A shepherd or sheepherder is a person who tends, feeds, or guards herds of sheep. Shepherd derives from Old English sceaphierde. Shepherding is among the oldest occupations, beginning some 5,000 years ago in Asia Minor. Sheep were kept for their milk and their wool. Over the next thousand years and shepherding spread throughout Eurasia. Henri Fleisch tentatively suggested the Shepherd Neolithic industry of Lebanon may date to the Epipaleolithic and that it may have been used by one of the first cultures of nomadic shepherds in the Beqaa Valley; some sheep were integrated in the family farm along with other animals such as pigs. To maintain a large flock, the sheep must be able to move from pasture to pasture; this required the development of an occupation separate from that of the farmer. The duty of shepherds was to keep their flock intact, protect it from predators and guide it to market areas in time for shearing. In ancient times, shepherds commonly milked their sheep, made cheese from this milk.
In many societies, shepherds were an important part of the economy. Unlike farmers, shepherds were wage earners, being paid to watch the sheep of others. Shepherds lived apart from society, being nomadic, it was a job of solitary males without children, new shepherds thus needed to be recruited externally. Shepherds were most the younger sons of farming peasants who did not inherit any land. In other societies, each family would have a family member to shepherd its flock a child, youth or an elder who couldn't help much with harder work. Shepherds would work in groups either looking after one large flock, or each bringing their own and merging their responsibilities, they would live in small cabins shared with their sheep, would buy food from local communities. Less shepherds lived in covered wagons that traveled with their flocks. Shepherding developed only in certain areas. In the lowlands and river valleys, it was far more efficient to grow grain and cereals than to allow sheep to graze, thus the raising of sheep was confined to rugged and mountainous areas.
In pre-modern times shepherding was thus centered on regions such as the Middle East, the Pyrenees, the Carpathian Mountains and Northern England. The shepherd's crook is a strong multi-purpose stick or staff fashioned with a hooked end. In modern times, shepherding has changed dramatically; the abolition of common lands in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth century moved shepherding from independent nomads to employees of massive estates. Some families in Africa and Asia have their wealth in sheep, so a young son is sent out to guard them while the rest of the family tend to other chores. In the USA, many sheep herds are flocked over public BLM lands. Wages are higher. Keeping a shepherd in constant attendance can be costly; the eradication of sheep predators in parts of the world have lessened the need for shepherds. In places like Britain, hardy breeds of sheep are left alone without a shepherd for long periods of time. More productive breeds of sheep can be left in fields and moved periodically to fresh pasture when necessary.
Hardier breeds of sheep can be left on hillsides. The sheep farmer will attend to the sheep when necessary at times like shearing. First Shepherd's Fair was announced to take place in the Cyprus Village of Pachna, on August 31, 2014, in the printed editions of Cyprus Weekly and in the Greek language daily, Phileleftheros. European exploration led to the spread of sheep around the world, shepherding became important in Australia and New Zealand where there was great pastoral expansion. In Australia squatters spread beyond the Nineteen Counties of New South Wales to elsewhere, taking over vast holdings called properties and now stations. Once driven overland to these properties, sheep were pastured in large unfenced runs. There, they required constant supervision. Shepherds were employed to keep the sheep from straying too far, to keep the mobs as healthy as possible and to prevent attacks from dingoes and introduced predators such as feral dogs and foxes. Lambing time further increased the shepherd's responsibilities.
Shepherding was an isolated, lonely job, firstly given to assigned convict servants. The accommodation was poor and the food was lacking in nutrition, leading to dysentery and scurvy; when free labour was more available others took up this occupation. Some shepherds were additionally brought to Australia on the ships that carried sheep and were contracted to caring for them on their arrival in the colony. Sheep owners complained about the inefficiency of shepherds and the shepherds' fears of getting lost in the bush. Sheep were watched by shepherds during the day, by a hut-keeper during the night. Shepherds took the sheep out to graze before sunrise and returned them to brush-timber yards at sunset; the hut-keeper slept in a movable shepherd's watch box placed near the yard in order to deter attacks on the sheep. Dogs were often chained close by to warn of any impending danger to the sheep or shepherd by dingoes or natives. In 1839 the usual wage for a shepherd was about AU₤50 per year, plus weekly rations of 12 pounds meat, 10 pounds flour, 2 pounds sugar and 4 ounces tea.
The wage during the depression of the 1840s dropped to ₤20 a year. During the 1850s many shepherds left to try their luck on the goldfields causing acute labour shortages in the pastoral industry; this labour shortage leads to the widespread practice of fencing properties, which in turn reduced the dema
A bag is a common tool in the form of a non-rigid container. The use of bags predates recorded history, with the earliest bags being no more than lengths of animal skin, cotton, or woven plant fibers, folded up at the edges and secured in that shape with strings of the same material. Despite their simplicity, bags have been fundamental for the development of human civilization, as they allow people to collect loose materials such as berries or food grains, to transport more items than could be carried in the hands; the word has its origins in the Norse word baggi, from the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European bʰak, but is comparable to the Welsh baich, the Greek βάσταγμα. Cheap disposable paper bags and plastic shopping bags are common in the retail trade as a convenience for shoppers, are supplied by the shop for free or for a small fee. Customers may take their own shopping bags to use in shops. Although, paper had been used for purposes of wrapping and padding in ancient China since the 2nd century BC, the first use of paper bags in China came during the Tang Dynasty.
Bags have been used by both men and women. Bags have been prevalent as far back as ancient Egypt. Many hieroglyphs depict males with bags tied around their waist; the Bible mentions pouches with regard to Judas Iscariot carrying one around, holding his personal items. In the 14th century, wary of pickpockets and thieves, many people used drawstring bags, in which to carry their money; these bags were attached to "girdles" via a long cord fastened to the waist. Women wore more ornate drawstring bags called hamondeys or tasques, to display their social status; the 14th-century handbags evolved into wedding gifts from groom to bride. These medieval pouches were embroidered with depictions of love stories or songs; these pouches evolved into what is known as a chaneries, which were used for gaming or food for falcons. During the Renaissance, Elizabethan England's fashions were more ornate than before. Women's wore their pouches underneath the vast array of petticoats and men wore leather pockets or bagges inside their breeches.
Aristocrats began carrying swete bagges filled with sweet-smelling material to make up for poor hygiene. In the modern world, bags are ubiquitous, with many people carrying a wide variety of them in the form of cloth or leather briefcases and backpacks, with bags made from more disposable materials such as paper or plastic being used for shopping, to carry home groceries. A bag may be closable by a zipper, snap fastener, etc. or by folding. Sometimes a money bag or travel bag has a lock; the bag predates the inflexible variant, the basket, bags have the additional advantage over baskets of being foldable or otherwise compressible to smaller sizes. On the other hand, being made of a more rigid material, may better protect their contents. An empty bag may or may not be light and foldable to a small size. If it is, this is convenient for carrying it to the place where it is needed, such as a shop, for storage of empty bags. Bags vary from small ones, like purses, to large ones for use in traveling like a suitcase.
The pockets of clothing are a kind of bag, built into the clothing for the carrying of suitably small objects. There are environmental concerns regarding disposal of plastic shopping and trash bags. Efforts are being taken to control and reduce their use in some European Union countries, including Ireland and the Netherlands. In some cases the cheap bags are taxed so the customer must pay a fee where they may not have done previously. Sometimes heavy duty reusable plastic and fabric bags are sold costing €0.5 to €1, these may replace disposable bags entirely. Sometimes free replacements are offered. A notable exception to this trend is the UK, where disposable plastic bags are still available and are dominant; this trend has spread to some cities in the United States. A bag may not be disposable. On the other hand, there may be hygienic reasons to use a bag only once. For example, a garbage bag is disposed of with its content. A bag for packaging a disposable product is disposed of when it is empty.
Bags used as receptacles in medical procedures, such as the colostomy bag used to collect waste from a surgically diverted biological system, are disposed of as medical waste. Many snack foods, such as pretzels and potato chips, are available in disposable single-use sealed bags. Antistatic bag Backpack Bag-in-box Bin bag, Garbage bag, or Trash bag Body bag Book bag Bulk bag Burn bag Cooler bag Diplomatic bag Duffel bag Flour sack Garment bag Gunny sack Handbag, Purse Hobo bag Mail bag Messenger bag Money bag Paper bag Plastic bag Paper sack Popcorn bag Sandbag Satchel Sling bag Shopping bag Plastic shopping bag Reusable shopping bag Thermal bag Tote bag Travel bag or Suitcase Wristlet bag Airbag Punching bag Perhaps-bag or Netted sack Sleeping bag Tea bag Coin purse Bags portal Bag Bagger Bagg Sack The dictionary definition of bag at Wiktionary Media related to Bags at Wikimedia Commons
A sabretache is a flat bag or pouch, worn suspended from the belt of a cavalry officer together with the sabre. The sabretache is derived from a traditional Hungarian horseman's flat leather bag called a tarsoly. Early examples have been found the tombs of Magyar warriors from the 10th century Conquest of Pannonia, they were strengthened and decorated with silver plates and would have contained fire-making tools and other essentials. In the early 18th century, hussar cavalry became popular amongst the European powers, a tarsoly was a part of the accoutrements; the German name sabretache was adopted, tache meaning "pocket". It fulfilled the function of a pocket, which were absent from the tight fitting uniform of the hussar style. Part of the wartime function of the light cavalry was to deliver dispatches; the large front flap was heavily embroidered with a royal cypher or regimental crest, could be used as a firm surface for writing. By the 19th century, other types of cavalry, such as lancers wore them.
In the British Army, sabretaches were first adopted at the end of the 18th century by light dragoon regiments, four of which acquired "hussar" status in 1805. They were still being worn in combat by British cavalry during the Crimean War; the Prussian Guard Hussars wore theirs in the Franco-Prussian War. In most European armies, sabretaches were abandoned for use in the field before the turn of the 20th century, but were retained by some regiments for ceremonial occasions. Sabretaches are now much sought after by collectors of militaria
The sporran, a traditional part of male Scottish Highland dress, is a pouch that performs the same function as pockets on the pocketless kilt. Made of leather or fur, the ornamentation of the sporran is chosen to complement the formality of dress worn with it; the sporran is worn on a leather strap or chain, conventionally positioned in front of the groin of the wearer. Since the traditional kilt does not have pockets, the sporran serves as a wallet and container for any other necessary personal items, it is a survival of the common European medieval belt-pouch, superseded elsewhere as clothing came to have pockets, but continuing in the Scottish Highlands because of the lack of these accessories in traditional dress. The sporran hangs below the belt buckle; the kilt belt buckle can be ornate, contain similar motifs to the sporran cantle and the Sgian Dubh. Early sporrans would have been worn suspended from the belt on one or other of the hips, rather than hung from a separate strap in front of the wearer.
When driving a car, playing drums, or engaging in any activity where a heavy pouch might encumber the wearer, the sporran can be turned around the waist to let it hang on the hip in a more casual position. Day sporrans are brown leather shovel pouches with simple adornment; these "day" sporrans have three or more leather tassels and Celtic knot designs carved or embossed into the leather. This style of traditional purse is convenient to use on a daily basis; this style is made of leather, with a leather flap and three tassels or more. They are embossed or hand-tooled with Celtic, thistle, or other designs on the flap and body, fasten with a stud or hook closure. Dress sporrans can be larger than the day variety, are highly ornate. Victorian examples were quite ostentatious, much more elaborate than the simple leather pouch of the 17th or 18th centuries, they can have sterling or silver-plated cantles trimming the top of the pouch and a fur-covered face with fur or hair tassels. The cantle may contain intricate etchings of Celtic knots.
The top of the cantle may have a set stone, jewel, or emblems such as Saint Andrew, a thistle, Clan, or Masonic symbols. This style is regarded as the most formal type of sporran, it is an essential attachment for those who wear kilts in formal events. Prince Charlie wore this style of sporran to formal occasions, it contains fur fronts, a fur gusset, 3—6 decorative fur tassels with regular or cross chains, a metal cantle at the top. The cantle arcs along the top of the pouch and conceals a clasp, ordinarily made from pewter or silver, it might be decorated with Celtic symbols such as the lion rampant, stag, or Saltire. Some elaborate cantles may include gemstones, such as garnets; this style fastens at the rear with a stud on a small flap that connects the front and rear of the sporran. It allows the wearer to carry a range of items due to the larger size of this sporran. Semi-dress sporrans combine the same shape and design as the day-wear sporran and a less formal version of the full dress sporran.
They are worn for semi-formal occasions with Argyll outfits. Designs may decorate the leather flap of this style, or a silver clan symbol or other insignia may adorn on the flap; the body fur of this style is a hair hide rather than a loftier material reserved for full dress sporrans. The basic figure is included with a fur front, leather gusset, three decorated fur tassels with regular or cross-chains, a leather flap at the top. Celtic or Scottish designs are featured on the flap, may have pewter badges' decoration to raise the design; this style is made from the head of an animal such as the badger, fox, kangaroo mouse, pine marten, or other small animals. The animal's head forms the front flap of the pouch, the body of the pouch is made from the same pelt; this style displays the Scottish tradition, since the earliest pouches included the head with the pelt. Today, people do not wear this style often for standard formal occasions, though it may be worn in historic re-enactments and festivals as a costume accessory.
This style is most worn as part of regimental attire for the pipers or the drummers. In general, it is one of the most dramatic and biggest of dress-sporrans with a formal style. A traditional horsehair pouch extends just below the belt to just below the hem of the kilt; the most ordinary pattern contains black horsehair tassels on a white horsehair background. Pewter or silver cantle is carved on the sporran; this style made from horsehide rather than tail hair, are more able to keep with the compact shape and decor of less showy, semi-dress versions. As sporrans are made of animal skin, their production and transportation across borders can be regulated by legislation set to control the trade of protected and endangered species. A 2007 BBC report on legislation introduced by the Scottish Executive stated that sporran owners may need licences to prove that the animals used in construction of their pouch conformed to these regulations. In 2009, European politicians voted to ban the sale of seal products putting an end to the use of seal in sporran production.
However several of the species listed in the BBC article are not covered by the Habitats Directives of the legislation, of the over 100 different animals listed by the legislation only a few, such as otter, have been associated with sporran construction. Most common sporran skins are not regulated animals in regards to this legislation; the ban has been lifted. Providing th
A messenger bag is a type of sack made of cloth. It is worn over one shoulder with a strap that goes across the chest resting the bag on the lower back. While messenger bags are sometimes used by couriers, they are now an urban fashion icon; some types of messenger bags are called carryalls. A smaller version is called a sling bag; this design of bag has been used in the transportation of mail and goods by numerous types of messengers, including Pony Express riders, postal workers, messengers on foot, bicycle couriers. Some Royal Mail carriers in the United Kingdom use large messenger bags to deliver mail in lieu of a Postbag. Pre-dating today's messenger bags described herein as for bicycle messengers, fashion brands had been creating "messenger style" bags modeled after military map case bags and document pouches featuring a shoulder strap intended for wear across the chest for over a century. Similar in function to backpacks, messenger bags ensure comfort for people carrying heavy and/or bulky items, while allowing easy access to the contents.
Messenger bags incorporate features that make them suitable for cycling. Such features may include fittings for easy adjustment of the shoulder strap, quick release buckles, an adjustable hinged buckle, the ability to attach accessories, such as lights, phone holsters, or U-locks; the top-opening one-strap design allows messenger bags to be swung around front so that their contents can be accessed without removing the bag. A true messenger bag includes a second, thinner, "stabilizing strap", fastened either around the rider's waist or diagonally across the chest. Without a stabilizing strap, the bag tends to swing around to the rider's front, making pedaling difficult. Messenger bags are used as a fashion accessory. While they may be used by either gender, they are employed by men in a function analogous to a woman's purse to carry items too large for pockets, or a large number of items. Messenger bags have become fashionable among cyclists and commuters. Many college and high-school students and bicycle commuters use them for fashionable and functional purposes.
Many companies design messenger bags for the collegiate market. Compared to a backpack, it is easier to place and remove text-books and supplies from a messenger bag because they can be shifted to the side of the body, providing better accessibility. Messenger bags provide more weather resistance than leather satchel-style school bags. Materials used in messenger bags are more durable and water-resistant than other over-the-shoulder bags. Contemporary bags use thicker gauges of tarp shielding for the inner waterproof lining. Other materials include ballistic nylon, vinyl waterproof tarp lining used to make the bag waterproof; the liner provides the support structure for the bag. Some companies eschew the standard PVC waterproof lining for compounds such as thermoplastic polyurethanes, which are more expensive, more durable, more environmentally friendly, less volatile. Handbag Mail bag Satchel
A randoseru is a firm-sided backpack made of stitched firm leather or leather-like synthetic material, most used in Japan by elementary schoolchildren. Traditionally it is given to a child upon beginning his or her first year of school, whereupon the child uses the same bag until grade 6; the term is a borrowed word from the Dutch "ransel" or German "Ranzen" meaning "backpack", a clue to its origins nearly 200 years ago as used in the Netherlands. In more conservative schools the color and design is mandated with red as the traditional color for girls and black for boys. However, due to changing attitudes toward gender stereotypes, more colorful versions such as pink, dark blue, green and two-tones are more widespread; these varieties have existed since the 1960s but sold poorly due to the lock-step mentality of the education system that began changing in the early 2000s. The increased variety of colors is as a compromise for parents to retain some tradition within modernized schools which no longer require the use of traditional uniforms or the randoseru.
A typical randoseru measures 30 cm high by 23 cm wide by 18 cm deep, features a softer grade of leather or other material on those surfaces which touch the body. When empty, it weighs 1.2 kilograms. However, due to demand for a lighter, more robust randoseru, as of 2004 70% are made from the synthetic leather Clarino. Manufacturers offer "randoseru" in two sizes, with a larger one sized to hold modern A4 flat files. To increase traffic safety for children commuting to and from school, many communities have begun working with The Institute for Traffic Safety to distribute yellow plastic covers that drape over the back of the randoseru to increase its visibility; the use of the randoseru began in the Edo era. Along with a wave of western reforms in the Japanese military, the Netherlands-style rucksack called ransel was introduced as a new way for the foot soldiers to carry their baggage; the shape much resembled the randoseru bags used today. In 1885, the Japanese government, through the elementary school Gakushūin, proposed the use of a backpack as the new ideal for Japanese elementary school students.
At Gakushūin, the practice of coming to school by cars and rickshaws were banned, promoting the idea that the students should carry their own equipment and come to school by their own feet. At this time, the bag looked more like normal rucksack; this changed, however, in 1887. The crown prince of the time was given a backpack upon entering elementary school. To honour the soldiers of the country, the shape of the backpack resembled the backpacks used in the military; this quite became the fashion, the shape has continued to become the randoseru used today. However, at that time most of the Japanese people could not afford such an expensive bag; until the dramatic rise of economy in Japan in the post-World War II period, the main school bags in Japan were simple shoulder bags and furoshiki. It is a popular saying that the metal clip on the side of the randoseru was used in the military to carry grenades. However, this is not true; the metal clip was introduced in the post-World War II period, as a means to carry lunch boxes, change of clothes for P.
E. etc. Most randoseru production is carried out by hand. A randoseru is constructed of a single-piece body and around 200 fittings, a combination of die-cut materials and urethane backing plates. Assembly involves crimping, machine-sewing, walnut-gluing, drilling each shoulder strap, riveting; the bag's materials and workmanship are designed to allow the backpack to endure the child's entire elementary education. However, the care given to the randoseru throughout that time and afterwards can extend its life and preserve it in near-immaculate condition long after the child has reached adulthood, a testament to its utility and the sentiment attached to it by many Japanese as symbolic of their carefree childhood years; the randoseru's durability and significance is reflected in its cost. A new randoseru made of genuine or synthetic leather can carry a price tag of around 30,000-40,000 yen at a chain store/supermarket. Randoseru from department stores or traditional workshops will be priced in the region of 55,000-70,000 yen, with some models reaching over 100,000 yen.
Clarino, a synthetic material used as a substitute, reduces the cost somewhat. Randoseru are available on auction sites in new or used condition at much lower prices after the start of the Japanese school year in April; as of January 2012, the five top randoseru in order of popularity at Amazon.co.jp are in the range of 7,980–25,200 yen. Japanese words of Dutch origin Culture of Japan Recorder to Randoseru Media related to Randoseru at Wikimedia Commons Manufacturing process of a randoseru