a late stage in the development of Freud's thought as the "structural model" and was first discussed in his 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle and was formalized and elaborated upon three years in his The Ego and the Id. Freud's proposal was influenced by the ambiguity of the term "unconscious" and its many conflicting uses; the id is the disorganized part of the personality structure that contains a human's basic, instinctual drives. Id is the only component of personality, present from birth, it is the source of our bodily needs, wants and impulses our sexual and aggressive drives. The id contains the libido, the primary source of instinctual force, unresponsive to the demands of reality.
The id acts according to the "pleasure principle"—the psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse—defined as seeking to avoid pain or unpleasure aroused by increases in instinctual tension. According to Freud the id is unconscious by definition: It is the dark, inaccessible part of our personality, what little we know of it we have learned from our study of the dreamwork and of course the construction of neurotic symptoms, most of, of a negative character and can be described only as a contrast to the ego. We approach the id with analogies: we call it a chaos, a cauldron full of seething excitations.... It is filled with energy reaching it from the instincts, but it has no organization, produces no collective will, but only a striving to bring about the satisfaction of the instinctual needs subject to the observance of the pleasure principle. In the id:...contrary impulses exist side by side, without cancelling each other out.... There is nothing in the id that could be compared with negation...nothing in the id which corresponds to the idea of time.
Developmentally, the id precedes the ego. While "id" is in search of pleasure, "ego" emphasizes the principle of reality. Thus, the id:...contains everything, inherited, present at birth, is laid down in the constitution—above all, the instincts, which originate from the somatic organization, which find a first psychical expression here in forms unknown to us. The mind of a newborn child is regarded as "id-ridden", in the sense that it is a mass of instinctive drives and impulses, needs immediate satisfaction; the "id" moves on to. Example is reduction of tension, experienced; the id "knows no judgements of value: no good and e
Denial, in ordinary English usage, is asserting that a statement or allegation is not true. The same word, abnegation, is used for a psychological defense mechanism postulated by psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, in which a person is faced with a fact, too uncomfortable to accept and rejects it instead, insisting that it is not true despite what may be overwhelming evidence. An individual that exhibits such behavior is described as a true believer. Denial could mean denying the happening of an event or the reliability of information, which can lead to a feeling of aloofness and to the ignoring of beneficial information; the subject may use: simple denial: deny the reality of the unpleasant fact altogether minimisation: admit the fact but deny its seriousness projection: admit both the fact and seriousness but deny responsibility by blaming somebody or something else The concept of denial is important to the study of addiction. The theory of denial was first researched by Anna Freud, she classified denial as a mechanism of the immature mind, because it conflicts with the ability to learn from and cope with reality.
Where denial occurs in mature minds, it is most associated with death and rape. More recent research has expanded the scope and utility of the concept. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross used denial as the first of five stages in the psychology of a dying patient, the idea has been extended to include the reactions of survivors to news of a death. Many contemporary psychoanalysts treat denial as the first stage of a coping cycle; when an unwelcome change occurs, a trauma of some sort, the first impulse to disbelieve begins the process of coping. That denial, in a healthy mind rises to greater consciousness. Becoming a subconscious pressure, just beneath the surface of overt awareness, the mechanism of coping involves repression, while the person accumulates the emotional resources to face the trauma. Once faced, the person deals with the trauma in a stage alternately called acceptance or enlightenment, depending on the scope of the issue and the therapist's school of thought. After this stage, once sufficiently dealt with, or dealt with for the time being, the trauma must sink away from total conscious awareness again.
Left out of the conscious mind, the process of sublimation involves a balance of neither quite forgetting nor quite remembering. This allows the trauma to re-emerge in consciousness if it involves an ongoing process such as a protracted illness. Alternately, sublimation may begin the full resolution process, where the trauma sinks away into eventual forgetfulness; this entire cycle has been referred to in modern parlance as denial, confusing the full cycle with only one stage of it. To further muddy discourse, the terms denial and cycle of denial sometimes get used to refer to an unhealthy, dysfunctional cycle of unresolved coping with regard to addiction and compulsion. Unlike some other defense mechanisms postulated by psychoanalytic theory, the general existence of denial is easy to verify for non-specialists. However, denial is one of the most controversial defense mechanisms, since it can be used to create unfalsifiable theories: anything the subject says or does that appears to disprove the interpreter's theory is explained, not as evidence that the interpreter's theory is wrong, but as the subject's being "in denial".
However, researchers note that in some cases of corroborated child sexual abuse, the victims sometimes make a series of partial confessions and recantations as they struggle with their own denial and the denial of abusers or family members. Use of denial theory in a legal setting, therefore, is regulated and experts' credentials verified. "Formulaic guilt" by "being a denier" has been castigated by English judges and academics. The main objection is that denial theory is founded on the premise that that which the supposed denier is denying is truth; this usurps the judge as triers of fact. What makes denial denial and not just a refusal to admit to or accept a truth or fact rests in the degree of an individual's awareness of the existence of the truth or fact. In denial, an individual does not see or is unconscious of existence of the truth or fact; the choice to refuse reality is unconscious as well. Refusal to admit to or accept a truth or fact differs from denial in that the individual recognizes or is conscious of the existence of the truth or fact but consciously refuses to accept it as such.
Denial is characteristic of mania, of people with bipolar affective disorder in the manic stage — in this state, one can deny, remarkably a long period of time, the fact that he has fatigue, negative emotions and problems in general, until he is physically exhausted McWilliams, Nancy. Psychoanalytic Diagnosis, Second Edition: Understanding Personality Structure in the Clinical Process; the Guilford Pres. Freud employs the term Verleugnung as distinct from Verneinung. In Verleugnung, the defense consists of denying something that affects the individual and is a way of affirming what he or she is denying. For Freud, Verleugnung is related to psychoses. Freud broadened his clinical work on disavowal beyond the realm of psychosis. In "Fetishism", he reported a case of two young men. Freud notes that neither of them developed a psychosis though "a piece of reality, und
Sabina Nikolayevna Spielrein was a Russian physician and one of the first female psychoanalysts. She was in succession the patient student colleague of Carl Gustav Jung, with whom she had an intimate relationship during 1908–1910, as is documented in their correspondence from the time and her diaries, she met and had a collegial relationship with Sigmund Freud. One of her more famous analysands was Jean Piaget, she worked as a psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and paediatrician in Switzerland and Russia. In a thirty-year professional career, she published over 35 papers in three languages, covering psychoanalysis, developmental psychology, psycholinguistics and educational psychology, her best known and most influential published work in the field of psychoanalysis is the essay titled "Destruction as the Cause of Coming Into Being", written in German in 1912. Sabina was known as the pioneer of psychoanalysis and one of the first people to introduce the death instinct, she was one of the first people to conduct a case study on schizophrenia and have a dissertation appear in psychoanalytic journal.
Although Spielrein has been remembered on account of her relationship with Jung, has sometimes been the subject of lurid speculation, she is now recognized as an important and innovative thinker, marginalized in history because of her unusual eclecticism, refusal to join factions, feminist approach to psychology, her death in the Holocaust. She was born in 1885 into a wealthy Jewish family in Rostov-on-Don, Russian Empire, her mother Eva Lublinskaya was the granddaughter of rabbis from Yekaterinoslav. Eva trained as a dentist, but did not practise. Sabina's father Nikolai Spielrein was an agronomist. After moving from Warsaw to Rostov, he became a successful merchant. On her birth certificate, Sabina appeared as Sheyve Naftulovna, but throughout her life and on official documents she used the name Sabina Nikolayevna, she was the eldest of five children. All three of her brothers became eminent scientists. One of them, Isaac Spielrein, was a pioneer of work psychology. From her early childhood, Sabina was imaginative and believed that she had a'higher calling' to achieve greatness, she communicated about this with a'guardian spirit'.
However, her parents' marriage was turbulent and she experienced physical violence from both of them. She obsessions; some commentators believe. She attended a Froebel school followed by the Yekaterinskaya Gymnasium in Rostov, where she excelled in science and languages, she learned to speak three languages fluently. During her teens, she continued to be troubled and became infatuated first with her history teacher with a paternal uncle. While at school, she resolved to go abroad to train as a doctor, with the approval of her rabbinic grandfather. At the end of her schooling she was awarded a gold medal. Following the sudden death of her only sister Emilia from typhoid, Spielrein's mental health started to deteriorate, at the age of 18 she suffered a breakdown with severe hysteria including tics and uncontrollable laughing and crying. After an unsuccessful stay in a Swiss sanatorium, where she developed another infatuation with one of the doctors, she was admitted to the Burghölzli mental hospital near Zurich in August 1904.
Its director was Eugen Bleuler, who ran it as a therapeutic community with social activities for the patients including gardening and scientific lectures. One of Bleuler's assistants was Carl Jung, afterwards appointed as deputy director. In the days following her admission, Spielrein disclosed to Jung that her father had beaten her, that she was troubled by masochistic fantasies of being beaten. Bleuler ensured that she was separated from her family requiring her father and brothers to have no contact with her, she made a rapid recovery, by October was able to apply for medical school and to start assisting Jung with word association tests in his laboratory. Between October and January, Jung carried out word association tests on her, used some rudimentary psychoanalytic techniques, he referred to her twice in letters to Freud as his first analytic case, although in his publications he referred to two patients in these terms. During her admission, Spielrein fell in love with Jung. By her own choice, she continued as a resident in the hospital from January to June 1905, although she was no longer receiving treatment.
She worked as an intern alongside other Russian students there including Max Eitingon, as well as expatriate psychiatrists who were studying with Bleuler, including Karl Abraham. She attended medical school at the University of Zurich from June 1905 to January 1911, excelling there academically, her diaries show a broad range of interests and reading including philosophy, Russian literature and evolutionary biology. She lived in a number of different apartments, mixing in a social circle that included fellow Russian Jewish women medical students. Many of these, together with Spielrein, became fascinated with the emerging movement of psychoanalysis in western Europe, studied with Bleuler and Jung. Spielrein's main focus while in medical school was on psychiatry. A number of them, like Spielrein, subsequently became psychiatrists, spent time with Freud in Vienna, published in psychoanalytic journals; these included Esther Aptekman, Fanya Chalevsky, Sheina Grebelska
William Ronald Dodds Fairbairn FRSE was a Scottish psychiatrist, psychoanalyst and a central figure in the development of the object relations theory of psychoanalysis. Ronald Fairbairn was born at the Red House, Cluny Gardens, in Morningside, Edinburgh in 1889, the only child of Cecilia Leefe and Thomas Fairbairn, a chartered surveyor, President of the Edinburgh Architectural Association, he was educated at Merchiston Castle School and at the University of Edinburgh where he studied for three years in divinity and Hellenic Greek studies, graduating MA in 1911. In the First World War he joined the Royal Engineers and served under General Allenby in the Palestinian campaign, the Royal Garrison Artillery. On his return to home he began medical training inspired by his war experience, he received a doctorate in Medicine on 30 March 1929 from the University of Edinburgh. From 1927 to 1935 he lectured in psychology at the University and independently practised analysis. From 1941 until 1954 he was Consultant Psychiatrist to the Ministry of Pensions.
In 1931 he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. His proposers were James Drever, Edwin Bramwell, Sir Godfrey Hilton Thomson and Robert Alexander Fleming. On the basis of his writings he became an associate member of the British Psychoanalytical Society in 1931, becoming a full member in 1939. Fairbairn, though somewhat isolated in that he spent his entire career in Edinburgh, had a profound influence on British object relations and the relational schools. Fairbairn was one of the theory-builders for the Middle Group psychoanalysts; the Independent Group contained analysts who identified with neither the Kleinians nor the Anna Freudians. They were more concerned with the relationships between people than with the "drives" within them, he died in Edinburgh at the age of 75. He is buried with his wives in Dean Cemetery in western Edinburgh; the grave lies close to the main east entrance and lodge-house. In 1926 Fairbairn married Mary Ann More Gordon the daughter of Harry More Gordon.
Their daughter Ellinor was born in 1927, followed by twins in 1928, however they did not survive. Their fourth child was born in 1929, in 1933 their fifth son Nicholas was born, who would go on to become a barrister and MP. In 1959 he married daughter of Captain H. E. M. Archer. Fairbairn's works include: Psychoanalytical Studies of the Personality and From Instinct to Self: Selected Papers of W. R. D. Fairbairn. There is a biography by John Derg Sutherland, Fairbairn’s Journey into the Interior, a study of his work by James Grotstein and R. B. Rinsley and the Origins of Object Relations, an edited study by Neil J. Skolnik and David E. Scharff, Fairbairn Then and Now. Psychoanalytical Studies of Personality is a collection of papers published in different reviews; the book is divided into three parts, the first being theoretical, the second one clinical, the third one concerning more general problems. The first four articles contain the largest body of the most innovative Fairbairn concepts; the table of contents entails: Part One: An Object-Relations Theory of the PersonalityChapter I: Schizoid Factors in the Personality Chapter II: A Revised Psychopathology of the Psychoses and Psychoneuroses Chapter III: The Repression and the Return of Bad Objects Chapter IV: Endopsychic Structure Considered in Terms of Object-Relationships Chapter V: Object-Relationships and Dynamic Structure Chapter VI: Steps in the Development of an Object-Relations Theory of the Personality1 Chapter VII: A Synopsis of the Development of the Author's Views Regarding the Structure of the Personality Part Two: Clinical PapersChapter I: Notes on the Religious Phantasies of a Female Patient Chapter II: Features in the Analysis of a Patient with a Physical Genital Abnormality Chapter III: The Effect of a King's Death Upon Patients Undergoing Analysis Part Three: Miscellaneous PapersChapter I: The Sociological Significance of Communism Considered in the Light of Psychoanalysis Chapter II: Psychology as a Prescribed and as a Proscribed Subject Chapter III: The War Neuroses—Their Nature and Significance Chapter IV: The Treatment and Rehabilitation of Sexual Offenders One of the most important contributions of Fairbairn to the psychoanalytic paradigm is proposing an alternative viewpoint regarding the libido.
Whereas Freud assumed that the libido is pleasure seeking, Fairbairn thought of the libido as object seeking. That is, he thought that the libido is not aimed at pleasure, but at making relationships with objects external to the self; the first connections a child makes are with his parents. Through diverse forms of contact between the child and his parents, a bond between them is formed; when the bond is formed, the child becomes attached to his parents. This early relationship shapes the emotional life of the child in such a strong way that it determines the emotional experiences that the child will have on in life, because the early libidinal objects become the prototypes for all experience of connection with others. Fairbairn states that the object relations a child has early on in life become the child's prototypes for all experiences regarding connections with others; the internal object relation describes a relation. In the normal situation, healthy parenting results in a child with an outward orientation towards real people, who can give real contact and exchange.
When the needs of the child are not met by the paren
Melanie Klein née Reizes was an Austrian-British author and psychoanalyst, known for her work in the world of developmental psychology. Her observation and novel therapeutic techniques for adolescents had a profound effect on child psychology as well as contemporary psychoanalysis. Born the fourth and final child of Jewish parents Moriz and Libussa Reizes, Klein would spend most of her early life in Vienna Austria. Educated at the gymnasium, Klein much like her father before her, possessed aspirations of one day entering the medical field. More the study of psychiatric medicine, her goal of entering medical school would be thwarted by a decline in her family's economic status. At the age of twenty one she married industrial chemist Arthur Klein, soon after gave birth to their first child Melitta. While she would go on to birth two additional children, Klein suffered from clinical depression, with these pregnancies taking quite a toll on her; this in conjunction with an unhappy marriage soon led Klein to seek out means of treatment.
Shortly after her family moved to Budapest in 1910, Klein began a course of therapy with psychoanalyst Sándor Ferenczi. It was during their time. Encouraged by Ferenczi, Klein began her studies by the simple observations of her own children; until this point minimal documentation existed on the topic of psychoanalysis concerning children, Klein seized the opportunity by developing her play technique. Comparable to that of free association in adult psychoanalysis, Klein's play technique sought to interpret the unconscious meaning behind the play and interaction of children. During 1921, in the wake of a dissolving marriage, Klein moved to Berlin where she joined the Berlin Psycho-Analytic Society under the tutelage of Karl Abraham. Although Abraham supported her pioneering work with children, neither Klein nor her ideas received much support in Berlin; as a divorced woman whose academic qualifications did not include a bachelor's degree, Klein was a visible iconoclast within a profession dominated by male physicians.
Despite this impediment, Klein's up and coming work possessed a strong influence on the developing theories and techniques of psychoanalysis in Great Britain. Her theories on human development as well as defense mechanism were a source of controversy as they conflicted with Freud's theories on development, triggering a buzz in the world of developmental psychology. Around the same time Klein presented her ideas, Anna Freud was doing the same; the two were unofficial rivals of sorts with the protracted debates between the followers of Klein and the followers of Freud. With these so-called'controversial discussions', the British Psychoanalytical Society split into three separate training divisions: Kleinian and Independent; these debates ended with an agreement on dual approach to instruction in the field of child analysis. The school of Kleinianism was the first branch off the proverbial Freudian tree, to remain part of the psychoanalytic movement. Klein was one of the first to use traditional psychoanalysis with young children.
She was innovative in both her theories on infant development. Opinionated, demanding the respect of those in the academic community, Klein established a influential training program in psychoanalysis. By observing and analyzing the play and interactions of children, Klein built onto the work of Freud's unconscious mind, her dive into the unconscious mind of the infant yielded the findings of the early Oedipus complex, as well as the developmental roots of the superego. Klein's theoretical work incorporates Freud's belief in the existence of the "death pulsation", reflecting the fact that all living organisms are inherently drawn toward an inorganic state, therefore, in an unspecified sense, contain a drive towards death. In psychological terms, the postulated sustaining and uniting principle of life, is thereby presumed to have a companion force, which seeks to terminate and disintegrate life. Both Freud and Klein regarded these biomental forces as the foundations of the psyche; these primary unconscious forces, whose mental matrix is the id, spark the ego—the experiencing self—into activity.
Id, ego and superego, to be sure, were shorthand terms referring to complex and uncharted psychodynamic operations. While Freud's ideas concerning children came from working with adult patients, Klein was innovative in working directly with children as young as two years old. Klein saw children's play as their primary mode of emotional communication. While observing children play with toys such as dolls, plasticine and paper, Klein documented their activities and interactions attempted to interpret the unconscious meaning behind their play. Following Freud she emphasized the significant role that parental figures played in the child's fantasy life, considered that the timing of Freud's Oedipus complex was incorrect. Contradicting Freud, she concluded. After exploring ultra-aggressive fantasies of hate and greed in young and disturbed children, Melanie Klein proposed a model of the human psyche that linked significant oscillations of state, with whether the postulated Eros or Thanatos pulsations were in the fore.
She named the state of the psyche, when the sustaining principle of life is in domination, the depressive position. This is considered by many to be her great contribution to psychoanalytic thought, she developed h
Anna Freud was an Austrian-British psychoanalyst. She was born in the sixth and youngest child of Sigmund Freud and Martha Bernays, she contributed to the field of psychoanalysis. Alongside Melanie Klein, she may be considered the founder of psychoanalytic child psychology. Compared to her father, her work emphasized the importance of the ego and its normal "developmental lines" as well as incorporating a distinctive emphasis on collaborative work across a range of analytical and observational contexts. After the Freud family were forced to leave Vienna in 1938, with the advent of the Nazi regime in Austria, she resumed her psychoanalytic practice and her pioneering work in child psychology in London, establishing the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic in 1952 as a centre for therapy and research work. Anna Freud was born in Vienna, Austria-Hungary on 3 December 1895, she was the youngest daughter of Martha Bernays. She grew up in "comfortable bourgeois circumstances." Anna Freud appears to have had a comparatively unhappy childhood, in which she "never made a close or pleasurable relationship with her mother, was instead nurtured by their Catholic nurse Josephine."
She had difficulties getting along with her siblings with her sister Sophie Freud. Sophie, the more attractive child, represented a threat in the struggle for the affection of their father: "the two young Freuds developed their version of a common sisterly division of territories:'beauty' and'brains', their father once spoke of her'age-old jealousy of Sophie.'As well as this rivalry between the two sisters, Anna had other difficulties growing up –'a somewhat troubled youngster who complained to her father in candid letters how all sorts of unreasonable thoughts and feelings plagued her'. It seems that'in general, she was relentlessly competitive with her siblings...and was sent to health farms for thorough rest, salutary walks, some extra pounds to fill out her all too slender shape': she may have suffered from depression which caused eating disorders. The close relationship between Anna and her father was different from the rest of her family, she was a lively child with a reputation for mischief.
Freud wrote to his friend Wilhelm Fliess in 1899: "Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness." Freud is said to refer to her in his diaries more than others in the family. On Anna Freud would say that she didn't learn much in school; this was how she picked up Hebrew, English and Italian. At the age of 15, she started reading her father's work and discovered a dream she had'at the age of nineteen months... appeared in The Interpretation of Dreams. Commentators have noted how'in the dream of little Anna... little Anna only hallucinates forbidden objects'. Anna finished her education at the Cottage Lyceum in Vienna in 1912. Suffering from a depression and anorexia, she was insecure about what to do in the future. A visit to Britain in the autumn of 1914, which her father's colleague, Ernest Jones, became of concern to Freud when he learned of the latter's romantic intentions, his advice to Jones, in a letter of 22 July 1914, was that his daughter "... does not claim to be treated as a woman, being still far away from sexual longings and rather refusing man.
There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older". In 1914 she passed the test to work as a teaching apprentice at the Cottage Lyceum. From 1915 to 1917, she worked as a teaching apprentice for third and fifth graders. For the school year 1917-18, she began'her first venture as Klassenlehrerin for the second grade'. For her performance during the school years 1915-18 she was praised by her superior, Salka Goldman who'wrote... she showed "great zeal "for all her responsibilities, but she was appreciated for her "conscientious preparations" and for her "gift for teaching"... being such a success that she was invited to stay on with a regular four-year contract starting in the fall of 1918'. After experiencing multiple episodes of illness Anna Freud resigned her teaching post in 1920; this enabled her to pursue further her growing interest in her father's work and writings. From 1918 to 1921 and from 1924 to 1929 she was in analysis with her father.
In 1922 she presented her paper "Beating Fantasies and Daydreams" to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society and became a member of the society. In 1923, she began her own psychoanalytical practice with children and by 1925 she was teaching at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis. From 1925 until 1934, she was the Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association while she continued child analysis and contributed to seminars and conferences on the subject. In 1935, she became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute and the following year she published her influential study of the "ways and means by which the ego wards off depression and anxiety", The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence, it became a founding work of ego psychology and established Freud's reputation as a pioneering theoretician. Among the first children Anna Freud took into analysis. In 1925 Burlingham, heiress to the Tiffany luxury jewellery retailer, had arrived in Vienna from New York with her four children and entered analysis firstly with Theodore Reik and with a view to training in child analysis, with Freud himself.
Anna and Dorothy soon d