Full Metal Jacket
Full Metal Jacket is a 1987 war film directed, co-written, produced by Stanley Kubrick and starring Matthew Modine, R. Lee Ermey, Vincent D'Onofrio and Adam Baldwin; the screenplay by Kubrick, Michael Herr, Gustav Hasford was based on Hasford's novel The Short-Timers. The storyline follows a platoon of U. S. Marines through their training focusing on two privates and Pyle, who struggle to get through boot camp under their abusive drill instructor, Gunnery Sergeant Hartman, the experiences of two of the platoon's Marines in the Tet Offensive during the Vietnam War; the film's title refers to the full metal jacket bullet used by soldiers. The film was released in the United States on June 26, 1987, it was the last of Kubrick's films to be released during his lifetime. Full Metal Jacket received critical acclaim and an Academy Award nomination for Best Adapted Screenplay for Kubrick and Hasford. In 2001, the American Film Institute placed it at No. 95 in their "AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills" poll.
During the United States' involvement in the Vietnam War, a group of Marine Corps recruits arrive at Parris Island, South Carolina, for boot camp. The ruthless drill instructor, employs forceful methods to turn the recruits into combat-ready Marines. Among the recruits are privates "Joker", "Cowboy", the overweight and dim-witted Leonard Lawrence, whom Hartman nicknames "Gomer Pyle". Pyle is inept at basic training, but improves after Hartman pairs him with Joker. However, when Hartman discovers a contraband doughnut in Pyle's foot locker, he adopts a collective punishment policy, punishing the rest of the platoon for Pyle's mistakes. One night, the recruits haze Pyle with a blanket party. Following this incident, Pyle reinvents himself as a model recruit and shows particular expertise in marksmanship; this impresses Hartman, but worries Joker, who notices Pyle talking to his rifle and believes that he may be suffering a mental breakdown. The recruits receive their Military Occupational Specialty assignments.
Joker is assigned to Military Journalism, while most of the others – including Cowboy and Pyle – are assigned to Infantry. During the platoon's final night on Parris Island, Joker discovers Pyle in the bathroom loading his rifle. Pyle executes drill commands and loudly recites the Rifleman's Creed, waking the others, including Hartman, who storms into the bathroom, insults Pyle and orders him to surrender the rifle. Pyle shoots Hartman dead and kills himself, while Joker watches in horror. In January 1968, Joker – now a sergeant – is a war correspondent in South Vietnam for Stars and Stripes with Private First Class Rafterman, a combat photographer. Rafterman wants to go into combat. At the Marine base, Joker is mocked for his lack of the thousand-yard stare, indicating his lack of war experience, they are interrupted by the start of the Tet Offensive as the North Vietnamese Army unsuccessfully attempts to overrun the base. The following day, the journalism staff is briefed about enemy attacks throughout South Vietnam.
Joker is sent to Phu Bai, accompanied by Rafterman. They meet the Lusthog Squad. Joker accompanies the squad during the Battle of Huế, where platoon commander "Touchdown" is killed by the enemy. After the Marines declare the area secure, a team of American news journalists and reporters enter Huế and interviews various Marines about their experiences in Vietnam and their opinions about the war. While patrolling Huế, Crazy Earl, the squad leader, is killed by a booby trap, leaving Cowboy in command; the squad becomes lost, Cowboy orders Eightball to scout the area. A Viet Cong sniper wounds Eightball and Doc Jay, the squad medic. Cowboy learns that tank support is unavailable and orders the team to prepare for withdrawal; the squad's machine gunner, "Animal Mother", attempts to save his comrades. He discovers there is only one sniper, but Doc Jay and Eightball are killed when Doc Jay attempts to indicate the sniper's location. While maneuvering toward the sniper, Cowboy is killed. Animal Mother leads an attack on the sniper.
Joker discovers the sniper, a teenage girl, attempts to shoot her, but his rifle jams and alerts her to his presence. Rafterman shoots the sniper, mortally wounding her; as the squad converges, the sniper first prays and the sniper begs for death saying "shoot me, shoot me" prompting an argument about whether or not to kill her or "Let her rot" said by Animal Mother. Animal Mother decides to allow a mercy killing. After some hesitation, Joker shoots her; the Marines congratulate him on his kill as Joker stares into the distance. The Marines march toward their camp, singing the "Mickey Mouse March". Joker states in narration that despite being "in a world of shit", he is glad to be alive and is no longer afraid. Matthew Modine as Private J. T. "Joker" Davis: A wise-cracking young recruit. Modine kept a diary on set, adapted into a book in 2005 and an interactive app in 2013. Vincent D'Onofrio as Private Leonard "Gomer Pyle" Lawrence: An over-weight and slow-minded recruit, the subject of Hartman's mockery.
D'Onofrio heard of the auditions for the film from Matthew Modine. Using a rented video camera and dressed in army fatigues, D'Onofrio recorded his audition. Despite Kubrick's saying that Pyle was "the hardest part to cast in the whole movie", he responded to D'Onofrio, telling the actor that he had won the part. D'Onofrio was required to gain 70 pounds. R. Lee Ermey as Gunnery Sergeant Hartman: A Parris Island drill instructor. Ermey served as a U. S. Marine drill instructor during the Vietnam War and used this experience to ad l
Brokeback Mountain is a 2005 American romantic drama film directed by Ang Lee and produced by Diana Ossana and James Schamus. Adapted from the 1997 short story of the same name by Annie Proulx, the screenplay was written by Ossana and Larry McMurtry; the film stars Heath Ledger, Jake Gyllenhaal, Anne Hathaway, Michelle Williams, depicts the complex emotional and sexual relationship between Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist in the American West from 1963 to 1983. The film received commercial success, it won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival, Best Picture and Best Director at the British Academy Film Awards, Golden Globe Awards, Producers Guild of America Awards, Critics' Choice Movie Awards, Independent Spirit Awards, among others. The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards, the most nominations at the 78th Academy Awards, where it won three—Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Original Score—though it lost the Best Picture award to Crash in a controversial Oscars upset. In 2018, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally or aesthetically significant".
It is the most recent film chosen to be in the Registry. In 1963, Ennis Del Mar and Jack Twist are hired by Joe Aguirre to herd his sheep through the summer in the Wyoming mountains. After a night of heavy drinking, Jack makes a pass at Ennis, hesitant but responds to Jack's advances. Despite Ennis' telling Jack that it was a one-time incident, they develop a passionate sexual and emotional relationship. After Jack and Ennis part ways, Ennis marries his longtime fiancée Alma Beers and has two daughters with her. Jack returns the next summer seeking work, but Aguirre, who had observed Jack and Ennis on the mountain, refuses to rehire him. Jack moves to Texas, where he meets and has a son with rodeo rider Lureen Newsome. After four years, Jack visits Ennis. Upon meeting, the two kiss passionately, Alma inadvertently observes this. Jack broaches the subject of creating a life with Ennis on a small ranch, but Ennis, haunted by a childhood memory of the torture and murder of two men suspected of homosexual behavior, refuses.
He is unwilling to abandon his family. Ennis and Jack continue to meet for infrequent fishing trips as their respective marriages deteriorate. Lureen abandons the rodeo, expecting Jack to work in sales. Alma and Ennis divorce in 1975. Upon hearing about Ennis' divorce, Jack drives to Wyoming, he suggests again that they live together. Jack finds solace with male prostitutes in Mexico. Ennis sees his family until Alma confronts him about her knowing the true nature of his relationship with Jack; this results in a violent argument. Ennis has a brief romantic relationship with Cassie Cartwright, a waitress. Jack and Lureen meet and befriend another couple and Lashawn Malone, it is implied that Jack begins an affair with Randall, as Randall tells Jack his boss has a remote cabin that he can use anytime he wants and suggests they use it together sometime. At the end of a regular fishing trip with Jack, Ennis tries to delay their next meeting. Jack's frustration erupts into argument, Ennis blames Jack for being the cause of his own conflicted actions.
Ennis begins to cry. Jack tries to hold him and he momentarily objects. Jack watches; some time Ennis receives a postcard he had sent to Jack, stamped "Deceased". He calls Lureen; as she is speaking, Ennis imagines that Jack was beaten to death by a gang of thugs, the fate that Ennis feared. Lureen tells Ennis that Jack wanted to have his ashes scattered on Brokeback Mountain, but she does not know where it is. Ennis offers to take Jack's ashes to the mountain; the father refuses. Permitted by Jack's mother to see Jack's childhood bedroom, Ennis finds the bloodstained shirt he thought he had lost on Brokeback Mountain, he discovers. Ennis holds both shirts up to his face. Jack's mother lets him keep the shirts. 19-year-old Alma Jr. arrives at Ennis' trailer to tell her father she is engaged. She invites him to the wedding. Ennis asks her if her fiancé loves her, she replies, "Yes". After Alma Jr. leaves, Ennis goes to his closet, where his and Jack's shirts hang together, with a postcard of Brokeback Mountain tacked above them.
He stares at the ensemble for a moment, tears in his eyes, murmurs, "Jack, I swear..." Gus Van Sant attempted to adapt Proulx's story as a film, hoping to cast Matt Damon as Ennis and Joaquin Phoenix as Jack. Damon, who worked with Van Sant on Good Will Hunting, told the director, "Gus, I did a gay movie a cowboy movie. I can't follow it up with a gay-cowboy movie!" Van Sant went on to make the biographical film Milk, based on the life of gay rights activist and politician Harvey Milk. Joel Schumacher was linked with the project prior to Lee's involvement; when Ang Lee first heard of the story and screenplay, he attempted to get the film made as an independent producer. However, this did not work out and before Lee would take a break after finishing Hulk he got into contact with co-screenwriter and CEO of Focus Features, James Schamus to ask if the film was made. Ang Lee was considering retireme
Schindler's List is a 1993 American epic historical period drama film directed and co-produced by Steven Spielberg and written by Steven Zaillian. It is based on the novel Schindler's Ark by Australian novelist Thomas Keneally; the film follows Oskar Schindler, a Sudeten German businessman, who saved the lives of more than a thousand Polish-Jewish refugees from the Holocaust by employing them in his factories during World War II. It stars Liam Neeson as Schindler, Ralph Fiennes as SS officer Amon Göth, Ben Kingsley as Schindler's Jewish accountant Itzhak Stern. Ideas for a film about the Schindlerjuden were proposed as early as 1963. Poldek Pfefferberg, one of the Schindlerjuden, made it his life's mission to tell the story of Schindler. Spielberg became interested in the story when executive Sidney Sheinberg sent him a book review of Schindler's Ark. Universal Pictures bought the rights to the novel, but Spielberg, unsure if he was ready to make a film about the Holocaust, tried to pass the project to several other directors before deciding to direct the film himself.
Principal photography took place in Kraków, over the course of 72 days in 1993. Spielberg approached it as a documentary. Cinematographer Janusz Kamiński wanted to give the film a sense of timelessness. John Williams composed the score, violinist Itzhak Perlman performs the film's main theme. Schindler's List premiered on November 30, 1993, in Washington, D. C. and it was released on December 1993, in the United States. Listed among the greatest films made, it was a box office success, earning $322 million worldwide on a $22 million budget, it was the recipient of seven Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Original Score, as well as numerous other awards. In 2007, the American Film Institute ranked the film 8th on its list of the 100 best American films of all time; the Library of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry in 2004. In Kraków during World War II, the Germans have forced local Polish Jews into the overcrowded Kraków Ghetto.
Oskar Schindler, an ethnic German from Czechoslovakia, arrives in the city hoping to make his fortune. A member of the Nazi Party, Schindler lavishes bribes on Wehrmacht and SS officials and acquires a factory to produce enamelware. To help him run the business, Schindler enlists the aid of Itzhak Stern, a local Jewish official who has contacts with black marketeers and the Jewish business community. Stern helps Schindler arrange financing for the factory. Schindler maintains friendly relations with the Nazis and enjoys wealth and status as "Herr Direktor", Stern handles administration. Schindler hires Jewish workers because they cost less, while Stern ensures that as many people as possible are deemed essential to the German war effort, which saves them from being transported to concentration camps or killed. SS-Untersturmführer Amon Göth arrives in Kraków to oversee construction of Płaszów concentration camp; when the camp is completed, he orders the ghetto liquidated. Many people are killed in the process of emptying the ghetto.
Schindler is profoundly affected. He notices a young girl in a red coat as she hides from the Nazis, sees her body among a wagonload of corpses. Schindler is careful to maintain his friendship with Göth and, through bribery and lavish gifts, continues to enjoy SS support. Göth brutally mistreats his Jewish maid Helen Hirsch and randomly shoots people from the balcony of his villa, the prisoners are in constant fear for their lives; as time passes, Schindler's focus shifts from making money to trying to save as many lives as possible. To better protect his workers, Schindler bribes Göth into allowing him to build a sub-camp; as the Germans begin to lose the war, Göth is ordered to ship the remaining Jews at Płaszów to Auschwitz concentration camp. Schindler asks Göth to allow him to move his workers to a new munitions factory he plans to build in Brünnlitz near his home town Zwittau. Göth charges a huge bribe. Schindler and Stern create "Schindler's List" – a list of about 850 people to be transferred to Brinnlitz and thus saved from transport to Auschwitz.
The train carrying the women and children is accidentally redirected to Auschwitz-Birkenau. At the new factory, Schindler forbids the SS guards from entering the factory floor and encourages the Jews to observe the Jewish Sabbath. Over the next seven months, he spends much of his fortune bribing Nazi officials and buying shell casings from other companies. Schindler runs out of money in 1945; as a Nazi Party member and war profiteer, Schindler must flee the advancing Red Army to avoid capture. The SS guards in Schindler's factory have been ordered to kill the Jewish workforce, but Schindler persuades them not to, so that they can "return to families as men, instead of murderers." He prepares to head west, hoping to surrender to the Americans. The workers give Schindler a signed statement attesting to his role in saving Jewish lives and present him with a ring engraved with a Talmudic quotation: "Whoever saves one life saves the world entire." Schindler is touched but ashamed, as he feels he should have done more.
He breaks down sobbing, is comforted by the workers. After he and his wife leave, the Schindlerjuden spend the n
Gus Van Sant
Gus Green Van Sant Jr. is an American film director, painter, photographer and author who has earned acclaim as both an independent and mainstream filmmaker. His films deal with themes of marginalized subcultures, in particular homosexuality. Van Sant's early career was devoted to directing television commercials in the Pacific Northwest, he made his feature-length cinematic directorial debut with Mala Noche. His second feature Drugstore Cowboy was acclaimed, earned Van Sant screenwriting awards from the Los Angeles Film Critics Association and New York Film Critics Circle and the award for Best Director from the National Society of Film Critics, his following film, My Own Private Idaho, was praised, as was the black comedy To Die For, the drama Good Will Hunting, the biographical film Milk. In 2003, Van Sant's film about the Columbine High School massacre, won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival. Van Sant received the festival's Best Director Award that same year, making him one of only two filmmakers—the other being Joel Coen—to win both accolades at the festival in the same year.
Though most of Van Sant's other films received favourable reviews, such as Finding Forrester and Paranoid Park, some of his efforts, such as the art house production Last Days and the environmental drama Promised Land, have received more mixed reviews from critics, while his adaptation of Tom Robbins's Even Cowgirls Get the Blues, his 1998 remake of Alfred Hitchcock's Psycho, The Sea of Trees, were critical and commercial failures. In addition to directing, Van Sant has written the screenplays for several of his earlier works, is the author of a novel entitled Pink. A book of his photography, called 108 Portraits, has been published, he has released two musical albums, he is gay and lives in Los Feliz, California. Van Sant was born and raised in Louisville, the son of Betty and Gus Green Van Sant Sr; as a result of his father's job, the family moved continually during Van Sant's childhood. His paternal family is of partial Dutch origin; the earliest Van Zandt arrived in the New Netherland area in the early 17th century, around what is now New York City.
Van Sant is an alumnus of Darien High School in Darien and The Catlin Gabel School in Portland, Oregon. One constant in the director's early years was his interest in visual arts. Van Sant's artistic leanings took him to the Rhode Island School of Design in 1970, where his introduction to various avant-garde directors inspired him to change his major from painting to cinema. After spending time in Europe, Van Sant went to Los Angeles in 1976, he secured a job as a production assistant to filmmaker Ken Shapiro, with whom he developed a few ideas, none of which came to fruition. In 1981, Van Sant made Alice in Hollywood, a film about a naïve young actress who goes to Hollywood and abandons her ideals, it was never released. During this period, Van Sant began to spend time observing the denizens of the more down-and-out sections of Hollywood Boulevard, he became fascinated by the existence of this marginalized section of L. A.'s population in context with the more ordinary, prosperous world that surrounded them.
Van Sant would focus his work on those existing on society's fringes, making his feature film directorial debut Mala Noche. It was made, he saved $20,000 during his tenure there, enabling him to finance the majority of his tale of doomed love between a gay liquor store clerk and a Mexican immigrant. The film, taken from Portland street writer Walt Curtis' semi-autobiographical novella, featured some of the director's hallmarks, notably an unfulfilled romanticism, a dry sense of the absurd, the refusal to treat homosexuality as something deserving of judgment. Unlike many gay filmmakers, Van Sant—who had long been gay—declined to use same-sex relationships as fodder for overtly political statements, although such relationships would appear in his films. Shot in black-and-white, the film earned Van Sant overnight acclaim on the festival circuit, with the Los Angeles Times naming it the year's best independent film; the film's success attracted Hollywood interest, Van Sant was courted by Universal.
Van Sant moved back to Portland, where he set up house and began giving life to the ideas rejected by Universal. He directed Drugstore Cowboy about four drug addicts; the film revived the career of Matt Dillon. Drugstore Cowboy's exploration of the lives of those living on society's outer fringes, as well as its Portland setting, were mirrored in Van Sant's next effort, the acclaimed My Own Private Idaho (1
Blue Velvet (film)
Blue Velvet is a 1986 American neo-noir mystery film written and directed by David Lynch. Blending psychological horror with film noir, the film stars Kyle MacLachlan, Isabella Rossellini, Dennis Hopper, Laura Dern, is named after Tony Bennett's 1951 song of the same name; the film concerns a young college student who, returning home to visit his ill father, discovers a severed human ear in a field that leads to his uncovering a vast criminal conspiracy and entering a romantic relationship with a troubled lounge singer. The screenplay of Blue Velvet had been passed around multiple times in the late 1970s and early 1980s, with several major studios declining it due to its strong sexual and violent content. After the failure of his 1984 film Dune, Lynch made attempts at developing a more "personal story", somewhat characteristic of the surrealist style displayed in his first film Eraserhead; the independent studio De Laurentiis Entertainment Group, owned at the time by Italian film producer Dino De Laurentiis, agreed to finance and produce the film.
Blue Velvet received a divided critical response, with many stating that its objectionable content served little artistic purpose. The film earned Lynch his second Academy Award nomination for Best Director, came to achieve cult status; as an example of a director casting against the norm, it was credited for re-launching Hopper's career and for providing Rossellini with a dramatic outlet beyond her previous work as a fashion model and a cosmetics spokeswoman. In the years since, the film has generated significant attention for its thematic symbolism, is now regarded as one of Lynch's major works and one of the greatest films of the 1980s. Publications including Sight & Sound, Entertainment Weekly and BBC Magazine have ranked it among the greatest American films of all time. In 2008, it was chosen by the American Film Institute as one of the greatest American mystery films made. Sometime during the 1950s, college student Jeffrey Beaumont returns home to Lumberton, North Carolina after his father suffers a near-fatal stroke.
Walking home from the hospital, he cuts through a vacant lot and discovers a severed ear. Jeffrey takes the ear to police detective John Williams and becomes reacquainted with the detective's daughter, Sandy. After eavesdropping on her father discussing the ear with a colleague, Sandy tells Jeffrey that it somehow relates back to a lounge singer named Dorothy Vallens. Intrigued, Jeffrey enters Dorothy's apartment by posing as an exterminator and steals a spare key while she's distracted by a man in a distinctive yellow sport coat, whom Jeffrey takes to calling "The Yellow Man." Jeffrey and Sandy attend Dorothy's nightclub act, in which she sings "Blue Velvet": the pair leave early so that Jeffrey can investigate her apartment in her absence. However, Dorothy threatens Jeffrey with a knife. Believing his curiosity to be sexual and aroused by his voyeurism, Dorothy forces him to undress and fellates him, their encounter is interrupted by the arrival of a man named Frank Booth, who beats and subjects Dorothy to a variety of violent sex acts during the course of a role playing game in which he refers to her as "mommy" and himself as "baby" and "daddy."
It becomes apparent that Frank—a gangster—has abducted Dorothy's husband and child in order to force her into sex slavery. After Frank departs, Dorothy makes a romantic overture toward Jeffrey. A disturbed Jeffrey relays the experience to Sandy, who tells him about a prophetic dream in which robins descend from the sky to eat and kill insects that have overrun the world. Jeffrey returns to Dorothy's apartment, where she confesses an attraction to him and the two enter into a sadomasochistic sexual relationship in which Dorothy encourages Jeffrey to beat her, though he proves hesitant. Jeffrey observes Frank in the audience at one of Dorothy's shows and begins following him, observing him engaging in drug dealing and a meeting with the Yellow Man. Jeffrey tells Sandy about his observations and the two kiss. Frank catches Jeffrey and Dorothy together and abducts them, forcing Jeffrey to accompany him to the home of a criminal associate named Ben, holding Dorothy's family hostage. While Frank permits Dorothy to see her husband and son, he forces Jeffrey to watch Ben perform an impromtu lip-sync of Roy Orbison's "In Dreams," which causes Frank to suffer a breakdown.
Afterwards he takes Jeffrey to a field, where he kisses him before subjecting him to a violent beating. The next day, Jeffrey goes to the police station, where he realizes that Sandy's father's partner is The Yellow Man, murdering Frank's rival drug dealers and stealing their supplies from the evidence room for Frank to sell himself. Jeffrey confesses everything to Sandy and the two attend a dance together where they admit their feelings for one another. Returning home, Jeffrey discovers a beaten Dorothy on his front lawn. Jeffrey asks Sandy to tell her father everything and returns to Dorothy's apartment, where he discovers her husband dead and The Yellow Man mortally wounded. Remembering that Frank has a police radio in his car, Jeffrey uses the Yellow Man's walkie-talkie to lie about his presence in the apartment. Sandy's father leads a police raid on Frank's headquarters, killing his men and crippling his criminal empire. Jeffrey and Sandy enter into a relationship and attend a family barbecue with his recuperated father, where they note the presence of a robin consuming a bug, Dorothy is reunited with her son.
The film's story originated from three ideas that crystallize
Milk is a 2008 American biographical film based on the life of gay rights activist and politician Harvey Milk, the first gay person to be elected to public office in California, as a member of the San Francisco Board of Supervisors. Directed by Gus Van Sant and written by Dustin Lance Black, the film stars Sean Penn as Milk and Josh Brolin as Dan White, a city supervisor who assassinated Milk and Mayor George Moscone; the film earned numerous accolades from film critics and guilds. It received 8 Oscar nominations, including Best Picture, winning 2 for Best Actor for Penn and Best Original Screenplay for Black. Attempts to put Milk's life to film followed a 1984 documentary of his life and the aftermath of his assassination, titled The Times of Harvey Milk, loosely based upon Randy Shilts's biography, The Mayor of Castro Street. Various scripts were considered in the early 1990s, but projects fell through for different reasons, until 2007. Much of Milk was filmed on Castro Street and other locations in San Francisco, including Milk's former storefront, Castro Camera.
Milk begins on Harvey Milk's 40th birthday, when he was living in New York City and had not yet settled in San Francisco. It chronicles his foray into city politics, the various battles he waged in the Castro neighborhood as well as throughout the city, political campaigns to limit the rights of gay people in 1977 and 1978 run by Anita Bryant and John Briggs, his romantic and political relationships are addressed, as is his tenuous affiliation with troubled Supervisor Dan White. The film's release was tied to the 2008 California voter referendum on gay marriage, Proposition 8, when it made its premiere at the Castro Theatre two weeks before election day; the film opens with archival footage of police raiding gay bars and arresting patrons during the 1950s and 1960s, followed by Dianne Feinstein's November 27, 1978 announcement to the press that Harvey Milk and Mayor George Moscone had been assassinated. Milk is seen recording his will throughout nine days before the assassinations; the film flashes back to New York City in 1970, the eve of Milk's 40th birthday and his first meeting with his much younger lover, Scott Smith.
Dissatisfied with his life and in need of a change and Smith decide to move to San Francisco in the hope of finding larger acceptance of their relationship. They open Castro Camera in the heart of Eureka Valley, a working-class neighborhood in the process of evolving into a predominantly gay neighborhood known as The Castro. Frustrated by the opposition they encounter in the once Irish-Catholic neighborhood, Milk utilizes his background as a businessman to become a gay activist becoming a mentor for Cleve Jones. Early on, Smith serves as Milk's campaign manager, but he grows frustrated with Milk's devotion to politics, he leaves him. Milk meets Jack Lira, a sweet-natured but unbalanced young man; as with Smith, Lira cannot tolerate Milk's devotion to political activism, hangs himself. Milk clashes with the local gay "establishment" which he feels to be too cautious and risk-averse. After two unsuccessful political campaigns in 1973 and 1975 to become a city supervisor and a third in 1976 for the California State Assembly, Milk wins a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors in 1977 for District 5.
His victory makes him the first gay man to be voted into major public office in California and the third homosexual politician in the entire US. Milk subsequently meets fellow Supervisor Dan White, a Vietnam veteran and former police officer and firefighter. White, politically and conservative, has a difficult relationship with Milk, develops a growing resentment for Milk when he opposes projects that White proposes. Milk and White forge a complex working relationship. Milk is invited to, attends, the christening of White's first child, White asks for Milk's assistance in preventing a psychiatric hospital from opening in White's district in exchange for White's support of Milk's citywide gay rights ordinance; when Milk fails to support White because of the negative effect it will have on troubled youth, White feels betrayed, becomes the sole vote against the gay rights ordinance. Milk launches an effort to defeat Proposition 6, an initiative on the California state ballot in November 1978. Sponsored by John Briggs, a conservative state legislator from Orange County, Proposition 6 seeks to ban gays and lesbians from working in California's public schools.
It is part of a nationwide conservative movement that starts with the successful campaign headed by Anita Bryant and her organization Save Our Children in Dade County, Florida to repeal a local gay rights ordinance. On November 7, 1978, after working tirelessly against Proposition 6, Milk and his supporters rejoice in the wake of its defeat. A desperate White favors a supervisor pay raise, but does not get much support, shortly after supporting the proposition, resigns from the Board, he changes his mind and asks to be reinstated. Mayor Moscone denies his request, after being lobbied by Milk. On the morning of November 27, 1978, White enters City Hall through a basement window to conceal a gun from metal detectors, he requests another meeting with Moscone, who rebuffs his request for appointment to his former seat. Enraged, White shoots Moscone in his office and goes to meet Milk, where he guns him down, with the fa
Paranoid Park (film)
Paranoid Park is a 2007 American-French drama film written and directed by Gus Van Sant. The film takes place in Portland, Oregon. It's the story of a teenage skateboarder set against the backdrop of a police investigation into a mysterious death. Van Sant wrote the draft script in two days after deciding to adapt Nelson's novel. To cast the film's youths, Van Sant posted an open casting call on social networking website MySpace inviting teenagers to audition for speaking roles, as well as experienced skateboarders to act as extras. Filming took place at various locations in and around Portland. Scenes at the fictional Eastside Skatepark were filmed at Burnside Skatepark which was, like Eastside, built illegally by skateboarders. Paranoid Park premiered on May 21, at the 2007 Cannes Film Festival and was given a limited release on March 7, 2008, it grossed over US$4,481,000 from its $3 million budget. The film received positive reviews, it won one Independent Spirit Award, two Boston Society of Film Critics awards and the Cannes Film Festival's special 60th anniversary prize.
Alex, a 16-year-old skateboarder, rides a freight train clandestinely with a man named Scratch whom he has just met at the Eastside Skatepark, known as "Paranoid Park". While the train is moving a security guard notices the pair, chases after them, tries to get them off by hitting Scratch with his flashlight. During the melee, Alex hits him with his skateboard and the guard, losing balance, falls onto another track into the path of an oncoming freight train which cuts him in half. Alex tries to destroy some of the evidence. For example, he throws his skateboard into the Willamette River from the Steel Bridge, when he arrives at his friend Jared's house, he showers and disposes of the clothes he had been wearing. Alex is questioned at school by Detective Richard Lu, as are several other students, skateboarding on the night in question, it is revealed that the police have recovered Alex's skateboard, though they have not traced it back to him, have identified DNA evidence which places the skateboard at the scene of the security guard's death.
Throughout the film Alex keeps the incident to himself, does not confide in anyone else. After having impassive sex with his girlfriend, Jennifer, he breaks up with her. Another of his friends, notices that he is worried about something, she advises him to write down. He rejects the idea, but writes an account, which becomes the basis for the story. After completing the written account, Alex burns it. Gabe Nevins as Alex Daniel Liu as Detective Richard Lu Jake Miller as Jared Taylor Momsen as Jennifer Lauren McKinney as Macy Scott Patrick Green as Scratch John Burrowes as Security Guard Gus Van Sant chose to adapt American author Blake Nelson's novel Paranoid Park into a film of the same name because it was set in his hometown of Portland, because he was an amateur skateboarder himself and because he found the story interesting. At the time that he first read the novel, he was accumulating the finances for another film, but abandoned the project and decided instead to write a screenplay based on Nelson's story.
His first draft of the script was written in two days, the final draft was just 33 pages long. Similar to his 2003 film Elephant, Van Sant sought non-professional young actors to play the main roles, so created a page for the film on social networking site MySpace. On the page, he posted an open casting call for males and females aged 14–18 who were "skaters, honor roll, punks, drama kids, artists, student council, award winners, class skippers, band members, followers, shy kids, class clowns". Two audition sessions were held on August 3 and August 5, 2006, as well as an additional casting call for experienced skateboarders to act as extras in the film. Gabe Nevins, having never acted before, heard about the casting call from a skateboard store and auditioned as an extra. Nevins was cast in the lead role, which he says was based on his innocence that Van Sant believed trained actors to be lacking. Jake Miller from Boise, was on a road trip in Portland when he heard about the casting call and decided to audition with his friends.
Taylor Momsen was a professional actor beforehand and received the Paranoid Park script through her agent. She won the role after sending her taped audition to Van Sant; the film features two cameo appearances: Alex's father is played by professional skateboarder Jay "Smay" Williamson, his uncle is played by the film's cinematographer Christopher Doyle. Most of the actors wore their own clothes and wrote some of their characters' dialogue to maintain a sense of authenticity. Principal photography began in Oregon in October 2006. Filming locations included Portland State University, the Steel Bridge, St. Johns Bridge, Lloyd Center, Madison High School and Van Sant's own beach house. Scenes at the fictional Eastside Skatepark were filmed at Portland's Burnside Skatepark, which was, like Eastside, built illegally by skateboarders and subsequently approved by the city as a public skatepark. Van Sant said that his request to film at Burnside was treated with some suspicion by the park's users, as "What none of them wanted was for us to portray a corny image of the park."
Cinematographer Christopher Doyle shot parts of the film with a wide-angle lens, used to shoot skate videos. The film