Broughton is a district in Flintshire, close to the Wales–England border, located to the west of the city of Chester, England, in the community of Broughton and Bretton. Along with the nearby village of Bretton, the total population was 5,791 at the 2001 Census, increasing to 5,974 at the 2011 Census. Broughton is home to a large aircraft factory at Hawarden Airport; this was completed in 1939 for use by Vickers Armstrongs. De Havilland Aircraft built 2,816 planes of several designs. Today, the plant is the Airbus wing factory, manufacturing wings for the A320, A330/A340, A350, A380 aircraft. Airbus wings produced in Broughton are flown out in Airbus Beluga planes with the exception of the large A380 wings which are transported by barge along the river Dee to the nearby Mostyn docks; the Broughton factory was featured in the 2011 BBC Television programme How to Build a Super Jumbo Wing. The town is home to former Welsh Premier League football team Airbus UK Broughton, who joined the highest division of the Welsh football pyramid in 2004 and remained there for 13 years, before relegation at the end of the 2016y/17 season.
The club was formed in 1946 as Vickers-Armstrongs and several name changes took places until it adopted the current name. Broughton has a primary school and pre-school nursery, created when the infant and junior schools amalgamated; the school incorporates the local library. The students wear a distinctive purple uniform. There is a toddler group based at the school; the town shopping park is known as Broughton Shopping Park where branches of major stores such as Tesco can be found as well as Cineworld Imax and various restaurants. In the village centre there is a small collection of shops; the Offas Dyke Hotel is sited on Broughton Hall Road. The ITV1 drama series, Midsomer Murders has used Broughton as a filming location. Broughton Hall was a large manor house, situated on the housing estate where Forest Drive is now. Broughton war memorial institute is situated on the main road opposite entry to Broughton hall road, this building was built in lieu of a memorial stone to commemorate the sacrifice by residents of the village in military conflicts between 1914 and 1919, to hosts groups and events for the benefit of local people year round.
Broughton is twinned with a Commune in the suburbs of Toulouse, France. Media related to Broughton at Wikimedia Commons Photos of Broughton and surrounding area on geograph.org.uk
Great Boughton is a civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It includes the villages of Vicars Cross, it had a population of 2,627 according to the 2011 census. It is sometimes confused with the separate settlement of Boughton, which lies just to the west, within the boundaries of the city of Chester. In the 1870s, Great Boughton was described as: a district in Cheshire; the township is in St. Oswald parish, within Chester city. Great Boughton is a parish that comprises the villages of Boughton Heath, Caldy Valley, Vicars Cross and a section of Huntington. Attractions include the Sandy Lane Aqua Park with ferry to Meadows, Caldy Nature Reserve and Boughton Hall Cricket Club. Great Boughton came into the news when a controversial development at the disused Saighton Camp caused the remodelling of a roundabout; the new design features a hamburger roundabout which has proved controversial and the roundabout now creates delays on the A41 where tailbacks reach 2 miles.
An electoral ward of the same name exists. This ward had a population of 8,984 at the 2011 census. Listed buildings in Great Boughton
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty agencies; these are known as a fire and rescue service, the term used in modern legislation and by government departments. The older terms of fire brigade and fire service survive in informal usage and in the names of a few organisations. England and Wales have local fire services which are each overseen by a fire authority, made up of representatives of local governments. Fire authorities have the power to raise a Council Tax levy for funding, with the remainder coming from the government. Scotland and Northern Ireland have centralised fire services, so their authorities are committees of the devolved parliaments; the total budget for fire services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. Central government maintains national standards and a body of independent advisers through the Chief Fire and Rescue Adviser, created in 2007, while Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary and Fire & Rescue Services provides direct oversight.
The devolved government in Scotland has HMFSI Scotland. Firefighters in the United Kingdom are allowed to join unions, the main one being the Fire Brigades Union, while chief fire officers are members of the National Fire Chiefs Council, which has some role in national co-ordination; the fire services have undergone significant changes since the beginning of the 21st century, a process, propelled by a devolution of central government powers, new legislation and a change to operational procedures in the light of terrorism attacks and threats. See separate article History of fire safety legislation in the United Kingdom Comprehensive list of recent UK fire and rescue service legislation: Fire services are established and granted their powers under new legislation which has replaced a number of Acts of Parliament dating back more than 60 years, but is still undergoing change. 1938: Fire Brigades Act 1938. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain and made it mandatory for local authorities to arrange an effective fire service.
1947: Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004. 1959: Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act. It was repealed in Wales along with the 1947 Act. 1999: Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of national fire strikes, with much of the discontent caused by the aforementioned report into the fire service conducted by Prof Sir George Bain. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the industrial action still ongoing. Bain's report led to a change in the laws relating to firefighting. 2002: Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004: Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 only applying to England and Wales. 2006: The Regulatory Reform Order 2005 This piece of secondary legislation or statutory instrument replaces several other acts that dealt with fire precautions and fire safety in premises, including the now defunct process of issuing fire certificates.
It came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises: 2006: The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on "Fire and rescue services. Promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation." But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries. There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association, its website outlines future changes, specific projects: "The aim of the Fire Modernisation Programme is to adopt modern work practices within the Fire & Rescue Service to become more efficient and effective, while strengthening the contingency and resilience of the Service to react to incidents. " The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee. In June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report.
Committee report The committee's brief is described on its website: The Communities and Local Government Committee is appointed by the House of Commons to examine the expenditure and policy of the Department for Communities and Local Government and its associated bodies. Government response This document, the subsequent government response in September 2006, are important as they outlined progress on the FiReControl, efforts to address diversity and the planned closure of HMFSI in 2007 among many issues. Both documents are interesting as they refer back to Professor Bain's report and the many recommendations it made and continue to put forward the notion that there is an ongoing need to modernise FRSs. For example, where FRSs were inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office. Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Governm
Shropshire Union Canal
The Shropshire Union Canal is a navigable canal in England. The Llangollen and Montgomery canals are the modern names of branches of the Shropshire Union system and lie in Wales; the canal lies in the counties of Staffordshire and Cheshire in the north-west English Midlands. It links the canal system of the West Midlands, at Wolverhampton, with the River Mersey and Manchester Ship Canal at Ellesmere Port, Cheshire, 66 miles distant; the "SU main line" runs southeast from Ellesmere Port on the River Mersey to the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal at Autherley Junction in Wolverhampton. Other links are to the Llangollen Canal, the Middlewich Branch, which itself connects via the Wardle Canal with the Trent and Mersey Canal, the River Dee. With two connections to the Trent and Mersey the SU is part of an important circular and rural holiday route called the Four Counties Ring; the SU main line was the last trunk narrow canal route. It was not completed until 1835 and was the last major civil engineering accomplishment of Thomas Telford.
The name "Shropshire Union" comes from the amalgamation of the various component companies that came together to form the Shropshire Union Railways and Canal Company. The main line between Nantwich and Autherley Junction was built as a railway although it was decided to construct it as a waterway; the canal starts from Ellesmere Port on the River Mersey traversing the Wirral peninsula to Chester. This stretch, completed in 1797, was part of the unfinished Ellesmere Canal; the industrial waterway was intended to connect the Port of Liverpool on the River Mersey to the River Severn at Shrewsbury via the North East Wales Coalfields. However, only eight years after the completion of the contour canal between Netherpool and Chester, the proposed project became uneconomical; this meant the planned 16-mile mainline from Chester to Trevor Basin near Wrexham was never constructed. Instead the northern Wirral section was joined to the pre-existing Chester Canal. Although the Ellesmere Canal was not completed as intended, the central section of the Ellesmere Canal was built.
These sections now form part of the waterways: Montgomery Canal. Both are branches of the Shropshire Union mainline, although in modern times they are considered to be separate canals. In Chester, from the top of the arm leading down to the Dee, the SU follows the old Chester Canal built in 1772 to connect Chester and Nantwich; the canal passes alongside the city walls of Chester in a vertical red sandstone cutting. After Chester, there are only a few locks as the canal crosses the nearly flat Chester Plain, passes Beeston Castle, the junctions at Barbridge and Hurleston and arrives at Nantwich basin, the original terminus of the Chester Canal; the two junctions on this stretch are important links in the English and Welsh connected network. At Barbridge, the Middlewich Branch of the SU goes northeast to Middlewich on the Trent and Mersey Canal; this was the original planned main line of the Chester Canal, but was in fact built much than the Nantwich stretch. At Hurleston, the old Ellesmere canal from Llangollen and Montgomery made a connection from Frankton Junction eastwards to the old Chester Canal after it was realised that the planned main line from Trevor to Chester along the Dee was never going to be built.
This canal merged with the Chester Canal and became the Llangollen Branch of the Shropshire Union. These waters are now known as the Montgomery Canal; the odd angle between Nantwich basin and the next stretch of the SU shows that the journey southwards is on a newer canal constructed as the narrow Birmingham and Liverpool Junction Canal to connect Nantwich, at the end of the Chester Canal, to the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal at Autherley Junction, near Wolverhampton. An important lost link can be seen at Norbury Junction, where a branch ran south-west through Newport to connect with the Shrewsbury Canal at Wappenshall Junction. After Nantwich basin, a long sweeping embankment incorporating an aqueduct carries the canal across the main A534 Nantwich-Chester road; the canal has to climb out of the Cheshire Plain by means of a flight of 15 locks at Audlem. The canal passes through the eastern suburbs of the town of Market Drayton in Shropshire. Further south there are substantial lengths of embankment through the Staffordshire village of Knighton.
There is an aqueduct south of Norbury Junction and deep cuttings at Loynton near Woodseaves, Grub Street, at Woodseaves. The canal continues as the 1-mile-long Shelmore Embankment. Repeated soil slippage during construction meant that this was the last part of the B&L Junction Canal to be opened to traffic; the lengthy embankment is equipped with flood gates at both ends to prevent loss of water should the canal be breached in this area. During World War II these locks were kept closed at night because of the risk of bomb damage. At Gnosall the canal enters the 81-yard Cowley Tunnel; the tunnel was planned to be 690 yards long, but after the rocky first 81 yards, the ground was unstable, the remaining length was opened out to form the present narrow and steep-sided Cowley Cutting. At Wheaton Aston, the canal climbs its last lock to reach the summit level, fed by the Be
North West England
North West England, one of nine official regions of England, consists of the five counties of Cheshire, Greater Manchester and Merseyside. The North West had a population of 7,052,000 in 2011, it is the third-most populated region in the United Kingdom after the South Greater London. The largest settlements are Manchester, Warrington and Blackpool. North West England is bounded to the west by the Irish Sea; the region extends from the Scottish Borders in the north to the West Midlands region in the south. To its southwest is North Wales. Amongst the better known of the North West's physiographical features are the Lake District and the Cheshire Plain; the highest point in North West England is Cumbria, at a height of 3,209 feet. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England. Broad Crag Tarn on Broad Crag is England's highest lake. Wast Water is England's deepest lake, being 74m deep. A mix of rural and urban landscape, two large conurbations, centred on Liverpool and Manchester, occupy much of the south of the region.
The north of the region, comprising Cumbria and northern Lancashire, is rural, as is the far south which encompasses parts of the Cheshire Plain and Peak District. The region includes parts of three National parks and three areas of Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty; the official region consists of the following subdivisions: *metropolitan county After abolition of the Greater Manchester and Merseyside County Councils in 1986, power was transferred to the Metropolitan Boroughs making them Unitary Authorities. In April 2011, Greater Manchester gained a top-tier administrative body in the form of the Greater Manchester Combined Authority, which means the 10 Greater Manchester Boroughs are once again second-tier authorities. Source: Office for National Statistics Mid Year Population Estimates North West England's population accounts for just over 13% of England's overall population. 37.86% of the North West's population resides in Greater Manchester, 21.39% in Lancashire, 20.30% in Merseyside, 14.76% in Cheshire and 7.41% live in the largest county by area, Cumbria.
According to 2009 Office for National Statistics estimates, 91.6% of people in the region describe themselves as'White': 88.4% White British, 1.0% White Irish and 2.2% White Other. During the Industrial Revolution hundreds of thousands of Welsh people migrated to the North West of England to work in the coal mines. Parts with notably high populations with Welsh ancestry as a result of this include Liverpool, Widnes, Wallasey, Ashton-in-Makerfield and Birkenhead; the Mixed Race population makes up 1.3% of the region's population. There are 323,800 South Asians, making up 4.7% of the population, 1.1% Black Britons. 0.6% of the population are Chinese and 0.5% of people belong to another ethnic group. North West England is a diverse region, with Manchester and Liverpool amongst the most diverse cities in Europe. 19.4% of Blackburn with Darwen's population are Muslim, the third-highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. Areas such as Moss Side in Greater Manchester are home to a 30%+ Black British population.
In contrast, the town of St. Helens in Merseyside, unusually for a city area, has a low percentage of ethnic minorities with 98% identifying as White British; the City of Liverpool, over 800 years old, is one of the few places in Britain where ethnic minority populations can be traced back over dozens of generations: being the closest major city in England to Ireland, it is home to a significant ethnic Irish population, with the city being home to one of the first Afro-Caribbean communities in the UK, as well as the oldest Chinatown in Europe. Summarised There are around 400,000 people living in the North West of any Asian ethnicity Around 125,000 people from the North West are of full or partial Sub-African and/or Caribbean descent The single largest non-white ethnic group in the North West are Pakistanis, numbering at least 144,400 The list below is not how many people belong to each ethnic group; the fifteen most common countries of birth in 2001 for North West citizens were as follows England – 6,169,753 Scotland – 109,163 Wales – 73,850 Ireland – 56,887 Pakistan – 46,529 Northern Ireland – 34,879 India – 34,600 Germany – 19,931 China and Hong Kong – 15,491 Bangladesh – 13,746 South Africa – 7,740 United States – 7,037 Jamaica – 6,661 Italy – 6,325 Australia – 5,880 Poland – The table below is based on the 2011 UK Census.
One in five of the population in the North West is Catholic, a result of large-scale Irish emigration in the nineteenth century as well as the high number of English recusants in Lancashire. For top-tier authorities, Manchester has the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the region. For council districts, Burnley has the highest rate followed by Hyndburn, both in Lancashire. Of the nine regions of the England, the North West has the fourth-highest GVA per capita—the highest outside southern England. Despite this the region has above average multiple deprivation with wealth concentrated on affluent areas like rural Cheshire, rural Lancashire, south Cumbria; as measured by the Indices of deprivation 2007, the
Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service
Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the English county of Cheshire, consisting of the unitary authorities of Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Chester and Warrington. It operates 29 fire stations; the service is led by the Chief Fire Officer Mark Cashin, the Service Management Team. It is managed by the Cheshire Fire Authority, composed of councillors from the local communities of Cheshire and Warrington, they make decisions on issues such as policy and resources. Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service employs over 980 staff and looks after a population of 984,300 people spread across an area of 2,334 square kilometres, it has a headquarters in Winsford. The region features several large urban areas such as Warrington and Chester, an extensive transport infrastructure and one of the highest concentrations of petrochemical industries in the country, it is in close proximity to two major airports: Liverpool. The service responds to emergency incidents - known as Emergency Response across the four unitary council areas of: Halton Warrington Cheshire East Cheshire West and Chester A total of 29 fire stations are strategically sited throughout the county.
These are broken down as: 7 wholetime-only shift fire stations crewed 24/7 2 wholetime shift fire stations crewed 24/7, with an additional on-call crew 6 day-crewed stations crewed during the day and by on-call staff at night 13 stations crewed by on-call personnel 24/7 Water Ladder: P1/P2 Light/Midi Water Ladder: P2 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Hydraulic Platform: A1 Water Incident Unit: B2 Incident Command Unit: C1 Light 4x4 Pump: L1 Animal Rescue Unit: R3 Rapid Response Rescue Unit: R1 Rope Rescue Unit: R1 Foam Operating Unit: S2 Major Rescue Unit: S3 Operational Support Unit: S1 Welfare Unit: S1 Breathing Apparatus Command Unit: S5 Co-Responder Vehicle: V1 Prime Mover: T7 / T8 / T9 Incident Response Unit: H9Pods: Environmental Protection Unit: S2 High Volume Pump High Volume Hose Layer Mass Decontamination Disrobe List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service official website
Chester Shot Tower
Chester Shot Tower known as Boughton Shot Tower, is a grade-II*-listed shot tower located at SJ413667 in the Boughton district of Chester, England. The tower forms part of the disused Chester Leadworks. Built by Walkers, Parker & Co. in 1799, the tower is the oldest of three remaining shot towers in the UK, the oldest such structure still standing in the world. The circular red-brick tower is 168 feet tall and 30 feet in diameter at the base tapering to 20 feet at the top, with small arched windows. A lift shaft dating from 1971 remains attached to the exterior; the tower was one of the earliest built to manufacture lead shot using the method pioneered in the 1780s by the Bristol inventor William Watts. Molten lead was poured through a pierced copper plate or sieve at the top of the tower, with the droplets forming perfect spheres by surface tension during the fall. Watts' process was less labour-intensive than the earlier method of casting shot in moulds. An early use of the tower was to make lead shot for muskets in the Napoleonic Wars.
Although other methods were developed to manufacture shot during the 20th century, the Chester tower was still in use as late as 2001. Lead is believed to have been exported at the port of Chester from lead mines in north-east Wales since the Roman period; the construction of the Chester Canal in the 1770s led to industrial development to the east of Chester, with the Walkers, Parker & Co. leadworks being established there in the late 18th century. The lead industry became one of Chester's major industries during the 19th century. An archaeological investigation carried out in 2001 found evidence of numerous demolished buildings contemporary with the shot tower of 1799; the leadworks closed with Calder relocating to west Chester. Most of the remaining buildings of the leadworks, with the exception of the shot tower, were demolished around 2004 to make way for urban regeneration of the canal-side area. A small park by the canal on part of the former site was opened in May 2006; the park contains a sculpture in stainless steel and blue glass which commemorates Chester's lead industry.
In April 2012 Broadway Malyan submitted plans for a £6.4 million redevelopment of the Shot Tower and associated leadworks to create 53 residential units as well as leisure and retail facilities. The controversy over the plans featured in the February 2013 BBC2 TV documentary The Planners; the Chester Shot Tower is one of only three such structures to remain in the UK. Although shot towers were common during the 19th century across the country, the Chester tower is the only surviving example that dates from the 18th or 19th centuries. Other early shot towers include the Jackson Ferry Shot Tower, an example of a stone shot tower in Wythe County and the brick Sparks Shot Tower in Philadelphia, both in the US; the other British examples still standing date from the 20th century. The Cheese Lane Shot Tower in Bristol, a reinforced concrete tower, was constructed in 1969 to replace Watts' original shot tower in Redcliffe, demolished in 1968. A military look-out post in Tynemouth dating from 1916 is believed to have doubled as a shot tower.
The so-called Crane Park Shot Tower at Twickenham is no longer thought to have been used for this purpose. MHO Hoddinott, Site Development Hist. of Chester Leadworks, 1800–1990 Chester City Council: Chester Heritage: Interpretation Resource Briefing: Chester Lead Works http://www.gracesguide.co.uk/Walkers,_Parker_and_Co Video footage of the shot tower