National Register of Historic Places listings in Worcester County, Maryland
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Worcester County, Maryland. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on the National Register of Historic Places in Worcester County, United States. Latitude and longitude coordinates are provided for many National Register districts. There are 33 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in Maryland National Register of Historic Places listings in Maryland
Christopher Lowndes was a leading merchant in colonial Bladensburg, Prince George's County, Maryland. He was named Commissioner of the town of Bladensburg in 1745, in 1753 he was appointed one of the justices of Prince George's County, holding both offices until his death in 1785, he was the senior partner in Christopher Lowndes and Company which included his brother Edward Lowndes, John Hardman and William Whalley. Christopher Lowndes was the fifth son of Richard Lowndes of Bostock House in Hassall, Cheshire and Margaret, he was baptized at Sandbach on June 19, 1713. As early as 1738, he was living in Maryland. In 1748, he was the senior partner in the firm of Christopher Lowndes and Company operating both in Maryland and in Liverpool, England. Christopher Lowndes was one of the Justices of Prince George's County from 1753 to 1775, was of the Quorum from 1769. On June 4, 1777, he was commissioned under the new State government as one of the Justices of the county and Judge of the Orphans Court.
He died at Bladensburg on January 8, 1785. He was buried at St. Matthew's Church, Seat Pleasant, Maryland. In May 1752 Lowndes and his brother-in-law, Benjamin Tasker, Jr. were listed in the advertisement in The Maryland Gazette announcing the arrival of the Elijah with its cargo of "healthy slaves" for sale at Severn River. Christopher Lowndes and Company ships made a total of ninety-nine different voyages carrying 14,834 slaves. Christopher and his brothers, Edward Lowndes and Charles and Christopher's son Francis-"invested in ships that made thirty-seven voyages between 1746 and 1770 and carried 9,637 slaves." According to the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database on average 13.5 percent of the slaves on a Lowndes ship died in transit. Most of their ships sailed to the Caribbean rather than to North America. Lowndes was builder and architect of St. Barnabas' Episcopal Church, Leeland in 1772. On May 14, 1747, Lowndes married daughter of Benjamin Tasker, Sr.. President of the Council of Maryland, at St. Anne's Parish in Annapolis, Maryland.
They had nine children, their daughter Rebecca Lowndes was married on June 17, 1781 to Benjamin Stoddert, first Secretary of the Navy of the United States. His great-grandson, Lloyd Lowndes, Jr. was a U. S. congressman and Governor of Maryland from 1896 to 1900. In 1748 he built a mansion in Baldensburg known as Bostwick, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. One source of that wealth was the transatlantic slave trade. Transcription of Lowndes, Prince George's County, Prince George's, County Inventories 1781-1787 pp. 177-196
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, the District of Columbia to its south and west. The state's largest city is Baltimore, its capital is Annapolis. Among its occasional nicknames are Old Line State, the Free State, the Chesapeake Bay State, it is named after the English queen Henrietta Maria, known in England as Queen Mary. Sixteen of Maryland's twenty-three counties border the tidal waters of the Chesapeake Bay estuary and its many tributaries, which combined total more than 4,000 miles of shoreline. Although one of the smallest states in the U. S. it features a variety of climates and topographical features that have earned it the moniker of America in Miniature. In a similar vein, Maryland's geography and history combines elements of the Mid-Atlantic and South Atlantic regions of the country. One of the original Thirteen Colonies of Great Britain, Maryland was founded by George Calvert, a Catholic convert who sought to provide a religious haven for Catholics persecuted in England.
In 1632, Charles I of England granted Calvert a colonial charter, naming the colony after his wife, Queen Mary. Unlike the Pilgrims and Puritans, who enforced religious conformity in their settlements, Calvert envisioned a colony where people of different religious sects would coexist under the principle of toleration. Accordingly, in 1649 the Maryland General Assembly passed an Act Concerning Religion, which enshrined this principle by penalizing anyone who "reproached" a fellow Marylander based on religious affiliation. Religious strife was common in the early years, Catholics remained a minority, albeit in greater numbers than in any other English colony. Maryland's early settlements and population centers clustered around rivers and other waterways that empty into the Chesapeake Bay, its economy was plantation-based, centered on the cultivation of tobacco. The need for cheap labor led to a rapid expansion of indentured servants, penal labor, African slaves. In 1760, Maryland's current boundaries took form following the settlement of a long-running border dispute with Pennsylvania.
Maryland was an active participant in the events leading up to the American Revolution, by 1776 its delegates signed the Declaration of Independence. Many of its citizens subsequently played key military roles in the war. In 1790, the state ceded land for the establishment of the U. S. capital of Washington, D. C. Although a slave state, Maryland remained in the Union during the U. S. Civil War, its strategic location giving it a significant role in the conflict. After the war, Maryland took part in the Industrial Revolution, driven by its seaports, railroad networks, mass immigration from Europe. Since the Second World War, the state's population has grown to six million residents, it is among the most densely populated states in the nation; as of 2015, Maryland had the highest median household income of any state, owing in large part to its close proximity to Washington, D. C. and a diversified economy spanning manufacturing, higher education, biotechnology. Maryland has been ranked as one of the best governed states in the country.
The state's central role in American history is reflected by its hosting of some of the highest numbers of historic landmarks per capita. Maryland is comparable in overall area with Belgium, it is the 42nd largest and 9th smallest state and is closest in size to the state of Hawaii, the next smaller state. The next larger state, its neighbor West Virginia, is twice the size of Maryland. Maryland possesses a variety of topography within its borders, contributing to its nickname America in Miniature, it ranges from sandy dunes dotted with seagrass in the east, to low marshlands teeming with wildlife and large bald cypress near the Chesapeake Bay, to rolling hills of oak forests in the Piedmont Region, pine groves in the Maryland mountains to the west. Maryland is bounded on its north by Pennsylvania, on its west by West Virginia, on its east by Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean, on its south, across the Potomac River, by West Virginia and Virginia; the mid-portion of this border is interrupted by District of Columbia, which sits on land, part of Montgomery and Prince George's counties and including the town of Georgetown, Maryland.
This land was ceded to the United States Federal Government in 1790 to form the District of Columbia.. The Chesapeake Bay nearly bisects the state and the counties east of the bay are known collectively as the Eastern Shore. Most of the state's waterways are part of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, with the exceptions of a tiny portion of extreme western Garrett County, the eastern half of Worcester County, a small portion of the state's northeast corner. So prominent is the Chesapeake in Maryland's geography and economic life that there has been periodic agitation to change the state's official nickname to the "Bay State", a nickname, used by Massachusetts for decades; the highest point in Maryland, with an elevation of 3,360 feet, is Hoye Crest on Backbone Mountain, in the southwest corner of Garrett County, near the bo
Brickwork is masonry produced by a bricklayer, using bricks and mortar. Rows of bricks—called courses— are laid on top of one another to build up a structure such as a brick wall. Bricks may be differentiated from blocks by size. For example, in the UK a brick is defined as a unit having dimensions less than 337.5x225x112.5mm and a block is defined as a unit having one or more dimensions greater than the largest possible brick. Brick is a popular medium for constructing buildings, examples of brickwork are found through history as far back as the Bronze Age; the fired-brick faces of the ziggurat of ancient Dur-Kurigalzu in Iraq date from around 1400 BC, the brick buildings of ancient Mohenjo-daro in Pakistan were built around 2600 BC. Much older examples of brickwork made with dried bricks may be found in such ancient locations as Jericho in Judea, Çatal Hüyük in Anatolia, Mehrgarh in Pakistan; these structures have survived from the Stone Age to the present day. Brick dimensions are expressed in construction or technical documents in two ways as co-ordinating dimensions and working dimensions.
Coordination dimensions are the actual physical dimensions of the brick with the mortar required on one header face, one stretcher face and one bed. Working dimensions is the size of a manufactured brick, it is called the nominal size of a brick. Brick size may be different due to shrinkage or distortion due to firing etc. An example of a co-ordinating metric used for bricks in the UK is as follows: Bricks of dimensions 215 mm × 102.5 mm × 65 mm. In this case the co-ordinating metric works because the length of a single brick is equal to the total of the width of a brick plus a perpend plus the width of a second brick. There are many other brick sizes worldwide, many of them use this same co-ordinating principle; as the most common bricks are cuboids, six surfaces are named as followed: Top and bottom surfaces are called Beds Ends or narrow surfaces are called Headers or header faces Sides or wider surfaces are called Stretchers or stretcher faces Mortar placed between bricks is given separate names with respect to their position.
Mortar placed horizontally below or top of a brick is called a bed, mortar Placed vertically between bricks is called a perpend. A brick made with just rectilinear dimensions is called a solid brick. Bricks might have a depression on a single bed; the depression is called a frog, the bricks are known as frogged bricks. Frogs should never exceed 20 % of the total volume of the brick. Cellular bricks have depressions exceeding 20% of the volume of the brick. Perforated bricks have holes through the brick from bed to bed. Most of the building standards and good construction practices recommend the volume of holes should not exceeding 20% of the total volume of the brick. Parts of brickwork include bricks and perpends; the bed is the mortar upon. A perpend is a vertical joint between any two bricks and is usually—but not always—filled with mortar. A brick is given a classification based on how it is laid, how the exposed face is oriented relative to the face of the finished wall. Stretcher or stretching brick A brick laid flat with its long narrow side exposed.
Header or heading brick A brick laid flat with its width exposed. Soldier A brick laid vertically with its long narrow side exposed. Sailor A brick laid vertically with the broad face of the brick exposed. Rowlock A brick laid on the long narrow side with the short end of the brick exposed. Shiner or rowlock stretcher A brick laid on the long narrow side with the broad face of the brick exposed; the practice of laying uncut full-sized bricks wherever possible gives brickwork its maximum possible strength. In the diagrams below, such uncut full-sized bricks are coloured as follows: Stretcher HeaderOccasionally though a brick must be cut to fit a given space, or to be the right shape for fulfilling some particular purpose such as generating an offset—called a lap—at the beginning of a course. In some cases these special shapes or sizes are manufactured. In the diagrams below, some of the cuts most used for generating a lap are coloured as follows: Three-quarter bat, stretching A brick cut to three-quarters of its length, laid flat with its long, narrow side exposed.
Three-quarter bat, heading A brick cut to three-quarters of its length, laid flat with its short side exposed. Half bat A brick cut in half across its length, laid flat. Queen closer A brick cut in half down its width, laid with its smallest face exposed and standing vertically. A queen closer is used for the purpose of creating a lap. Less used cuts are all coloured as follows: Quarter bat A brick cut to a quarter of its length. Three-quarter queen closer A queen closer cut to three-quarters of its length. King closer A brick with one corner cut away. A nearly universal rule in brickwork is. Walls, extending upwards, can be of varying depth or thickness; the bricks are laid running linearly and extending upwards, forming wythes or leafs. It is as important; the dominant method for consolidating the leaves together was to lay bricks across them, rather than running linearly. Brickwork observing either or both of these two conventions is described as being laid in one or another bond. A leaf is as thick as the width of one brick, but a wall is said to be one brick thick if it as wide as the length of a brick.
Accordingly, a single-leaf wall
National Park Service
The National Park Service is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. It was created on August 25, 1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior; the NPS is charged with a dual role of preserving the ecological and historical integrity of the places entrusted to its management, while making them available and accessible for public use and enjoyment. As of 2018, the NPS employs 27,000 employees who oversee 419 units, of which 61 are designated national parks. National parks and national monuments in the United States were individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior; the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior.
They wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service. On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that mandated the agency "to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and wildlife therein, to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS. On March 3, 1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933; the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasn't until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, made use of this power. Deputy Director Horace M. Albright had suggested to President Roosevelt that the historic sites from the American Civil War should be managed by the National Park Service, rather than the War Department.
President Roosevelt issued two Executive orders to make it happen. These two executive orders not only transferred to the National Park Service all the War Department historic sites, but the national monuments managed by the Department of Agriculture and the parks in and around the capital, run by an independent office. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service and went to work on bringing park facilities up to the standards that the public expected; the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, a ten-year effort to upgrade and expand park facilities for the 50th anniversary of the Park Service. New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery and unique natural features to making parks accessible to the public.
Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States' national parks, which have grown in number over the years to 60. Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States. In 1872, there was no state government to manage it, so the federal government assumed direct control. Yosemite National Park began as a state park. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership. At first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the civilian staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the federal government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, the National Park Service, to manage all national parks and some national monuments.
Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. The agency was given authority over other protected areas, many with varying designations as Congress created them; the National Park System includes. The title or designation of a unit need not include the term park; the System as a whole is considered to be a national treasure of the United States, some of the more famous national parks and monuments are sometimes referred to metaphorically as "crown jewels". The system encompasses 84.4 million acres, of which more than 4.3 million acres remain in private ownership. The largest unit is Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska. At 13,200,000 acres, it is over 16 percent of the entire system; the smallest unit in the system is Thaddeus Kosciuszko National Memorial, Pennsylvania, at 0.02 acre. In addition to administering its units and other properties, the National Park Service provides technical and financial assistance to several "affiliated areas" authorized by Congress.
The largest affiliated area is New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve at 1,164,025 acres. The smallest is Benjamin Franklin National Memorial at less than 0.01 acres. Although all units of the Nat
Historic districts in the United States
Historic districts in the United States are designated historic districts recognizing a group of buildings, properties, or sites by one of several entities on different levels as or architecturally significant. Buildings, structures and sites within a historic district are divided into two categories and non-contributing. Districts vary in size: some have hundreds of structures, while others have just a few; the U. S. federal government designates historic districts through the United States Department of Interior under the auspices of the National Park Service. Federally designated historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, but listing imposes no restrictions on what property owners may do with a designated property. State-level historic districts may follow similar criteria or may require adherence to certain historic rehabilitation standards. Local historic district designation offers, by far, the most legal protection for historic properties because most land use decisions are made at the local level.
Local districts are administered by the county or municipal government. The first U. S. historic district was established in Charleston, South Carolina in 1931, predating the U. S. federal government designation by more than three decades. Charleston city government designated an "Old and Historic District" by local ordinance and created a board of architectural review to oversee it. New Orleans followed in 1937, establishing the Vieux Carré Commission and authorizing it to act to maintain the historic character of the city's French Quarter. Other localities picked up on the concept, with the city of Philadelphia enacting its historic preservation ordinance in 1955; the regulatory authority of local commissions and historic districts has been upheld as a legitimate use of government police power, most notably in Penn Central Transportation Co. v. City of New York; the Supreme Court case validated the protection of historic resources as "an permissible governmental goal." In 1966 the federal government created the National Register of Historic Places, soon after a report from the U.
S. Conference of Mayors had stated Americans suffered from "rootlessness." By the 1980s there were thousands of federally designated historic districts. Some states, such as Arizona, have passed referendums defending property rights that have stopped private property being designated historic without the property owner's consent or compensation for the historic overlay. Historic districts are two types of properties and non-contributing. Broadly defined, a contributing property is any property, structure or object which adds to the historical integrity or architectural qualities that make a historic district, listed locally or federally, significant. Different entities governmental, at both the state and national level in the United States, have differing definitions of contributing property but they all retain the same basic characteristics. In general, contributing properties are integral parts of the historic context and character of a historic district. In addition to the two types of classification within historic districts, properties listed on the National Register of Historic Places are classified into five broad categories.
They are, structure, site and object. All but the eponymous district category are applied to historic districts listed on the National Register. A listing on the National Register of Historic Places is governmental acknowledgment of a historic district. However, the Register is "an honorary status with some federal financial incentives." The National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition a historic district is: a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. A district may comprise individual elements separated geographically but linked by association or history. Districts established under U. S. federal guidelines begin the process of designation through a nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register is the official recognition by the U.
S. government of cultural resources worthy of preservation. While designation through the National Register does offer a district or property some protections, it is only in cases where the threatening action involves the federal government. If the federal government is not involved the listing on the National Register provides the site, property or district no protections. For example, if company A wants to tear down the hypothetical Smith House and company A is under contract with the state government of Illinois the federal designation would offer no protections. If, company A was under federal contract the Smith House would be protected. A federal designation is little more than recognition by the government that the resource is worthy of preservation. In general, the criteria for acceptance to the National Register are applied but there are considerations for exceptions to the criteria and historic districts have influence on some of those exceptions; the National Register does not list religious structures, moved structures, reconstructed structures, or properties that have achieved significance within the last 50 years.
However, if a property falls into one of those categories and are "integral parts of districts that do meet the criteria" an exception allowing their listing will be made. Historic dis