Boston Society of Film Critics

The Boston Society of Film Critics is an organization of film reviewers from Boston, Massachusetts in the United States. The BSFC was formed in 1981 to make “Boston’s unique critical perspective heard on a national and international level by awarding commendations to the best of the year’s films and filmmakers and local film theaters and film societies that offer outstanding film programming.” Every year for the past three decades, the Boston Society of Film Critics give their Boston Society of Film Critics Awards. The 2009 award for best picture and best director went to The Hurt Locker directed by Kathryn Bigelow and won three other awards, it was the first time in the organization's thirty-year history. Categories of awards: Best Actor Best Actress Best Cast Best Cinematography Best Director Best Editing Best Film Best Foreign Language Film Best New Filmmaker Best Screenplay Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Use of Music in a FilmAwards are given for Best Cinematography, Best Film Editing, Best Foreign Language Film, Best Documentary, Best Ensemble Cast, Best Use of Music in Film, Best New Filmmaker.

The New Filmmaker award is named for David Brudnoy, Boston-area radio talk show host and film critic, a founding member of the BSFC. ^A: The Society does not distinguish between original screenplays and adaptation for their Best Screenplay award. Boston Society of Film Critics official website Boston Society of Film Critics Awards at the Internet Movie Database Boston Society of Film Critics Awards at Indiepix

Order topology

In mathematics, an order topology is a certain topology that can be defined on any ordered set. It is a natural generalization of the topology of the real numbers to arbitrary ordered sets. If X is a ordered set, the order topology on X is generated by the subbase of "open rays" for all a, b in X. Provided X has at least two elements, this is equivalent to saying that the open intervals = together with the above rays form a base for the order topology; the open sets in X are the sets that are a union of rays. A topological space X is called orderable if there exists a total order on its elements such that the order topology induced by that order and the given topology on X coincide; the order topology makes X into a normal Hausdorff space. The standard topologies on R, Q, Z, N are the order topologies. If Y is a subset of X Y inherits a total order from X; the set Y therefore has the induced order topology. As a subset of X, Y has a subspace topology; the subspace topology is always at least as fine as the induced order topology, but they are not in general the same.

For example, consider the subset Y = ∪ n∈N in the rationals. Under the subspace topology, the singleton set is open in Y, but under the induced order topology, any open set containing –1 must contain all but finitely many members of the space. Though the subspace topology of Y = ∪ n∈N in the section above is shown to be not generated by the induced order on Y, it is nonetheless an order topology on Y. To define a total order on Y that generates the discrete topology on Y modify the induced order on Y by defining -1 to be the greatest element of Y and otherwise keeping the same order for the other points, so that in this new order we have 1/n <1 –1 for all n ∈ N. Then, in the order topology on Y generated by <1, every point of Y is isolated in Y. We wish to define here a subset Z of a linearly ordered topological space X such that no total order on Z generates the subspace topology on Z, so that the subspace topology will not be an order topology though it is the subspace topology of a space whose topology is an order topology.

Let Z = ∪ in the real line. The same argument as before shows that the subspace topology on Z is not equal to the induced order topology on Z, but one can show that the subspace topology on Z cannot be equal to any order topology on Z. An argument follows. Suppose by way of contradiction that there is some strict total order < on Z such that the order topology generated by < is equal to the subspace topology on Z. In the following, interval notation should be interpreted relative to the < relation. If A and B are sets, A < B shall mean that a < b for each a in A and b in B. Let M = Z \, the unit interval. M is connected. If m, n ∈ M and m < -1 < n and separate M, a contradiction. Thus, M < or < M. Assume without loss of generality that < M. Since is open in Z, there is some point p in M such. Since < M, we know -1 is the only element of Z, less than p, so p is the minimum of M. M \ = A ∪ B, where A and B are nonempty open and disjoint connected subsets of M. By connectedness, no point of Z\B can lie between two points of B, no point of Z\A can lie between two points of A. Therefore, either A < B or B < A.

Assume without loss of generality that A < B. If a is any point in A p < a and ⊆ A. =[p,a), so [p,a) is open. ∪A=[p,a)∪A, so ∪A is an open subset of M and hence M = ∪ B is the union of two disjoint open subsets of M so M is not connected, a contradiction. Several variants of the order topology can be given: The right order topology on X is the topology whose open sets consist of intervals of the form; the left order topology on X is the topology. The left and right order topologies can be used to give counterexamples in general topology. For example, the left or right order topology on a bounded set provides an example of a compact space, not Hausdorff; the left order topology is the standard topology used for many set-theoretic purposes on a Boolean algebra. For any ordinal number λ one can consider the spaces of ordinal numbers [ 0, λ ) = is a non-profit grass roots coalition co-founded in September 2005 by Tom Lang and Aaron Toleos for the purpose of publishing a searchable list of the names of people who signed the petition to end same sex marriage in Massachusetts, sponsored by was the first lesbian, bisexual, transgender group to pioneer this type of activism. Petition fraud was accused when petition signature gatherer Angela McElroy came forward and testified that she and others engaged in deliberate voter fraud at the direction of her employer. After its inception in Massachusetts KTN listed on its website the petitions to take away GLBT rights in other states such as Oregon and Florida, posting the Florida and Arkansas petitions but not the signatures in Oregon where the signature collection effort failed.'s efforts in Arkansas led to exposing the signature of Walmart CEO Mike Duke as one of the people who signed the petition to put an anti-gay adoption ban on the ballot in Arkansas. has been active at rallies in and around the Boston area as early as the Liberty Sunday protest rally on October 17, 2006. continues to be active advocating for LGBT rights by lobbying legislators and through the website's blog. According to The Boston Globe in 2006, the campaign has attracted controversy and opponents are reported as saying that "its real purpose is to intimidate". In 2009 in The Seattle Times, Larry Stickney of the group Protect Marriage Washington accused the homosexual lobby of adopting "hostile, intimidating tactics". In 2009 Associated Press reported via abc40 news that the Arkansas Family Council may ask lawmakers to block the release of this information on the grounds that it violated the rights to privacy of those who signed the petitions. Group's efforts combined with Washington state based group resulted in the United States Supreme Court ruling Doe v. Reed 8-1 in their favor defeating their adversary's argument that the group's activities of posting the identity of petition signatures constitutes intimidation against those who would sign.

Another website to list gay-marriage foes, Boston Globe, June 12, 2006. Ark. group seeks to restrict petition information, Associated Press, April 29, 2009. Gay-rights group wants to name petition signers, Seattle Times, June 2, 2009.