Cavanillesia platanifolia, known as pijio, pretino, cuipo, hameli or hamelí in Spanish or macondo, is a flowering plant species in the Malvaceae family. It grows in lowland rainforests in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Colombia and Peru. Cuipo wood is soft and may have commercial applications, it is unknown whether an average sample of Balsa or this wood would be softer
The Bottle tree is a species of plant included in the genus Pachypodium. The scientific name derives from the 19th century Portuguese geologist Fernando da Costa Leal, who described the Bottle tree during an exploration in southern Angola; this species can be either a shrub or a tree up to 6 meters tall and is characterized by the thick bottle-shaped trunk, branchless until the top. The branches are few and covered by slender thorns up to 30 cm long. Leaves are covered with short hairs on both surfaces; the flowers, shown below in detail, are present in the spring. The white flowers, characteristic of the Apocynaceae family, cluster around the tips of the branches; the plant produces a watery latex, rich in toxic alkaloids, used by local populations as arrow poison for hunting. In contact with the eyes this latex can produce blindness; the Bottle tree is an endemic species of Namibia and southern Angola where it occupies the semi-desert areas and dry bushvelds along rocky hillsides. It is common in the Etendeka plateau of NE Namibia, where it can be seen growing in the basalt slopes.
Altitudinal range of this species is 1000–1600 metres above sea level. The extreme temperatures range from an occasional -10 °C to as much to 45 °C. Pachypodium lealii doesn't appear to be under significant threat, but the lack of young specimens, the removal of wild plants for trade, is a concern in Namibia, it is listed on Appendix II of CITES, which makes it an offence to trade these plants internationally without a permit. C. Michael Hogan ed. 2010. Pachypodium lealii. Encyclopedia of Life A.van Wyk and P.van Wyk. Trees of Southern Africa
Ceiba is a genus of trees in the family Malvaceae, native to tropical and subtropical areas of the Americas and tropical West Africa. Some species can grow to 70 m tall or more, with a straight branchless trunk that culminates in a huge, spreading canopy, buttress roots that can be taller than a grown person; the best-known, most cultivated, species is Kapok, Ceiba pentandra, one of several trees called kapok. Ceiba species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the leaf-miner Bucculatrix ceibae, which feeds on the genus. Recent botanical opinion incorporates Chorisia within Ceiba and puts the genus as a whole within the family Malvaceae; the tree plays an important part in the mythologies of pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures. For example, several Amazonian tribes of eastern Peru believe deities live in Ceiba tree species throughout the jungle; the Ceiba, or ya’axché, symbolised to the Maya civilization an axis mundi which connects the planes of the Underworld and the sky with that of the terrestrial realm.
This concept of a central world tree is depicted as a Ceiba trunk. The unmistakable thick conical thorns in clusters on the trunk were reproduced by the southern lowland Maya of the Classical Period on cylindrical ceramic burial urns or incense holders. Modern Maya still respectfully leave the tree standing when harvesting forest timber; the Ceiba tree is represented by a cross and serves as an important architectural motif in the Temple of the Cross Complex at Palenque. Ceiba Tree Park is located in San Antón, Puerto Rico, its centerpiece is the historic Ceiba de Ponce, a 500-year-old Ceiba pentandra tree associated with the founding of the city. In the surroundings of the legendary Ceiba de Ponce, broken pieces of indigenous pottery and stones were found to confirm the presence of Taino Indians long before the Spaniards that settled in the area." In 1525, Spanish Conquistador Hernán Cortés ordered the hanging of Aztec emperor Cuauhtemoc from a Ceiba tree after overtaking his empire. The town of Chiapa de Corzo, Mexico was founded in 1528 by the Spanish around La Pochota, Ceiba pentandra, according to tradition.
Founded in 1838, the Puerto Rican town of Ceiba is named after this tree. The Honduran city of La Ceiba founded in 1877 was named after a particular Ceiba tree that grew down by the old docks. In 1898, the Spanish Army in Cuba surrendered to the United States under a Ceiba, named the Santiago Surrender Tree, outside of Santiago de Cuba. Ceiba is the national tree of Guatemala; the most important Ceiba in Guatemala is known as La Ceiba de Palín Escuintla, over 400 years old. In Caracas, Venezuela there is a 100-year-old ceiba tree in front of the San Francisco Church known as La Ceiba de San Francisco and is an important element in the history of the city; the towering specimen near the town of Sabalito, Costa Rica, is a relict tree called "la ceiba" by residents and a survivor of one of the highest terrestrial rates of tropical deforestation. Ceiba pentandra produces a light and strong fiber used throughout history to fill mattresses, pillows and dolls. Kapok has been replaced in commercial use by synthetic fibers.
The Ceiba tree seed is used to extract oils used to make soap and fertilizers. The Ceiba continues to be commercialized in Asia in Java, Malaysia and the Philippines. Ceiba pentandra is the central theme in the book titled, The Great Kapok Tree by Lynne Cherry. Ceiba insignis and Ceiba speciosa are added to some versions of the hallucinogenic drink Ayahuasca. Pablo Antonio Cuadra, a Nicaraguan poet, wrote a chapter about the Ceiba tree, he used it as a symbol of the Nicaraguan ancestral roots, a cradle for the nation, source during the people's exile
The Caricaceae are a family of flowering plants in the order Brassicales, found in tropical regions of Central and South America and Africa. They are short-lived evergreen pachycaul shrubs or small trees growing to 5–10 m tall. One species, Vasconcellea horovitziana is a liana and the three species of the genus Jarilla are herbs; some species, such as the papaya, produce papain. Based on molecular analyses, this family has been proposed to have originated in Africa in the early Cenozoic era, ~66 million years ago; the dispersal from Africa to Central America occurred ~35 mya via ocean currents from the Congo delta. From Central America, the family reached; the family comprises six genera and about 34-35 species: Carica – one species, Carica papaya, Americas Cylicomorpha – two species, Africa Horovitzia – one species, Mexico Jacaratia – eight species, Americas Jarilla – three species, Americas Vasconcellea – twenty species, Americas Ghent University: Cylicomorpha checklist e-Monograph of Caricaceae
Adansonia is a genus of deciduous trees known as baobabs. They are found in arid regions of Madagascar, mainland Africa and Australia; the generic name honours Michel Adanson, the French naturalist and explorer who described Adansonia digitata. In the early 21st century, baobabs in southern Africa began to die off from a cause yet to be determined. Scientists believe it is unlikely that disease or pests were able to kill many trees so while some speculated that the die-off was a result of dehydration from global warming. Baobabs have trunk diameters of 7 to 11 m; the Glencoe baobab, a specimen of A. digitata in Limpopo Province, South Africa, was considered to be the largest living individual, with a maximum circumference of 47 m and a diameter of about 15.9 m. The tree has since split into two parts, so the widest individual trunk may now be that of the Sunland baobab, or Platland tree in South Africa; the diameter of this tree at ground level is 9.3 m and its circumference at breast height is 34 m.
Adansonia trees produce faint growth rings annually, but they are not reliable for aging specimens, because they are difficult to count and may fade away as the wood ages. Radiocarbon dating has provided data on a few individuals of A. digitata. The Panke baobab in Zimbabwe was some 2,450 years old when it died in 2011, making it the oldest angiosperm documented, two other trees — Dorslandboom in Namibia and Glencoe in South Africa — were estimated to be 2,000 years old. Another specimen known as Grootboom was found to be at least 1275 years old. Greenhouse gases, climate change, global warming appear to be factors reducing baobab longevity. Of the nine species accepted as of April 2018, six are native to Madagascar, two are native to mainland Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, one is native to Australia. One of the mainland African species occurs on Madagascar, but it is not a native of that island, it was introduced in ancient times during the colonial era to the Caribbean. It is present in the island nation of Cape Verde.
The ninth species was described in 2012, is found in upland populations of southern and eastern Africa. The African and Australian baobabs are identical despite having separated more than 100 million years ago by oceanic dispersal. Species include:Adansonia digitata L. – African baobab, dead-rat-tree, monkey-bread-tree Adansonia grandidieri Baill. – Grandidier's baobab, giant baobab Adansonia gregorii F. Muell. – boab, Australian baobab, cream-of-tartar-tree, gouty-stem Adansonia kilima Pettigrew, et al. – montane African baobab Adansonia madagascariensis Baill. – Madagascar baobab Adansonia perrieri Capuron – Perrier's baobab Adansonia rubrostipa Jum. & H. Perrier – fony baobab Adansonia suarezensis H. Perrier – Suarez baobab Adansonia za Baill. – za baobab The Malagasy species are important components of the Madagascar dry deciduous forests. Within that biome, Adansonia madagascariensis and A. rubrostipa occur in the Anjajavy Forest, sometimes growing out of the tsingy limestone itself. A. digitata has been called "a defining icon of African bushland".
Baobabs store water in the trunk to endure harsh drought conditions. All occur in seasonally arid areas, are deciduous, shedding their leaves during the dry season. Across Africa, the oldest and largest baobabs began to die in the early 21st century from a combination of drought and rising temperatures; the trees appear to become parched become dehydrated and unable to support their massive trunks. Baobabs are important as nest sites for birds, in particular the mottled spinetail and four species of weaver. Leaves may be eaten as a leaf vegetable; the fruit has a velvety shell and is about the size of a coconut, weighing about 1.5 kilograms, but is not as globular. The fresh fruit is said to taste like sorbet, it has an acidic, citrus flavor. It is a good source of vitamin C, potassium and phosphorus; the dried fruit powder of Adansonia digitata, baobab powder, contains about 12% water and modest levels of various nutrients, including carbohydrates, calcium, potassium and phytosterols, with low levels of protein and fats.
Vitamin C content, described as variable in different samples, was in a range of 74 to 163 milligrams per 100 grams of dried powder. In Angola, the dry fruit is boiled and the broth is used for juices or as the base for a type of ice cream known as gelado de múcua. In Zimbabwe, the fruit is used in traditional food preparations which include "eating the fruit fresh or crushed crumbly pulp to stir into porridge and drinks". In the European Union, prior to commercial approval, baobab fruit powder was not available for use as a food ingredient, as legislation from 1997 dictated that foods not consumed in the EU would have to be formally approved first. In 2008, baobab dried fruit pulp was authorized in the EU as a safe food ingredient, in the year was granted GRAS status in the United States; the seeds of some species are a source of vegetable oil, The fruit pulp and seeds of A. grandidieri and A. za are eaten fresh. In Tanzania, the dry pulp of A. digitata is added to sugarcane to aid fermentation in brewing.
Some baobab species are sources of fiber
Adenium obesum is a species of flowering plant in the dogbane family, native to the Sahel regions, south of the Sahara, tropical and subtropical eastern and southern Africa and Arabia. Common names include Sabi star, mock azalea, impala lily and desert rose, it is drought-deciduous succulent shrub. It can grow to 1 -- 3 m in height, with a stout, swollen basal caudex; the leaves are spirally arranged, clustered toward the tips of the shoots, simple entire, leathery in texture, 5–15 cm long and 1–8 cm broad. The flowers are tubular, 2–5 cm long, with the outer portion 4–6 cm diameter with five petals, resembling those of other related genera such as Plumeria and Nerium; the flowers tend to red and pink with a whitish blush outward of the throat. Some taxonomies consider some other species in the genus to be subspecies of Adenium obesum. Adenium obesum subsp. Oleifolium Adenium obesum subsp. Socotranum Adenium obesum subsp. Somalense Adenium obesum subsp. Swazicum Adenium swazicum is Mozambique. Caterpillars of the polka-dot wasp moth are known to feed on the desert rose, along with feeding on oleanders.
Adenium obesum stems that contains cardiac glycosides. This sap is used as arrow poison for hunting large game throughout much of Africa and as a fish toxin. Adenium obesum is a popular bonsai in temperate regions, it requires a sunny location and a minimum indoor temperature in winter of 10 °C. It thrives on a xeric watering regime. A. obesum is propagated by seed or stem cuttings. The numerous hybrids are propagated by grafting on to seedling rootstock. While plants grown from seed are more to have the swollen caudex at a young age, with time many cutting-grown plants cannot be distinguished from seedlings. Like many plants, Adenium obesum can be propagated in vitro using plant tissue culture; this plant has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. The species has been depicted on postage stamps issued by various countries. List of poisonous plants Media related to Adenium obesum at Wikimedia Commons Adenium obesum in West African plants – A Photo Guide. Adenium obesum at the Encyclopedia of Life