The Vardar or Axios is the longest and major river in the Republic of North Macedonia and a major river of Greece. It is 388 km long, drains an area of around 25,000 km2; the maximum depth of the river is 4 m. The etymology of the word is unclear; however most the origin of the name Vardar derives Bardários from Thracian, from Proto-Indo-European *wordo-wori-'black water'. It can be considered a translation or similar meaning of Axios, which itself is Thracian for'not-shining' from PIE *n.-ski, found in another name at the mouth of the Danube, Axíopa "dark water", renamed in Slavic Cernavodă'black water'. The name Bardários was sometimes used by the Ancient Greeks in the 3rd Century BCE; the same name was used in the Byzantine era. The word may be derived from the PIE root *werǵ-, the source of the English word "to work." Its Greek name, Axios, is mentioned by Homer as the home of the Paeonians allies of Troy. The river rises at a few kilometers north of Gostivar in the Republic of North Macedonia.
It passes through Gostivar and into Veles, crosses the Greek border near Gevgelija and Axioupoli, before emptying into the Aegean Sea in Central Macedonia, west of Thessaloniki in northern Greece. The Vardar basin comprises two-thirds of the territory of the Republic of North Macedonia; the valley features fertile lands in the Polog region, around Gevgelija and in the Thessaloniki regional unit. The river is surrounded by mountains elsewhere; the superhighways Greek National Road 1 in Greece and M1 and E75 run within the valley along the river's entire length to near Skopje. The river was famous during the Ottoman Empire and remains so in modern-day Turkey as the inspiration for many folk songs, of which the most famous is Vardar Ovasi, it has been depicted on the coat of arms of Skopje, which in turn is incorporated in the city's flag. The Project to Construct the Danube-Morava-Vardar-Aegean Canal has been a dream for a long time. Le Figaro published a project of Athens and Belgrade on 28.08.2017.
The Greek-Serbian proposal made in Peking is Pharaonic: 651 km. A project worth 17 billion; the Vardaris or Vardarec is a powerful prevailing northerly ravine wind which blows across the river valley in Greek Macedonia as well as in the Republic of North Macedonia. At first it descends along the "canal" of the Vardar valley as a breeze; when it encounters the high mountains that separate Greece from the Republic of Macedonia, it descends the other side, gathering a tremendous momentum and bringing cold conditions to the city of Thessaloniki and the Axios delta. Somewhat similar to the mistral wind of France, it occurs when atmospheric pressure over eastern Europe is higher than over the Aegean Sea, as is the case in winter. Great Morava Pčinja River Proceedings of the 1st Axios Catchment Consortium Meeting by the European Commission - DG Research. PIM "Ivan Milutinović", Serbia.
Ichnae or Ichnai an ancient town of Bottiaea, Macedonia on the Thermaic Gulf, above the mouth of Loudias river, near modern Koufalia. It is mentioned coupled with Pella. Ichnai is called a polis in the urban sense in Herodotus 7.123.3 and in the political sense in a fragmentary and undated treaty between the city and Dicaea. Coins of Ichnaeans, dated to 520-480 BC, carry a bull and wheel with crescentic lateral bars and are categorized to the Thraco-Macedonian type. According to Mogens Herman Hansen, Ichnae may have been an South Paeonian settlement, which in Archaic times received an influx of Southern Greek colonists. After the Macedonian conquest, settlers from the Old kingdom were added and Ichnaeans may have participated in the Macedonian colonization of Amphipolis. Two 3rd century BC reported Ichnaeans are: Antigonos son of Asandros, Delphian proxenos Δίης Dies son of Alketas, Pythian theorodokos. There is an undated epitaph in Athens of Eurydike daughter of Dadas, Ichnaian. Ichnae's site is within the boundaries of the modern municipal unit of Koufalia.
Hazlitt, The Classical Gazetteer, page 181 An inventory of archaic and classical poleis By Mogens Herman Hansen, Thomas Heine Nielsen Page 802 ISBN 978-0-19-814099-3
Vergina is a small town in northern Greece, part of Veroia municipality in Imathia, Central Macedonia. Vergina was established in 1922 in the aftermath of the population exchanges after the Treaty of Lausanne and was a separate municipality until 2011, when it was merged with Veroia under the Kallikratis Plan, it is now a municipal unit within Veroia, with an area 69.047 km2. Vergina is best known as the first capital of Macedon, it was there when in 336 BC Philip II was assassinated in the theatre and Alexander the Great was proclaimed king. The ancient site was discovered in 1976 and excavated under the leadership of archaeologist Manolis Andronikos; the excavation unearthed the burial sites of many kings of Macedon, including the tomb of Philip II, father of Alexander the Great, unlike so many other tombs, had not been disturbed or looted. It is the site of an extensive royal palace; the archaeological museum of Vergina was built to house all the artifacts found at the site and is one of the most important museums in Greece.
Aigai has been awarded UNESCO World Heritage Site status as "an exceptional testimony to a significant development in European civilization, at the transition from classical city-state to the imperial structure of the Hellenistic and Roman periods". The existence of an early Macedonian fortress named Aegae is reported by Justin, was long identified as Edessa; the discovery in 1976 of substantial remains near Vergina, just east of the Haliacmon, shifted the scholarly consensus to the effect that Aegae is to be identified with this site. Ancient sources give conflicting accounts of the origins of the Argead dynasty. Alexander I is the first historic figure and, based on the line of succession, the beginnings of the Macedonian dynasty have been traditionally dated to 750 BC. Herodotus says that the Argead dynasty was an ancient Greek royal house led by Perdiccas I who fled from Argos, in 650 BC. Aigai is the name of several ancient cities, derived from the name of a legendary founder, but etymologized as "city of goats" by Diodorus Siculus, who reports it was named so by Perdiccas I, advised by the Pythian priestess to build the capital city of his kingdom where goats led him.
From archaeology it now seems certain that Aigai developed and remained until the end an organised collection of villages spatially representing the aristocratic structure of tribes centred on the power of the king. Indeed, Aigai never became most of its inhabitants lived in surrounding villages. From Aigai the Macedonians spread to the central part of Macedonia and displaced the local population of Pierians. From 513 to 480 BC Aigai was part of the Persian Empire, but Amyntas I managed to maintain its relative independence, avoid Satrapy and extend its possessions; the city wall was built in the 5th century by Perdiccas II. At the end of the 5th century Archelaus I brought to his court artists and philosophers from all over the Greek world: it was, for example, at Aigai that Euripides wrote and presented his last tragedies. At the beginning of the 4th century BC, Archelaus transferred the Macedonian capital north-east to Pella on the central Macedonian plain. Aegae retained its role as the sacred city of the Macedonian kingdom, the site of the traditional cult centres, a royal palace and the royal tombs.
For this reason it was here that Philip II was attending the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to King Alexander of Epirus when he was murdered by one of his bodyguard in the theatre. His was the most lavish funeral ceremony of historic times held in Greece. Laid on an elaborate gold and ivory deathbed wearing his precious golden oak wreath, the king was surrendered, like a new Hercules, to the funeral pyre; the bitter struggles between the heirs of Alexander in the 3rd century adversely affected the city. After the overthrow of the Macedonian kingdom by the Romans in 168 BC, both old and new capitals were destroyed, the walls pulled down and all buildings burned. In the 1st century AD, a landslide destroyed what had been rebuilt (excavations establish that parts were still inhabited at that time. Between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD the population moved down from the foothills of the Pierian range to the plain, all that remained was a small settlement whose name alone Palatitsia indicated its former importance.
The modern settlement of Vergina was established in 1922, between the two pre-existing villages of Kutleš and Barbeš part of the Ottoman Beylik of Palatitsia. The town was settled in the course of the population exchange between Greece and Turkey following the Treaty of Lausanne, by Greek families from Bulgaria and Asia Minor; the name Vergina was a suggestion by the metropolitan of Veroia, chosen for a legendary queen Vergina, said to have ruled somewhere north of the Haliacmon and to have had her summer palace near Palatitsia. Vergina was a separate municipality from 1922 until 2011; the population of Vergina municipality as of 2011 was 2,464. Archaeologists were interested in the burial mounds around Vergina as early as the 1850s, supposing that the site of Aigai was in the vicinity. Excavations began in 1861 under the French archaeologist Leon Heuzey, sponsored by Napoleon III. Parts of a large building, considered to be one of the palaces of Antigonus III Doson destroyed by fire, were discovered near Palatitsa, which preserved the memory of a palace in its modern
Edessa, is a city in northern Greece and the capital of the Pella regional unit, in the Central Macedonia region of Greece. It was the capital of the defunct province of the same name. Edessa holds a special place in the history of the Greek world as, according to some ancient sources, it was here that Caranus established the first capital of ancient Macedon. Under the Byzantine Empire, Edessa benefited from its strategic location, controlling the Via Egnatia as it enters the Pindus mountains, became a center of medieval Greek culture, famed for its strong walls and fortifications. In the modern period, Edessa was one of Greece's industrial centers until the middle of the 20th century, with many textile factories operating in the city and its immediate vicinity. Today however its economy relies on services and tourism. Edessa hosts most of the administrative services of the Pella regional unit, as well as some departments of the Thessaloniki-based University of Macedonia; the Greek name Ἔδεσσα means "tower in the water" and is thought to be of Phrygian origin, although a minority of scholars consider it to be Illyrian instead.
The Slavic name Vodĭnŭ was first attested in the 10th century, became the common name until the 20th century. Vodená was the name used in Greek until 1923; the Bulgarian and Macedonian name remains Voden. In Turkish, the city is known as Vodina, in Aromanian the city is known as either Edessa, Vudena or Vodina. Seleucus I Nicator named the city of Edessa in Mesopotamia after the Macedonian Edessa; the municipality Edessa was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 2 former municipalities, that became municipal units: Edessa VegoritidaThe municipality has an area of 611.212 km2, the municipal unit 321.225 km2. According to some ancient writers, the legendary founder of the Argead Dynasty, established the city of Edessa and made it the first capital of ancient Macedon, Argead rulers moved Macedon's capital to Aegae and Pella. Archaeological remains have been discovered on the site of ancient Edessa, just below the modern city; the walls and many buildings have been unearthed so far.
A colonnade with inscription in Greek dates from Roman times. The city achieved certain prominence in the first centuries AD. From 27 BC to 268 AD it had its own mint; the Orthodox Christian Saint Vassa and her three children were put to death here in the 3rd century AD. Little is known about the fate of the city after 500 AD, but we know that its Greek bishop, participated in the Ecumenical Council of 692; the city disappears from the sources thereafter, re-emerges only in the 11th century, in the account of the Bulgarian wars of Emperor Basil II by the chronicler John Skylitzes, with the Slavic name Vodena held to derive from the Slavic word for "water". The Bulgarian historian Vasil Zlatarski hypothesized that it was Vodena, not Vidin on the Danube, a base of the Cometopuli in their revolt against Byzantium. Due to its strategic location, controlling the Via Egnatia as it enters the Pindus mountains, the town was much fought over in the subsequent centuries: the Normans under Bohemond I captured it in 1083, but were repelled by the forces of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos.
The Nicaean emperor John III Vatatzes captured in 1253, while in the mid-14th century its possession was disputed between the Byzantines and the Serbs under Stephen Dushan, with the latter securing its possession in January 1351. The city was for some time under control of Radoslav Hlapen, who gave it as dowry to his son-in-law Nikola Bagaš around 1366/7; the city remained in Bagaš's hands at least until 1385. It fell to the Ottoman war leader Evrenos Bey in the late 14th century, along with the rest of Macedonia. During the period of Ottoman rule, the Turkish and Muslim component of the town's population increased. From the 1860s onwards, the town was a flashpoint for clashes between Bulgarians. After 500 years of Ottoman rule, Edessa was annexed by Greece on 18 October 1912 during the First Balkan War, following the Hellenic Army's military victory against the Ottomans in the battle of Sarantaporo. At that time, Edessa was well on its way to becoming a major industrial center in Macedonia. Four large textile factories with the Hemp Factory being the biggest, employing the abundant waterfalls as a source of energy.
Prior to World War I, in addition to Greeks, the region of Edessa was populated by Turks, Bulgarians and Vlachs, but during the population exchange between Greece and Turkey most of the Turks and Pomaks living in Edessa were transferred to Turkey. Large numbers of Greek refugees from Asia Minor were settled in the area in 1923; the population swelled from 9,441 to 13,115 in the 1920s. A large segment of the population specialized in silk production, allowing Edessa to enjoy a high standard of living in the interwar period; the town suffered during the last days of German occupation of Greece in 1944. As a retaliation for the shooting of one soldier by resistance fighters, the Nazis set Edessa on fire. Half of the city, including the Cathedral and the First Primary School, was destroyed and thousands of people were left homeless. During the Greek Civil War Edessa was twice attacked in 1948 by the Democratic Army of Greece, under the control of the Communist Party of Greece; the Slavic-Macedonian National Liberation Front s
Giannitsa is the largest city in the regional unit of Pella and the capital of the Pella municipality, in the region of Central Macedonia in northern Greece. The municipal unit Giannitsa has an area of 208.105 km2. Its population is 31,983 people, it includes a few outlying villages. The municipality Pella as a whole has 63,122 inhabitants; the city is located in the center of Macedonia between Mount Paiko and the plain of Giannitsa, is the economic and industrial center of the Pella regional unit. European route E86 runs along the south of the city; the former shallow and variable-sized Giannitsa Lake or Loudias Lake, fed by the Loudias River and south of the city, was drained in 1928-1932 by the New York Foundation Company. About 7 km from Giannitsa are the ruins of ancient Pella, birthplace of Alexander the Great and capital of ancient Macedonia; the city is 48 km from Thessaloniki. The city was founded as Yenice-i Vardar'new of Vardar' in around 1372, it was sometimes called Evrenos Beg yöresi'Evrenos Bey's town'.
The Turkish name, in the form Γενιτσά, was used until February 1926 when its name was Hellenized as Yannitsa/Γιαννιτσά. In other languages, the city is called: Ottoman Turkish Yenice-i Vardar, Turkish Yenice or Vardar Yenicesi, Bulgarian: Енидже Вардар, Enidže Vardar or Пазар Pazar'market'. Prehistoric In the area of "Old Market", on the southern hill of the city, there was an Early Neolithic settlement. Giannitsa was inhabited through the Bronze and Iron Ages. Incidental findings, such as coins and sculptures indicate that the area was inhabited during the Hellenistic period. In ancient times, the area was called Bottiaea. Ottoman Though there was a pre-existing Byzantine castle in the vicinity, the importance of the city of Yenije begins with its foundation by Gazi Evrenos in around 1372. Yenije became the base of the ghazi followers of Evrenos who took Macedonia and Albania; the city was an important Ottoman cultural center and sacred area in the 16th centuries. Starting in the mid-15th century, Yenidje became a center of the arts.
Under Ahmet Bey, a descendant of Gazi Evrenos, many mosques, schools and charitable projects were founded. In the early 20th century, Yenije was a battleground between Bulgarian and Greek-Macedonian partisans in the Macedonian struggle. Penelope Delta's novel Secrets of the Swamp is a romanticised account of this from the Greek point of view. Balkan wars Yenidje "retained its emphatically Turkish character up to 1912" and members of the Evrenos family lived in the city in a large palace in the center of town until then. In the First Balkan War, the Battle of Yenidje was one of the most important battles the Greek army fought. German occupation The German army invaded Giannitsa on April 11, 1941. On April 20, 1941, some Austrian forces arrived; the municipal registry of Giannitsa confirms four random killings in various parts of the city. On 16 September 1943, the Municipality of Giannitsa, headed by the Mayor, Thomas Magriotis and the help of local soccer teams organized a demonstration in the city and indulge in German commandant a text against the intention of the Germans to surrender Central Macedonia to the Bulgarians.
According to oral testimony on November 13, 1943, the Germans arrested around 50 people, whom they transferred to the camp of Pavlos Melas at Thessaloniki and they killed thirteen. At the same time, the Germans invaded for the first time the village Eleftherohori 7 km away from the city and destroy. In this attack there were no casualties. On 23 March 1944, the village was burned, the place deserted. Eleftherohori lost 19 lives. On 5 August 1944, the Austrian soldier Otmar Dorne left the German occupation army and joined the 30th Constitution of the E. L. A. S, based in Mount Paiko; the defection of Dorne, the presence of the SS sergeant Schubert, led to mass reprisals on 14 September 1944 in Giannitsa: about 120 residents of Giannitsa were executed by forces of the Jagdkommando Schubert with the collaboration of Greek units under the command of G. Poulos. Among those executed was the Mayor, Thomas Mangriotis; the Swedish ambassador Timberg indicated. The citizens left the city. Emile Wenger visited Giannitsa few days after the mass execution, as a representative of the International Red Cross and wrote "Giannitsa is a dead city".
On 20 September 1944, a citizens' committee sent a message to the National Government stating the facts and asking for weapons. The Germans left Giannitsa on November 3, 1944. Monuments Yenidje was an important center in the Ottoman period, several important monuments survive: Tombs of Gazi Evrenos and Gazi Ahmed Bey, Kaifoun Baths, the Great Mosque, the Army Mosque, the hammam of Evrenos, the Clock Tower; these monuments have been declared historical monuments by the Greek Archaeological Service. Points of interest include the Cathedral Church of Giannitsa, the Neoclassical Multicenter, the Filippeio tourist center, the Macedonian tombs, the prehistoric settlement of Archontiko. Museums The Military museum of Giannitsa, (opened 24/2/2012
Mieza, "shrine of the Nymphs", was a town in ancient Macedonia, where Aristotle taught the boy Alexander the Great between 343 and 340 BCE. Ptolemy classifies Mieza among the cities of Emathia. Stephanus of Byzantium, on the other hand, deriving his information from Theagenes, alludes to it as a τόπος Στρυμόνος, adds that it was sometimes called Strymonium; the site where Mieza once stood is the modern Lefkadia, near the modern town Náousa, Central Macedonia and has been the subject of archeological excavations since 1954. Mieza was named for Mieza, in ancient Macedonian mythology, the daughter of Beres and sister of Olganos and Beroia, it was the home of Alexander's companion Peucestas. Aristotle was hired by Alexander's father, Philip II of Macedon, to teach his son, was given the Temple of the Nymphs as a classroom. In return, Philip re-built and freed the citizens of Stagira, Aristotle's hometown, which he had razed in a previous conquest across Greece and Macedon. Students educated at Mieza include Hephaestion, Ptolemy I Soter and Cleitus the Black.
This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "Mieza". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Images of the ruins of Mieza and brief description of the site
Veria transliterated Veroia also spelled Berea or Berœa, is a city in Macedonia, northern Greece, located 511 kilometres north-northwest of the capital Athens and 73 km west-southwest of Thessalonica. By the standards of Greece, Veria is an old city. Veria was an important possession for Philip II of Macedon and for the Romans. Apostle Paul famously preached in the city, its inhabitants were among the first Christians in the Empire. Under the Byzantine and Ottoman empires, Veria was a center of Greek culture and learning. Today Veria is a commercial center of Central Macedonia, the capital of the regional unit of Imathia and the seat of a Church of Greece Metropolitan bishop in the Ecumenical Patriarchate as well as a Latin Catholic titular see; the extensive archaeological site of Vergina, a UNESCO World Heritage Site containing the tomb of Philip II of Macedon, lies 12 km south-east of the city center of Veria. The city is reputed to have been named by its mythical creator Beres or from the daughter of the king of Berroia, thought to be the son of Macedon.
Veria enjoyed great prosperity under the kings of the Argead Dynasty who made it their second most important city after Pella. During this time, Veria became the seat of the Koinon of Macedonians, minted its own coinage and held sports games named Alexandreia, in honor of Alexander the Great, with athletes from all over Greece competing in them. Veria surrendered to Rome in 168 BC. During the Roman empire, Veria became a place of worship for the Romans. Diocletian made the large and populous city one of two capitals of the Roman province of Macedonia, eponymous in the civil Diocese of Macedonia. Within the city there was a Jewish settlement where the Apostle Paul, after leaving Thessalonica, his companion Silas preached to the Jewish and Greek communities of the city in AD 50/51 or 54/55; the Bible records: As soon as it was night, the brothers sent Paul and Silas away to Berea. On arriving there, they went to the Jewish synagogue. Now the Bereans were of more noble character than the Thessalonians, for they received the message with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures every day to see if what Paul said was true.
Many of the Jews believed, as did a number of prominent Greek women and many Greek men. When the Jews in Thessalonica learned that Paul was preaching the word of God at Berea, they went there too, agitating the crowds and stirring them up; the brothers sent Paul to the coast, but Silas and Timothy stayed at Berea. The men who escorted Paul brought him to Athens and left with instructions for Silas and Timothy to join him as soon as possible. Under the Byzantine Empire Berrhoea continued to grow and prosper, developing a large and well-educated commercial class and becoming a center of medieval Greek learning. In the 7th century, the Slavic tribe of the Drougoubitai raided the lowlands below the city, while in the late 8th century Empress Irene of Athens is said to have rebuilt and expanded the city and named it Irenopolis after herself, although some sources place this Berrhoea-Irenopolis further east, towards Thrace; the city was held by the Bulgarian Empire at some point in the late 9th century.
The 11th-century Greek bishop Theophylact of Ohrid wrote that during the brief period of Bulgarian dominance, Tsar Boris I built there one of the seven cathedral churches built by him and refers to it as "one of the beautiful Bulgarian churches". In the Escorial Taktikon of c. 975, the city is mentioned as the seat of a strategos, it was the capital of a theme in the 11th century. The city fell to Tsar Samuel of Bulgaria at the end of the 10th century, but the Byzantine emperor Basil II regained it in 1001 since its Bulgarian governor, surrendered the city without a fight; the city is not mentioned again until the late 12th century, when it was held by the Normans during their invasion of the Byzantine Empire. After the Fourth Crusade, it became part of Boniface of Montferrat's Kingdom of Thessalonica, a Latin bishop took up residence in the city. In c. 1206, the city was taken by Kalojan. Many inhabitants were killed. Kalojan installed Bulgarians as commandant and bishop, resettled some of the leading families to Bulgaria.
After Kalojan's death in 1207, the city may have reverted to Latin rule, but there is no evidence of this. It changed hands again in 1246, being taken by the Emperor of Nicaea John III Doukas Vatatzes, formed part of the restored Byzantine Empire after 1261; the 14th century was tumultuous: the area was pillaged by Karasid Turks in 1331, captured by the Serbian ruler Stephen Dushan in 1343/4, when it became part of his Serbian Empire. It was recovered for Byzantium by John VI Kantakouzenos in 1350, but lost again to the Serbians soon after, becoming the domain of Radoslav Hlapen after 1358. With the disintegration of the Serbian Empire