Arkansas Valley (ecoregion)
The Arkansas Valley is a Level III ecoregion designated by the Environmental Protection Agency in the U. S. states of Oklahoma. It parallels the Arkansas River between the flat plains of western Oklahoma and the Arkansas Delta, dividing the Ozarks and the Ouachita Mountains with the broad valleys created by the river's floodplain interrupted by low hills, scattered ridges, mountains. In Arkansas, the region is known as the Arkansas River Valley when describing the history and culture of the region. Arkansas Valley is a synclinal and alluvial valley lying between the Ozark Highlands and the Ouachita Mountains; the Arkansas Valley is, characteristically and transitional. It coincides with the Arkoma Basin, an oil and gas province, that developed as sand and mud were deposited in a depression north of the rising Ouachita Mountains during the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian eras; the Arkansas Valley contains plains, floodplains and scattered mountains. It is underlain by interbedded Pennsylvanian sandstone and siltstone.
Prior to the 19th century, uplands were dominated by a mix of forest, woodland and prairie whereas floodplains and lower terraces were covered by bottomland deciduous forest. Today, less rugged upland areas have been cleared for hayland. Poultry and livestock farming are important land uses. Water quality is good and influenced more by land use activities than by soils or geology; the Arkansas River is continuously turbid. Summer flow in smaller streams is limited or nonexistent. Fish communities characteristically contain a substantial proportion of sensitive species; the Arkansas Valley ecoregion has been subdivided into five Level IV ecoregions. The Scattered High Ridges and Mountains ecoregion is the most rugged and wooded in the Arkansas Valley; the ecoregion is characteristically covered by savannas, open woodlands, or forests dominated or codominated by upland oaks and shortleaf pine. It is underlain by Pennsylvanian shale. Nutrient and mineral values in streams are higher than in other parts of the Arkansas Valley.
Magazine Mountain, the highest point in Arkansas at 2,753 feet, is distinguished by diverse habitats. Its flat top is covered with stunted woodlands. Mesic habitats occur and may contain beech–maple forests; the region covers 895 square miles in Arkansas and 383 square miles in Oklahoma. Public lands include the Poteau Mountain Wilderness and the Dry Creek Wilderness, bordering the Fourche Mountains in the Ouachita National Forest. Mount Magazine State Park, Mount Nebo State Park, Petit Jean State Park represent protected mountains scattered through the gentler plains and floodplains of the Arkansas Valley; the Arkansas River Floodplain ecoregion is characteristically veneered with Holocene alluvium and includes natural levees, meander scars, oxbow lakes, point bars and backswamps. It is lithologically and physiographically distinct from the surrounding uplands of the Arkansas Valley. Mollisols, Entisols and Inceptisols are common. Potential natural vegetation is southern floodplain forest. Bottomland oaks including bur oak, American sycamore, willows, eastern cottonwood, green ash, pecan and elm were once extensive.
They have been cleared for pastureland and cropland. However, some forest remains in flooded or poorly-drained areas. In Arkansas, bur oak is most dominant in ecoregion 37b; the region covers 135 square miles in Oklahoma. A large section of preserved ecoregion is within Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge and Galla Creek Wildlife Management Area in southern Pope County, Arkansas. Near Central Arkansas, Bell Slough Wildlife Management Area, a 2,040 acres outcropping of Arkansas River Floodplain wedged between a mountainous section. Bell Slough WMA is home to the moist-soil wetlands, bottomland hardwood forest, prairie attractive to migratory waterfowl along the Mississippi Flyway, as well as upland hardwood and pine forest in a transition zone toward the upland mountains; the Arkansas Valley Hills ecoregion is underlain by Pennsylvanian sandstone and shale, is lithologically distinct from Ecoregions 37b and 39. Ecoregion 37c is more hilly than the Arkansas Valley Plains and less rugged than Ecoregions 36, 37a, 38.
Ultisols are common and support a potential natural vegetation of oak–hickory forest or oak–hickory–pine forest. Today, pastureland is extensive. Poultry operations, livestock farming, logging are important land uses; the region covers 2,771 square miles within Arkansas. Preserved examples of the ecoregion include Cove Creek Natural Area and Woolly Hollow State Park in Faulkner County and Big Cree
Boone County, Arkansas
Boone County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 36,903; the county seat is Harrison. It is Arkansas's 62nd county, formed on April 9, 1869; the headquarters of the Ku Klux Klan is in Boone County. It is part of AR Micropolitan Statistical Area. Boone County was formed from the eastern portion of Carroll County. Contrary to popular belief, it was not named for frontiersman Daniel Boone, it was called Boon, since the residents believed it would be a "boon" to all who settled there. The county’s first newspaper, begun in 1870, was the Boon County Advocate. However, when Governor Powell Clayton signed the act, creating the county 1869 it was titled An Act to Organize and Establish the County of Boone and for Other Purposes. So for whatever reason an "'e'" was added. In 1905 and 1909, race riots were conducted to drive African-Americans out of the area, it was marketed as an all-white sundown town into the 1920s. Today, it is known as a center of white supremacist activity, including the national headquarters of the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 602 square miles, of which 590 sq mi is land and 12 sq mi is water; the county is located in the northwest portion of the state, borders Missouri to the north. The county lies within the Ozark Mountains. Rolling hills characterize the topography, with the more rugged Boston Mountains lying just to the south. Isolated peaks of the Boston Mountain range are found in the south, including Boat Mountain, Pilot's Knob, Gaither Mountain. Portions of Bull Shoals Lake and Table Rock Lake lie in the northeast and northwest corners, respectively; the Corps of Engineers operates and maintains popular campsites on the lakes at Lead Hill and Cricket Creek. Crooked Creek, popular with bass fishermen, winds through the county from south to east. Taney County, Missouri Marion County Searcy County Newton County Carroll County As of the 2000 census, there were 33,948 people, 13,851 households, 9,861 families residing in the county; the population density was 57 people per square mile.
There were 15,426 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.60% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.71% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. 1.06% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 13,851 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.50% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 25.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.90% under the age of 18, 8.20% from 18 to 24, 26.50% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 16.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.10 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $29,988, the median income for a family was $34,974. Males had a median income of $27,114 versus $19,229 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,175. About 10.70% of families and 14.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.00% of those under age 18 and 12.90% of those age 65 or over. Alpena Bergman Harrison Lead Hill Omaha Valley Springs North Arkansas College Diamond City Harrison Batavia Bear Creek Springs Capps Hopewell Little Arkansaw Self Elixir was a town in the vicinity of many springs, it was nearby present day Bergman. Heavy rains flooded the town in 1883, a major factor in its decline by 1892. In the 1880s, both Lead Hill and Elixir were expecting a railroad but none materialized; this helped the town's decline. Although the town is gone, the township of Elixir remains and contains Bergman. Keener was a town around one mile south of present-day Bergman.
Keener had a population of about 1,000 people. But, Keener began to decline fast by 1892. Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Boone County are listed below. Former townships include Bear Creek, Crooked Creek, Harrison and Young. List of lakes in Boone County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Boone County, Arkansas Ron McNair, state representative for Boone and Carroll counties since 2015 County government site Unofficial/Community guide site County Ordinances genealogy information pages at USGenWeb Map of Boone County Map of Boone County from Encyclopedia of Arkansas Boone County entry in the Encyclopedia of Arkansas Boone County Historical and Railroad Society, Inc. Boone County School District Reference Map
The Ouachita Mountains referred to as the Ouachitas, are a mountain range in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. They are formed by a thick succession of deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, one of the important orogenic belts of North America; the Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the southeast where they make a poorly understood connection with the Appalachians and to the southwest where they join with the Marathon area of West Texas. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U. S. Interior Highlands; the highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet. Louis R. Harlan claimed that "Ouachita" is composed of the Choctaw words ouac for buffalo and chito for large, together meaning "country of large buffaloes". At one time, herds of buffalo inhabited the lowland areas of the Ouachitas. Historian Muriel H. Wright wrote that "Ouachita" is composed of the Choctaw words owa for hunt and chito for big, together meaning "big hunt far from home".
According to the article Ouachita in the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, "Ouachita" comes from the French spelling of the Caddo word washita, meaning "good hunting grounds". The Ouachitas are a major physiographic province of Arkansas and Oklahoma and are grouped with the Arkansas River Valley. Together with the Ozark Plateaus, the Ouachitas form the U. S. Interior Highlands, one of few mountainous regions between the Appalachians and Rockies; the Ouachitas are dominated by pine and hickory. The shortleaf pine and post oak are common in upland areas; the maple-leaf oak is found at only four sites worldwide. Some native tree species, such as the eastern red-cedar, are colonizers of human-disturbed sites; the Ouachita National Forest covers 1.8 million acres of the Ouachitas. It is one of the largest and oldest national forests in the Southern U. S. created through an executive order by President Theodore Roosevelt on December 18, 1907. There are six wilderness areas within the Ouachita National Forest, which are protected areas designed to minimize the impacts of human activities.
Bison and elk once have since been extirpated. Today, there are large populations of white-tailed deer and other common temperate forest animals. Though elusive, hundreds of black bear roam the Ouachitas. Several species of salamander are endemic to the Ouachitas and have traits that vary from one locale to another; the Athens Piedmont consists of a series of none exceeding 1,000 feet. It is located south of the Ouachitas and extends from Arkadelphia, Arkansas to the Arkansas-Oklahoma border; the Athens Piedmont runs through Clark, Howard and Sevier counties in Arkansas and McCurtain County in Oklahoma. The Caddo and Missouri mountains are a high, compact group of mountains composed of the weather-resistant Arkansas Novaculite, they are located in Montgomery and Polk counties, Arkansas. The highest natural point is Raspberry Mountain at 2,358 feet; the headwaters of multiple rivers are found in this area, including the Caddo and Little Missouri rivers. The Cross Mountains are located in Polk and Sevier counties, Arkansas and McCurtain County, Oklahoma.
The highest natural point is Whiskey Peak at 1,670 feet. The Crystal Mountains are located in Montgomery County, Arkansas, they are so named because of the occurrence of some of the world's finest quartz. The Crystal Mountains are taller than the nearby Zig Zag Mountains, achieving elevations over 1,800 feet; the Fourche Mountains are a long, continuous chain of mountains composed of the weather-resistant Jackfork Sandstone. They extend from Pulaski County, Arkansas to Atoka County and are home to several popular sites of interest, including Pinnacle Mountain State Park near Little Rock, Arkansas; the highest natural point is Rich Mountain at 2,681 feet, which intersects the Arkansas-Oklahoma border near Mena, Arkansas. The Fourche Mountains form a major watershed divide between the Arkansas River Basin to the north and the Red River Basin to the south; the Frontal Ouachita Mountains are located in the Arkansas River Valley and feature a number of isolated landforms. The highest natural point is Mount Magazine at 2,753 feet, the highest natural point of the Ouachitas and U.
S. Interior Highlands; the Frontal Ouachita Mountains are structurally quite different from the rest of the Ouachitas and are sometimes considered a separate range. The Trap Mountains are located in Garland and Hot Spring counties, Arkansas; the highest natural point is Trap Mountain at 1,310 feet. The Zig Zag Mountains are located in Garland County and are home to the thermal springs of Hot Springs National Park, they are so named because of their unique chevron shape when viewed from above, the result of plunging anticlines and synclines. The Zig Zag Mountains do reach heights over 1,400 feet; the Ouachitas are formed by a thick succession of deformed Paleozoic strata constituting the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt, which outcrops for 220 miles in western Arkansas and southeastern Oklahoma. In a general sense, the Ouachitas are considered an anticlinorium because the oldest known rocks are located towards the center of the outcrop area; the Ouachitas continue in the subsurface to the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama and Mississippi where they plunge towards the Appalachian Mountains.
To the southwest, the Ouachitas join with the Marathon area of west Texas where rocks of the Ouachita Fold and Thrust Belt are exposed. Unlike many ranges in the United St
Crawford County, Arkansas
Crawford County is a county located in the Ozarks region of the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 61,948, making it the 12th-most populous of Arkansas's 75 counties; the county seat and largest city is Van Buren. Crawford County was formed on October 18, 1820 from the former Lovely County and Indian Territory, was named for William H. Crawford, the United States Secretary of War in 1815. Located within the Ozarks, the southern border of the county is the Arkansas River, placing the extreme southern edge of the county in the Arkansas River Valley; the frontier county became an early crossroads, beginning with a California Gold Rush and developing into the Butterfield Overland Mail, Civil War trails and railroads such as the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway, the Little Rock and Fort Smith Railroad, the St. Louis, Iron Mountain and Southern Railway. Today the county is home to the intersection of two major interstate highways, Interstate 40 and I-49. Crawford County is part of the Fort Smith metropolitan area.
As a dry county, alcohol sales are prohibited, though recent changes to county law provide for exemptions. Crawford County is located in the northwest region of Arkansas. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 604 square miles, of which 593 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Crawford County is included in an area designated for a planned extension of I-49 into Arkansas; the final project will connect New Orleans, Louisiana, to Kansas City, Missouri, a large trucking corridor, not served by an Interstate highway. The proposed highway would utilize portions of I-49 which runs north from Van Buren toward the Missouri state line passing through Benton County, home of Walmart; the corridor was listed as the number-one high-priority corridor by transportation officials in the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act. Washington County Madison County Franklin County Sebastian County Le Flore County, Oklahoma Sequoyah County, Oklahoma Adair County, Oklahoma Ozark National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 53,247 people, 19,702 households, 15,150 families residing in the county.
The population density was 35/km². There were 21,315 housing units at an average density of 14/km²; the racial makeup of the county was 92.19% White, 0.87% Black or African American, 2.01% Native American, 1.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.48% from other races, 2.24% from two or more races. 3.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 19,702 households out of which 37.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.20% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.10% were non-families. 20.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.07. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.20% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.80% from 45 to 64, 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 97.70 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,871, the median income for a family was $36,741. Males had a median income of $29,581 versus $20,352 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,015. About 10.90% of families and 14.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.30% of those under age 18 and 13.70% of those age 65 or over. Thousands of self-claimed "Western Band of Cherokee" fought for state and federal recognition as a political entity of Native Americans. Crawford County was part of the Cherokee Nation, which lost its tribal sovereignty status as a result of the U. S. Civil war in the 1860s; the Cherokee Nation was subsequently relocated to the west in the present-day state of Oklahoma. Alma Cedarville Dyer Kibler Mountainburg Mulberry Van Buren Chester Rudy Dora Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times.
However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Crawford County are listed below. List of lakes in Crawford County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Arkansas Crawford County government's website Crawford County Sheriff's Office
Newton County, Arkansas
Newton County is a county in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,330; the county seat is Jasper. Newton County is Arkansas's 46th county, formed on December 14, 1842, named for Thomas W. Newton, an Arkansas Congressman, it is dry county. Newton County is part of AR Micropolitan Statistical Area. Newton County residents were divided during the Civil War, serving in both the Confederate and Union armies. John Cecil, who had served as Newton County's sheriff, served as a Confederate Captain. Jasper blacksmith James R. Vanderpool served as Captain of Union Company C, 1st Regiment Arkansas Infantry Volunteers, while farmer and teacher John McCoy served as Captain of Union Company F, 1st Regiment Arkansas Infantry Volunteers. Many Newton County citizens served under each of these men, as well as in other units; as an example of how the war divided families, Confederate Captain Cecil's brother, served as a sergeant in Union Company D, 2nd Regiment Arkansas Cavalry Volunteers.
Violence took a severe toll on the civilian population, at one point, Captains McCoy and Vanderpool escorted 20 wagons of Unionist families from Newton County to Missouri to seek refuge. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 823 square miles, of which 821 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. Newton County lies entirely within the rugged Boston Mountain range of the Ozark Mountains where elevations exceed 2,500 feet; the Buffalo National River, a popular destination for canoeing and recreation, runs through the county from west to east. Highway 7, which traverses the county from north to south, has been rated as one of the most scenic drives in the region. Boone County Searcy County Pope County Johnson County Madison County Carroll County Buffalo National River Ozark National Forest Upper Buffalo Wilderness Mystic Cavern As of the 2000 census, there were 8,608 people, 3,500 households, 2,495 families residing in the county; the population density was 4/km one of the most sparse among county populations in Arkansas.
There were 4,316 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 99.29% White, 0.00% Black or African American, 0.56% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 0.09% from other races, 0.00% from two or more races. 0.00% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,500 households out of which 32.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.00% were married couples living together, 7.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families. 26.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.90% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 25.00% from 25 to 44, 27.60% from 45 to 64, 14.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.30 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,756, the median income for a family was $30,134. Males had a median income of $22,406 versus $17,654 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,788. About 15.70% of families and 20.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.80% of those under age 18 and 16.90% of those age 65 or over. Native residents of Newton County were interviewed in 1970 for research being done by a doctoral student at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. A Ph. D. degree was awarded to Bethany K. Dumas in May 1971 after she completed "A Study of the Dialect of Newton County, Arkansas." Results are discussed in two of her published articles/chapters: "The Morphology of Newton County, Arkansas: An Exercise in Studying Ozark Dialect," Mid–South Folklore 3, 115–125, "Southern Mountain English" Chapter 5 of The Workings of Language, ed. R. S. Wheeler, Westport, CT, London: Praeger, 1999, 67-79.
The county government is a constitutional body granted specific powers by the Constitution of Arkansas and the Arkansas Code. The quorum court is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all spending and revenue collection. Representatives are called justices of the peace and are elected from county districts every even-numbered year; the number of districts in a county vary from nine to fifteen, district boundaries are drawn by the county election commission. The Newton County Quorum Court has nine members. Presiding over quorum court meetings is the county judge, who serves as the chief operating officer of the county; the county judge is elected at-large and does not vote in quorum court business, although capable of vetoing quorum court decisions. Along with adjacent Searcy County, Newton is unique among Arkansas counties in being traditionally Republican in political leanings during the overwhelmingly Democratic "Solid South" era; this Republicanism resulted from their historical paucity of slaves, in turn created by infertile soils unsuitable for intensive cotton farming, produced support for the Union during the Civil War.
These were the only two counties in Arkansas to be won by Alf Landon in 1936, Wendell Willkie in 1940, Charles Evans Hughes in 1916, Calvin Coolidge in 1924. Since the Civil War the only Democrats to gain an absolute majority of Newton County's vote have been Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 and Jimmy Carter in 1976; the Republican nominee has received over sixty percent in all Presidential el
Cleburne County, Arkansas
Cleburne County is a county located in the U. S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,970; the county seat and most populous city is Heber Springs. The county was formed on February 1883 as the last of Arkansas's 75 counties to be formed, it is named for Confederate General Patrick Cleburne. Cleburne is dry county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 592 square miles, of which 554 square miles is land and 38 square miles is water. Much of the water area in the County includes Greers Ferry Lake, which extends westward into neighboring Van Buren County. Stone County Independence County White County Faulkner County Van Buren County As of the 2000 census, there were 24,046 people, 10,190 households, 7,408 families residing in the county; the population density was 44 people per square mile. There were 13,732 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.20% White, 0.12% Black or African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, 0.89% from two or more races.
1.17% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,190 households out of which 26.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.70% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.30% were non-families. 24.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.33 and the average family size was 2.74. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.30% under the age of 18, 6.60% from 18 to 24, 24.10% from 25 to 44, 26.90% from 45 to 64, 21.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 93.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,531, the median income for a family was $37,273. Males had a median income of $28,844 versus $19,672 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,250.
About 9.00% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.10% of those under age 18 and 11.90% of those age 65 or over. Fairfield Bay Greers Ferry Heber Springs Quitman Concord Higden Tumbling Shoals Drasco Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county; each township includes unincorporated areas. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships. Townships are of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research; each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Cleburne County are listed below. List of lakes in Cleburne County, Arkansas National Register of Historic Places listings in Cleburne County, Arkansas
The Ozarks called the Ozark Mountains or Ozark Plateau, is a physiographic region in the U. S. states of Missouri, Arkansas and extreme southeastern Kansas. The Ozarks cover a significant portion of northern Arkansas and most of the southern half of Missouri, extending from Interstate 40 in Arkansas to the Interstate 70 in central Missouri. There are two mountain ranges within the Ozarks: the Boston Mountains of Arkansas and the St. Francois Mountains of Missouri. Buffalo Lookout, the highest point in the Ozarks, is located in the Boston Mountains. Geologically, the area is a broad dome with the exposed core in the ancient St. Francois Mountains, some of the oldest rocks in North America; the Ozarks cover nearly 47,000 square miles, making it the most extensive highland region between the Appalachians and Rockies. Together with the Ouachita Mountains, the area is known as the U. S. Interior Highlands; the Salem Plateau, named after Salem, makes up the largest geologic area of the Ozarks. The second largest is the Springfield Plateau, named after Springfield, nicknamed the “Queen City of the Ozarks”.
On the northern Ozark border are the cities of Columbia, Missouri. Significant cities in Arkansas include Fayetteville. Near the Missouri-Arkansas border is Branson, Missouri, a tourist destination and popularizer of Ozark culture. Ozarks is a toponym believed to be derived as an English-language adaptation of the French abbreviation aux Arcs. In the decades prior to the French and Indian War, aux Arkansas referred to the trading post at Arkansas Post, located in wooded Arkansas Delta lowland area above the confluence of the Arkansas River with the Mississippi River. "Arkansas" seems to be the French version of what the Illinois tribe called the Quapaw, who lived in eastern Arkansas in the area of the trading post. The term came to refer to all Ozark Plateau drainage into the Arkansas and Missouri Rivers. An alternative origin for the name "Ozark" relates. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, French cartographers mapped the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers; the large, top most arc or bend in this part of the Arkansas River was referred to as being aux arcs—the top or northernmost arc in the whole of the lower Arkansas.
Travelers arriving by boat would disembark at this top bend of the river to explore the Ozarks. Other possible derivations include aux arcs meaning " of the arches," in reference to the dozens of natural bridges formed by erosion and collapsed caves in the Ozark region; these include Clifty Hollow Natural Bridge in Missouri, Alum Cove in the Ozark – St. Francis National Forest, it is suggested aux arcs is an abbreviation of aux arcs-en-ciel, French for "toward the rainbows," which are a common sight in the mountainous regions. After the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, American travelers in the region referred to various features of the upland areas using the term Ozark, such as Ozark Mountains and Ozark forests. By the early 20th century, the Ozarks had become a generic and used term; the Ozarks consist of five physiographic subregions: the Boston Mountains of north Arkansas and Cookson Hills of east Oklahoma. Karst features such as springs, losing streams and caves are common in the limestones of the Springfield Plateau and abundant in the dolostone bedrock of the Salem Plateau and Boston Mountains.
Missouri is known as "The Cave State" with over 6000 recorded caves. The Ozark Plateaus aquifer system affects groundwater movement in all areas except the igneous core of the St. Francois Mountains. Geographic features include limestone and dolomite glades, which are rocky, desert-like area on hilltops. Kept open by periodic fires that limit growth of grasses and forbs in shallow soil, glades are home to collared lizards, scorpions and other species more typical of the desert southwest; the Boston Mountains contain the highest elevations of the Ozarks with peaks over 2,500 feet and form some of the greatest relief of any formation between the Appalachian and Rocky Mountains. The Ouachita Mountains to the south rise a few hundred feet higher, but are not geographically associated with the Ozarks; the Boston Mountains portion of the Ozarks extends north of the Arkansas River Valley 20 to 35 miles and is 200 miles and are bordered by the Springfield and Salem Plateau to the north of the White River.
Summits can reach elevations of just over 2,560 feet with valleys 500 to 1,550 feet deep. Turner Ward Knob is the highest named peak. Located in western Newton County, its elevation is 2,463 feet. Nearby, five unnamed peaks have elevations at or above 2,560 feet. Drainage is to the White River, with the exception of the Illinois River, although there is considerab